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All Chemicals: 25
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Chemical Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
EO Plant3000.0 4500.0 -0.4 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
SABINENE Plant1925.0 2885.0 1.64 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
Activities (5)
Antibacterial
Antihelicobacter
Antiseptic
Antiulcer
Perfumery Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
4-TERPINEOL Plant310.0 465.0 -1.0 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
Activities (8)
Antiasthmatic
Antioxidant
Antiradicular
Diuretic Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.
FLavor FEMA 20-100Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Insectifuge Bowers, W.S., Ortego, F., You, X., and Evans, P.H. Insect Repellents From The Chinese Prickly Ash Zanthoxylum bungeanum. Journal of Natural Products, 56(6): 935-938, 1993.
Perfumery Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Pesticide
GAMMA-TERPINENE Plant100.0 155.0 -0.47 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
Activities (11)
ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity)
Acaricide
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/mlOkamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.
Antiacetylcholinesterase IC23=1.2 mM
Antifeedant Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Antioxidant Jim Duke's personal files.
FLavor FEMA 1-40Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Insectifuge Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Irritant Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.
Perfumery Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Pesticide
(Z)-BETA-OCIMENE Plant80.0 120.0 1.41 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
UNDECENE Plant65.0 100.0 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
ALPHA-TERPINENE Plant55.0 85.0 -0.37 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
Activities (13)
ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity)
Acaricide
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/mlOkamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.
Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.0 mM
Antinitrosaminic
Antispasmodic
FLavor FEMA 1-40Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Insecticide 0.86 uM/fly
Insectifuge
P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.76 uM
Perfumery Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Pesticide
Spasmogenic
P-CYMENE Plant40.0 65.0 -0.4 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
Activities (16)
Analgesic Martindale's 28th
Antiacetylcholinesterase IC40=1.2 mM
Antibacillary
Antibacterial
Antiflu
Antirheumatalgic Martindale's 28th
Antiviral
FLavor FEMA 12-250Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Fungicide Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.
Herbicide IC50=50 uMKeeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.
Insectifuge Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Irritant Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.
Laxative Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.
Pesticide
Sedative Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.
Trichomonicide LD100=50 ug/ml
N-DECANAL Plant38.0 55.0 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
Activities (1)
FLavor FEMA <1-4Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
MYRCENE Plant35.0 55.0 -0.42 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
Activities (22)
ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/mlOkamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.
Allergenic
Analgesic Kauderer, B., Zamith, H., Paumgartten, F.J.R., and Speit, G. Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of B-Myrcene in Mammalian Cells In Vitro. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: 28-34, 1991.
Antibacterial
Anticonvulsant
Antimutagenic Kauderer, B., Zamith, H., Paumgartten, F.J.R., and Speit, G. Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of B-Myrcene in Mammalian Cells In Vitro. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: 28-34, 1991.
Antinitrosaminic
Antinociceptive 10-20 mg/kg ipr musRao, V.S.N., Menezes, A.M.S., Viana, G.S.B. 1990. Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 877-878, 1990.
Antinociceptive 20-40 mg/kg scu musRao, V.S.N., Menezes, A.M.S., Viana, G.S.B. 1990. Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 877-878, 1990.
Antioxidant Jim Duke's personal files.
Antispasmodic Jim Duke's personal files.
Chemopreventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
FLavor FEMA 0.5-9Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Fungicide Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.
Hypothermic
Insectifuge
Irritant Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.
Myorelaxant 100-200 mg/kg
P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.14 uM
Perfumery Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Pesticide
ALPHA-PINENE Plant27.0 40.0 -0.45 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
Activities (28)
Allelochemic
Allergenic
Antiacne
Antibacterial
Antifeedant
Antiflu Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.
Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg
Antipneumonic
Antiseptic
Antispasmodic
Antistaphylococcic
Antiviral Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.
Cancer-Preventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Coleoptophile
Expectorant Michael Castleman 1991. The Healing Herbs. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA 436 pp.
FLavor FEMA 15-150Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Herbicide IC50=30 uMKeeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.
Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly
Insectifuge 50 ppm
Insectiphile J. Stored. Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986.
Irritant Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM
Perfumery Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Pesticide
Sedative Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jun-90.
Spasmogenic
Tranquilizer Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jun-90.
Transdermal
ALPHA-TERPINOLENE Plant24.0 36.0 1.0 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
(E)-CARYOPHYLLENE Plant15.0 22.0 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
CIS-PINENE-HYDRATE Plant12.0 18.0 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
ALPHA-THUJENE Plant-- 15.0 -0.56 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
TRANS-PINENE-HYDRATE Plant9.0 14.0 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
LIMONENE Plant9.0 13.0 -0.48 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
Activities (60)
AChE-Inhibitor Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.
Acaricide LC100=8 uM
Allelochemic
Allergenic 1/20th carene
Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM
Antiadenomic
Antialzheimeran? Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.
Antiasthmatic
Antibacterial Revista Itiliana Eppos, 12: 5, 1994.
Anticancer
Antiesophagitic
Antifeedant
Antiflu Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.
Antiinflammatory
Antilithic
Antilymphomic
Antimetastatic (Stomach)
Antimutagenic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.
Antiobesity
Antiseptic
Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/mlFitoterapia No.59-1984.
Antitumor
Antitumor (Breast)
Antitumor (Colon)
Antitumor (Pancreas)
Antitumor (Prostate)
Antitumor (Stomach)
Antiviral
Apoptotic
Bronchoprotectant
Cancer-Preventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Candidistat
Chemopreventive
Cholesterolytic
Detoxicant
Enterocontractant J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.
Expectorant
FLavor
Fungiphilic J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2283.
Fungistat
GST-Inducer
Herbicide IC50=45 uMKeeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.
Histaminic
Immunomodulator
Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly
Insectifuge Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Irritant
Lipolytic
Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg
NO-Genic
Nematicide IC=100 ug/mlNigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet)
Ozone-Scavenger
P450-Inducer
Peristaltic
Pesticide
Photosensitizer Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.
Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kgWagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)
Transdermal
(E)-ANETHOLE Plant6.0 9.0 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
DECANOL Plant3.0 4.0 1.4 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
Activities (2)
Nematicide MLC 100-700 ug/mlShoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.
Pesticide
BETA-PINENE Plant3.0 4.0 -0.43 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
Activities (13)
Allergenic
Antiinflammatory
Antiseptic Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Antispasmodic
Candidicide
FLavor FEMA 15-600Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Herbicide Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.
Insectifuge Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
Irritant Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.
Perfumery Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Pesticide
Spasmogenic Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Transdermal
THYMOL-METHYL-ETHER Plant3.0 4.0 -0.49 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
ALPHA-PHELLANDRENE Plant3.0 4.0 -1.14 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
Activities (11)
Antibacterial Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.
Antistaphylococcic Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.
Dermal Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Emetic
FLavor FEMA 10-130Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Fungicide Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Insectiphile Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Irritant Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Laxative
Perfumery Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Pesticide
(E)-BETA-OCIMENE Plant3.0 4.0 -0.61 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
(E)-NEROLIDIOL Plant3.0 4.0 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
GERMACRENE-D Plant-- -- Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
Activities (2)
Pesticide
Pheromone
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.