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ActivityReference
Acaricide
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE LC100=8 uM
ACE-Inhibitor
Chemicals (2)
ALPHA-TERPINEOL 100 ug/ml (weak activity)
MYRCENE 100 ug/ml
AChE-Inhibitor Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor Okamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.
Chemicals (2)
ALPHA-TERPINEOL 100 ug/ml
MYRCENE 100 ug/ml
Allelochemic
Chemicals (2)
ALPHA-PINENE
LIMONENE
Allelopathic Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.
Chemicals (2)
ALPHA-TERPINEOL
CAMPHENE
Allergenic
Chemicals (8)
ALPHA-PINENE
BENZALDEHYDE
BETA-PINENE
CITRAL
CITRONELLOL
GERANIOL
LIMONENE 1/20th carene
MYRCENE
Analgesic Kauderer, B., Zamith, H., Paumgartten, F.J.R., and Speit, G. Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of B-Myrcene in Mammalian Cells In Vitro. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: 28-34, 1991.
Chemicals (1)
MYRCENE
Anesthetic
Chemicals (1)
BENZALDEHYDE
Anthelmintic Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Chemicals (1)
GERANIOL
Antiacetylcholinesterase
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE IC22-26=1.2 mM
Antiacne
Chemicals (2)
ALPHA-PINENE
ALPHA-TERPINEOL
Antiadenomic
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Antiallergenic
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Antiallergic Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Antialzheimeran? Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Antianaphylactic
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Antiasthmatic
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Antibacterial
Chemicals (8)
ALPHA-PINENE
ALPHA-TERPINEOL MIC=800-1,600 ug/ml
BENZALDEHYDE
CITRAL
CITRONELLOL
GERANIOL MIC=400 ug/ml
LIMONENE
MYRCENE
Anticancer
Chemicals (4)
ALPHA-TERPINEOL
BENZALDEHYDE
CITRAL
LIMONENE
Anticancer (Cervix) Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.
Chemicals (1)
BETA-ELEMENE
Anticancer (Pancreas)
Chemicals (1)
GERANIOL IC50=265 uM
Anticariogenic Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.
Chemicals (2)
ALPHA-TERPINEOL MIC=800-1,600 ug/ml
GERANIOL MIC=400 ug/ml
Anticonvulsant
Chemicals (1)
MYRCENE
Antiesophagitic
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Antifeedant
Chemicals (2)
ALPHA-PINENE
LIMONENE
Antiflu Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.
Chemicals (2)
ALPHA-PINENE
LIMONENE
Antigliomic
Chemicals (1)
BETA-ELEMENE
Antihelicobacter
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Antiherpetic
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Antihistaminic Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Antiinflammatory
Chemicals (5)
ALPHA-PINENE 500 mg/kg
ALPHA-TERPINEOL
BETA-PINENE
CITRAL
LIMONENE
Antileishmanic
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Antilithic
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Antilithic? Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Chemicals (1)
CAMPHENE
Antilymphomic
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Antimalarial Rukunga, G. and Simons, A. J. 2006. The Potential of Plants as a Source of Antimalarial Agents - A Review. Africa Herbal Antimalaria Meeting. PlantaPhile Publications, Berlin. 72 pp.
Chemicals (1)
ALPHA-SELINENE IC50=>50 ug/ml
Antimelanomic
Chemicals (1)
GERANIOL IC50=150 uM/l
Antimetastatic (Stomach)
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Antimutagenic Kauderer, B., Zamith, H., Paumgartten, F.J.R., and Speit, G. Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of B-Myrcene in Mammalian Cells In Vitro. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: 28-34, 1991.
Chemicals (3)
BENZALDEHYDE
LIMONENE
MYRCENE
Antinitrosaminic
Chemicals (1)
MYRCENE
Antinociceptive Rao, V.S.N., Menezes, A.M.S., Viana, G.S.B. 1990. Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 877-878, 1990.
Chemicals (1)
MYRCENE 10-20 mg/kg ipr mus
Antiobesity
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Antioxidant
Chemicals (3)
CAMPHENE
CITRAL
MYRCENE
Antipeptic
Chemicals (1)
BENZALDEHYDE
Antiplasmodial Rukunga, G. and Simons, A. J. 2006. The Potential of Plants as a Source of Antimalarial Agents - A Review. Africa Herbal Antimalaria Meeting. PlantaPhile Publications, Berlin. 72 pp.
Chemicals (1)
ALPHA-SELINENE IC50=>50 ug/ml
Antipneumonic
Chemicals (1)
ALPHA-PINENE
Antiproliferant
Chemicals (2)
ALPHA-TERPINEOL
BETA-ELEMENE
Antisalmonella
Chemicals (1)
GERANIOL MIC=400 ug/ml
Antiseptic
Chemicals (8)
ALPHA-PINENE
ALPHA-TERPINEOL
BENZALDEHYDE
BETA-PINENE
CITRAL 5.2 x phenol
CITRONELLOL
GERANIOL 7 x phenol
LIMONENE
Antishock Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Antispasmodic
Chemicals (7)
ALPHA-PINENE
BENZALDEHYDE
BETA-PINENE
CITRAL
GERANIOL
LIMONENE ED50=0.197 mg/ml
MYRCENE
Antistaphylococcic
Chemicals (2)
ALPHA-PINENE
CITRONELLOL
Antistreptococcic
Chemicals (1)
CITRONELLOL
Antitubercular
Chemicals (1)
GERANIOL MIC=64 ug/ml
Antitumor Yu, S.G., Anderson, P.J., and Elson, C.E. 1995. Efficacy of B-Ionone in the Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2144-2147.
Chemicals (4)
BENZALDEHYDE
CITRAL
GERANIOL
LIMONENE
Antitumor (Breast)
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Antitumor (Cervix) Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.
Chemicals (1)
BETA-ELEMENE
Antitumor (Colon)
Chemicals (2)
CITRAL
LIMONENE
Antitumor (Liver)
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Antitumor (Pancreas)
Chemicals (2)
GERANIOL IC50=265 uM
LIMONENE
Antitumor (Prostate)
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Antitumor (Skin)
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Antitumor (Stomach)
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Antiulcer
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Antiviral
Chemicals (3)
ALPHA-PINENE
CITRAL
LIMONENE
Apoptotic
Chemicals (3)
BETA-ELEMENE
CITRAL
LIMONENE
Ascaricide Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Chemicals (1)
GERANIOL
Barbituate-Synergist
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Bronchoprotectant
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Bronchorelaxant Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Calcium-Antagonist
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Cancer-Preventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Chemicals (4)
ALPHA-PINENE
CITRAL
GERANIOL
LIMONENE
Candidicide
Chemicals (4)
BENZALDEHYDE
BETA-PINENE
CITRONELLOL
GERANIOL
Candidistat
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Carcinogenic
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Caspase-3-Inducer
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Chemopreventive
Chemicals (3)
CITRAL
LIMONENE
MYRCENE
Cholesterolytic
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Cicatrizant
Chemicals (1)
ALPHA-TERPINEOL ED50=240 ug/g mus
CNS-Stimulant List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Chemicals (1)
GERANIOL
Coleoptophile
Chemicals (1)
ALPHA-PINENE
Cytotoxic
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Detoxicant
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Embryotoxic
Chemicals (1)
GERANIOL
Emetic Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-97.
Chemicals (1)
GERANIOL 3 x ipecac
Enterocontractant J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Estrogenic
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Expectorant Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Chemicals (5)
ALPHA-PINENE
CAMPHENE
CITRAL
GERANIOL
LIMONENE
FLavor
Chemicals (11)
ALPHA-PINENE FEMA 15-150
ALPHA-TERPINEOL FEMA 5-40
BENZALDEHYDE FEMA 150-800
BETA-PINENE FEMA 15-600
CAMPHENE FEMA 15-175
CITRAL FEMA 4-170
CITRONELLOL FEMA 1-50
GERANIOL FEMA 1-10
LIMONENE
MYRCENE FEMA 0.5-9
P-METHYL-ACETOPHENONE FEMA 1-1,000
Fungicide HerbalGram No. 17.
Chemicals (4)
CITRAL MIC 625 ug/ml
CITRONELLOL
GERANIOL IC93=2 mM
MYRCENE
Fungiphilic J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2283.
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Fungistat
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Glaucomagenic
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Glutathionigenic
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
GST-Inducer
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Herbicide Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.
Chemicals (6)
ALPHA-PINENE IC50=30 uM
BETA-PINENE
CITRAL IC50=115 uM
CITRONELLOL IC50=160 uM
GERANIOL IC100-2,000 uM
LIMONENE IC50=45 uM
Histaminic
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Hypocholesterolemic? Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Chemicals (1)
CAMPHENE
Hypothermic
Chemicals (1)
MYRCENE
Immunomodulator
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Immunostimulant
Chemicals (1)
BENZALDEHYDE
Insecticide
Chemicals (4)
ALPHA-PINENE 0.82 uM/fly
ALPHA-TERPINEOL 1.29 uM/fly
BENZALDEHYDE
LIMONENE 0.37 uM/fly
Insectifuge Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
Chemicals (7)
ALPHA-PINENE 50 ppm
BENZALDEHYDE 50 ppm
BETA-PINENE
CAMPHENE
GERANIOL 50 ppm
LIMONENE
MYRCENE
Insectiphile J. Stored. Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986.
Chemicals (2)
ALPHA-PINENE
GERANIOL
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Chemicals (2)
ALPHA-TERPINEOL
LIMONENE
Irritant Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.
Chemicals (5)
ALPHA-PINENE
BETA-PINENE
CITRONELLOL
LIMONENE
MYRCENE
Lipolytic
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Mosquitofuge
Chemicals (1)
ALPHA-TERPINEOL > Deet
Motor-Depressant Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC
Chemicals (2)
ALPHA-TERPINEOL
BENZALDEHYDE
Mycobactericide
Chemicals (1)
GERANIOL MIC=64 ug/ml
Myorelaxant
Chemicals (3)
CITRAL 200 mg/kg
LIMONENE 50 mg/kg
MYRCENE 100-200 mg/kg
Narcotic Merck 11th Edition
Chemicals (1)
BENZALDEHYDE
Nematicide Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.
Chemicals (6)
ALPHA-TERPINEOL MLC=1 mg/ml
BENZALDEHYDE MLC=1 mg/ml
CITRAL IC52=100 ug/ml
CITRONELLOL MLC=100 ug/ml
GERANIOL IC86=100 ug/ml
LIMONENE IC=100 ug/ml
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
NO-Genic
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
NO-Inhibitor
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE ~750 mg/kg (diet)
Ozone-Scavenger
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Chemicals (3)
ALPHA-PINENE IC50=0.087 uM
CITRAL IC50=1.19 uM
MYRCENE IC50=0.14 uM
P450-Inducer
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Perfumery Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Chemicals (9)
ALPHA-PINENE
ALPHA-SELINENE
ALPHA-TERPINEOL
BETA-PINENE
CITRAL
CITRONELLOL
GERANIOL
MYRCENE
P-METHYL-ACETOPHENONE
Peristaltic
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Pesticide
Chemicals (10)
ALPHA-PINENE
ALPHA-TERPINEOL
BENZALDEHYDE
BETA-PINENE
CAMPHENE
CITRAL
CITRONELLOL
GERANIOL
LIMONENE
MYRCENE
Photosensitizer Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.
Chemicals (1)
LIMONENE
Prostatitigenic
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL 185 mg/kg/day/3 ms
Sedative Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)
Chemicals (7)
ALPHA-PINENE
ALPHA-TERPINEOL
BENZALDEHYDE
CITRAL ED 1-32 mg/kg
CITRONELLOL
GERANIOL
LIMONENE ED=1-32 mg/kg
Spasmogenic Fitoterapia No.59-1984.
Chemicals (3)
ALPHA-PINENE
BETA-PINENE
CAMPHENE
Teratogenic
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Termiticide
Chemicals (2)
ALPHA-TERPINEOL IC100=5 mg/g
BENZALDEHYDE LD100=5 mg/g
Tranquilizer Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jun-90.
Chemicals (1)
ALPHA-PINENE
Transdermal
Chemicals (4)
ALPHA-PINENE
ALPHA-TERPINEOL
BETA-PINENE
LIMONENE
Trichomonicide
Chemicals (3)
CITRAL LD100=150 ug/ml
CITRONELLOL LD100=300 ug/ml
GERANIOL LD100=300 ug/ml
Trypanocide
Chemicals (1)
CITRAL
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Chemicals (2)
BENZALDEHYDE ID50=820 uM
CITRAL ID50=1.5 mM
Vulnerary
Chemicals (1)
ALPHA-TERPINEOL ED50=240 ug/g mus
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.