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ActivityReference
(+)-Inotropic Bruneton, J. 1999. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. 2nd Ed. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris. 1119 pp.
Chemicals (2)
CAFFEINE
THEOPHYLLINE
Absorbent Martindale's 29th
Chemicals (1)
STARCH
Adenosine-Antagonist McKenna, D. J., Hughes, K., and Jones, K. 2000. Green Tea Monograph. Alternative Therapies, 6(3): 61-82.
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
Allelochemic Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.
Chemicals (1)
CATECHOL IC50=0.65 mM
Allergenic Mitchell, J. and Rook, A.J. 1923. Botanical Dermatology: plants and plant products injurious to the skin. Vancouver: Greengrass, 1979. xiii, 787 p.: ill.
Chemicals (2)
CATECHOL
THEOPHYLLINE
Analeptic Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE 200 scu mus
Analgesic-Synergist
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
Anorexic Martindale's 28th
Chemicals (1)
THEOBROMINE
Anthelmintic
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Antialzheimeran
Chemicals (1)
CHOLINE 5-16 g/man/day
Antianemic Martindale's 28th
Chemicals (1)
ADENINE 1.5 g/day
Antiapneic Martindale's 29th
Chemicals (2)
CAFFEINE
THEOPHYLLINE
Antiapoptotic
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
Antiasthmatic Martindale's 29th
Chemicals (3)
CAFFEINE 5-10 mg/kg orl/man
THEOBROMINE 10 mg/kg/orl/man
THEOPHYLLINE 5 mg/kg/orl/man
Antibacterial
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Antibradyarrhythmic Martindale's 29th
Chemicals (1)
THEOPHYLLINE
Antibronchitic
Chemicals (1)
THEOPHYLLINE
Anticancer
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Anticancer (Breast) Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.
Chemicals (1)
CATECHOL
Anticarcinogenic
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
Anticariogenic
Chemicals (2)
CAFFEINE
TANNIN
Anticellulitic
Chemicals (2)
THEOBROMINE
THEOPHYLLINE
Antichoreic Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.
Chemicals (1)
CHOLINE
Anticirrhotic
Chemicals (1)
CHOLINE 6,000 mg/man/day
Anticoagulant
Chemicals (1)
D-CATECHIN
Anticystinuric
Chemicals (1)
CHOLINE
Antidementia
Chemicals (1)
CHOLINE
Antidermatitic Martindale's 29th
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
Antidiabetic
Chemicals (1)
CHOLINE
Antidiarrheic
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Antidote Martindale's 29th
Chemicals (1)
THEOPHYLLINE Charcoal & Propanolol
Antidote (Iodine) Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Chemicals (1)
STARCH
Antidysenteric
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Antidyskinetic Martindale's 28th
Chemicals (1)
CHOLINE 150-200 mg/kg/man/day
Antiemetic Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
Antiemphysemic Martindale's 29th
Chemicals (1)
THEOPHYLLINE
Antifeedant Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
Antiflu Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 198.
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
Antigonadotropic
Chemicals (1)
CATECHOL
Antigranulocytopenic
Chemicals (1)
ADENINE
Antihepatomic
Chemicals (1)
SAPONINS
Antihepatotoxic
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Antiherpetic
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
AntiHIV
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Antihomocysteine
Chemicals (1)
CHOLINE
Antihypertensive
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Antihypotensive Martindale's 29th
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE 250 mg/day/orl/man
Antilipolytic
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Antimanic Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).
Chemicals (1)
CHOLINE 15-30 g/man/day/orl
Antimutagenic
Chemicals (2)
SAPONINS
TANNIN
Antinarcotic Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
Antinephritic Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Antinesidioblastosic Martindale's 29th
Chemicals (1)
STARCH
Antineuralgic Martindale's 29th
Chemicals (1)
THEOPHYLLINE
Antinociceptive
Chemicals (1)
CHOLINE
Antiobesity
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
Antiophidic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Antioxidant
Chemicals (3)
CAFFEINE
CATECHOL
TANNIN IC50=1.44 ug/ml
Antiradicular Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN 500 mg/kg/day orl mus
Antirenitic Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Antirhinitic Martindale's 29th
Chemicals (2)
CAFFEINE 140 mg/day/orl/man
THEOPHYLLINE
Antiseptic
Chemicals (1)
CATECHOL
Antiserotonergic Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE 40 ipr rat
Antispasmodic
Chemicals (1)
THEOPHYLLINE 100 uM
Antisteatotic
Chemicals (1)
CHOLINE
Antistomatitic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 197.
Chemicals (1)
CATECHOL
Antithiamin Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.
Chemicals (1)
CATECHOL
Antithyreotropic
Chemicals (1)
CATECHOL
Antitumor
Chemicals (3)
CAFFEINE
CATECHOL
TANNIN
Antitumor (Breast) Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.
Chemicals (1)
CATECHOL
Antitumor (Lung)
Chemicals (2)
CAFFEINE
SAPONINS
Antitumor (Ovary)
Chemicals (1)
SAPONINS
Antitumor-Promoter
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Antiulcer
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Antivaccinia
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
Antiviral
Chemicals (5)
ADENINE
CAFFEINE
CATECHOL
TANNIN
THEOPHYLLINE
Apoptotic
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
Arrhythmigenic
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE 1,500 mg/man
Arteriodilator
Chemicals (2)
THEOBROMINE
THEOPHYLLINE
Bronchodilator Merck 11th Edition
Chemicals (2)
THEOBROMINE
THEOPHYLLINE
cAMP-Inhibitor Schussler, M., Fricke, U., Nikolov, N., and Holzl, J. 1991. Comparison of the Flavonoids Occurring in Crataegus species and Inhibition of 3',5'-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Phosphodiesterase. Plant Medica 57: Suppl Issue 2. p.A-133.
Chemicals (2)
THEOBROMINE IC50=0.06 mg/ml
THEOPHYLLINE IC50=0.06 mg/ml
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).
Chemicals (3)
CAFFEINE
THEOBROMINE
THEOPHYLLINE
Cancer-Preventive
Chemicals (5)
CAFFEINE
CATECHOL
D-CATECHIN
MUCILAGE
TANNIN
Carcinogenic
Chemicals (3)
CATECHOL 0.8% diet
TANNIN
XANTHINE
Cardiodepressant
Chemicals (1)
CHOLINE
Cardiotonic
Chemicals (3)
CAFFEINE 10-25 orl dog
D-CATECHIN
THEOBROMINE
Cardiovascular Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.
Chemicals (1)
THEOPHYLLINE 30 mg/kg orl rat
Catabolic Abstract (See species file)
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
Cerebrotonic
Chemicals (1)
CHOLINE
cGMP-Inhibitor Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).
Chemicals (1)
THEOPHYLLINE
cGMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).
Chemicals (3)
CAFFEINE
THEOBROMINE
THEOPHYLLINE
Chelator
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Choleretic
Chemicals (2)
CAFFEINE
THEOPHYLLINE
Cholinergic Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Chemicals (1)
CHOLINE
CNS-Stimulant
Chemicals (4)
ADENINE
CAFFEINE 100 orl mus
THEOBROMINE
THEOPHYLLINE
Co-carcinogenic
Chemicals (1)
CATECHOL
Convulsant Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Chemicals (1)
CATECHOL
Coronary-Dilator McKenna, D. J., Hughes, K., and Jones, K. 2000. Green Tea Monograph. Alternative Therapies, 6(3): 61-82.
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Demulcent
Chemicals (1)
MUCILAGE
Dermatitigenic Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Chemicals (1)
CATECHOL
Diuretic Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.
Chemicals (4)
ADENINE
CAFFEINE
THEOBROMINE 300-600 mg/man/day
THEOPHYLLINE 15 mg/kg ivn rbt
Emetic Martindale's 28th
Chemicals (1)
THEOBROMINE
Emollient Martindale's 29th
Chemicals (1)
STARCH
Energizer
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE 20-200 mg/man
Ergotamine-Enhancer Martindale's 29th
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
Essential Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Chemicals (1)
GUANINE
Fetotoxic
Chemicals (2)
THEOBROMINE 100 mg/kg
THEOPHYLLINE 100 mg/kg
FLavor Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE FEMA 125
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Hepatoprotective
Chemicals (2)
CHOLINE
TANNIN
Herbicide
Chemicals (4)
CAFFEINE
CATECHOL
THEOBROMINE IC41=100 ppm
THEOPHYLLINE IC58=100 ppm
Hypertensive LAWSON in Koch, H. P. and Lawson, L. D., eds. 1996. Garlic- The Science and therapeutic application of Allium sativum L. and related species. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. 329 pp.
Chemicals (2)
CAFFEINE
THEOPHYLLINE
Hyperuricemic Martindale's 29th
Chemicals (2)
ADENINE
THEOPHYLLINE
Hypocholesterolemic
Chemicals (1)
MUCILAGE
Hypoglycemic
Chemicals (2)
CAFFEINE
THEOPHYLLINE
Hypotensive
Chemicals (1)
CHOLINE
Ileorelaxant
Chemicals (1)
CHOLINE
Immunomodulator
Chemicals (1)
SAPONINS
Immunosuppressant
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Insecticide Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
Insectifuge Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Chemicals (1)
ADENINE
Lipotropic
Chemicals (1)
CHOLINE
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Lithogenic
Chemicals (1)
ADENINE
Lypolytic Bruneton, J. 1999. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. 2nd Ed. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris. 1119 pp.
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
MAO-Inhibitor
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Memorigenic
Chemicals (1)
CHOLINE
Myocardiotonic Martindale's 29th
Chemicals (3)
ADENINE
THEOBROMINE
THEOPHYLLINE
Myorelaxant Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Chemicals (3)
CAFFEINE
THEOBROMINE
THEOPHYLLINE 100 uM
Myostimulant Martindale's 29th
Chemicals (1)
THEOBROMINE
Neurotoxic R.J. Hixtable (Huxtable, R.J. (as T. Max). 1992. This and That:The Essential Pharmacology of Herbs and Spices. Tips 13:15-20 Huxtable, R.J. 1992b. The Myth of Benficent Nature. The Risk of Herbal Preparations. Anns. Intern. Med. 117(2):165-6; Huxtable, R.
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Parasympathomimetic Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.
Chemicals (1)
CHOLINE (1/1,000th acetylcholine)
Pesticide
Chemicals (6)
ADENINE
CAFFEINE
CATECHOL
TANNIN
THEOBROMINE
THEOPHYLLINE
Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
Poultice Martindale's 29th
Chemicals (1)
STARCH
Prostaglandin-Secretor Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.
Chemicals (1)
THEOPHYLLINE 10 mg/kg orl rat
Psychotropic Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
Pyrogenic Dascombe, M. J. 1977. Effects of Methylxanthine Drugs on Pyrogen-Induced Hyperthermia. Eur J Pharmacol, 45: 389-392.
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE 60 mg/day oral hmn
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.
Chemicals (1)
CATECHOL
Respirastimulant
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE
Spasmogenic
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE 1,500 mg/man
Stimulant
Chemicals (3)
CAFFEINE
THEOBROMINE
THEOPHYLLINE
Tachycardic Martindale's 29th
Chemicals (2)
CAFFEINE 1,500 mg/man
THEOPHYLLINE
Teratogenic Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.
Chemicals (3)
CAFFEINE 14 orl rat
THEOBROMINE 100 mg/kg
THEOPHYLLINE
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor Tohda, H., Zhao, J. H., Oikawa, A. 1992. A Possible Involvement of DNA Topoisomerase I in 'Caffeine Effect' After Ultraviolet Irradiation. Tohoku J Exp Med, 168: 129-132.
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE 0.1 nM
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor Shin, C. G., Strayer, J. M., Wani, M., Snapka, R. M. 1990. Rapid Evaluation of Topoisomerase Inhibitors: Caffeine Inhibition of Topoisomerases in vivo. Teratogen Carcinogen Mutagen, 10: 41-52.
Chemicals (1)
CAFFEINE 99 mM
Tumor-Promoter Jim Duke's personal files.
Chemicals (1)
CATECHOL <0.2% diet
Vasoconstrictor Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Chemicals (1)
D-CATECHIN
Vasodilator Bruneton, J. 1999. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. 2nd Ed. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris. 1119 pp.
Chemicals (4)
ADENINE
CAFFEINE
THEOBROMINE
THEOPHYLLINE
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Chemicals (1)
TANNIN
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.