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Activities: 368
All Chemicals: 125
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Chemical Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
(+)-CITRONELLAL Shoot2.0 975.0 *
1,2-HUMULENE-EPOXIDE Shoot-- 0.1 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
1-OCTEN-3-OL Shoot-- 50.0 -0.42 *
10-(ALPHA)-CADINOL Plant1.0 8.0 -1.0 *
2-PHENYLETHANOL Tissue Culture-- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
2Z,4E,6E-ALLOFARNESENE Shoot-- 0.1 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
3-OCTANOL Shoot-- 8.0 -0.29 *
Activities (2)
FLavor FEMAAloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Perfumery Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
3-OCTANONE Shoot1.0 15.0 -0.24 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
3E,6E-ALPHA-FARNESENE Shoot5.0 40.0 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
6-METHYL-5-HEPTEN-2-ONE Shoot3.0 24.0 2.4 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
ALPHA-CADINENE Shoot-- 0.1 -0.5 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
ALPHA-CADINOL Shoot1.0 120.0 1.51 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
Activities (3)
Acaricide
Antimite
Pesticide
ALPHA-COPAENE Shoot2.0 120.0 1.03 *
ALPHA-CUBEBENE Shoot0.1 38.0 0.44 *
ALPHA-HUMULENE Shoot1.0 80.0 0.35 *
Activities (2)
Antitumor Zheng, G-Q., Kenney, P.M., and Lam, L.K.T. Sesquiterpenes From Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) As Potential Anticarcinogenic Agents. Journal of Natural Products 55(7): 999-1003, 1992.
Perfumery Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
ALPHA-MUUROLENE Shoot3.0 24.0 -0.07 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
ALPHA-TERPINEOL Shoot-- -- *
Activities (23)
ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/mlOkamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.
Allelopathic Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.
Antiacne
Antibacterial MIC=800-1,600 ug/mlMuroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.
Anticancer Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.
Anticariogenic MIC=800-1,600 ug/mlMuroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.
Antiinflammatory
Antiproliferant
Antiseptic Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Cicatrizant ED50=240 ug/g mus
FLavor FEMA 5-40Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Insecticide 1.29 uM/fly
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Mosquitofuge > Deet
Motor-Depressant Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC
Nematicide MLC=1 mg/mlShoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.
Perfumery Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Pesticide
Sedative Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC
Termiticide IC100=5 mg/g
Transdermal
Vulnerary ED50=240 ug/g mus
ANETHOL Shoot-- -- *
APIGENIN-7-O-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Shoot-- -- *
BENZALDEHYDE Tissue Culture-- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
Activities (24)
Allergenic
Anesthetic
Antibacterial
Anticancer
Antimutagenic
Antipeptic
Antiseptic
Antispasmodic
Antitumor
Candidicide
FLavor FEMA 150-800Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Immunostimulant
Insecticide Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Insectifuge 50 ppmJ. Stored. Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986.
Motor-Depressant Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC
Narcotic Merck 11th Edition
Nematicide MLC=1 mg/mlShoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.
Pesticide
Sedative Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC
Termiticide LD100=5 mg/g
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=820 uM
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=87 ug/ml
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=0.82 mM
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=830 uM
BETA-BOURBONENE Shoot1.0 48.0 -0.01 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
BETA-CARYOPHYLLENE Shoot1.0 870.0 1.35 *
BETA-CARYOPHYLLENE-EPOXIDE-I Shoot1.0 8.0 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
BETA-CARYOPHYLLENE-EPOXIDE-II Shoot5.0 40.0 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
BETA-CUBEBENE Shoot3.0 24.0 -0.21 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
BETA-CURCUMENE Shoot-- -- *
BETA-ELEMENE Shoot4.0 32.0 -0.23 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
Activities (5)
Anticancer (Cervix) Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.
Antigliomic
Antiproliferant
Antitumor (Cervix) Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.
Apoptotic
BETA-GUAIENE Shoot-- 0.1 -0.46 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
BETA-SELINENE Shoot-- -- *
Activities (3)
Antimalarial IC50=>50 ug/mlRukunga, G. and Simons, A. J. 2006. The Potential of Plants as a Source of Antimalarial Agents - A Review. Africa Herbal Antimalaria Meeting. PlantaPhile Publications, Berlin. 72 pp.
Antiplasmodial IC50=>50 ug/mlRukunga, G. and Simons, A. J. 2006. The Potential of Plants as a Source of Antimalarial Agents - A Review. Africa Herbal Antimalaria Meeting. PlantaPhile Publications, Berlin. 72 pp.
Perfumery Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
BETA-SITOSTEROL Tissue Culture-- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
Activities (47)
Androgenic
Angiogenic
Anorexic Martindale's 28th
Antiadenomic Merck 11th Edition
Antiandrogenic Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.
Antibacterial Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 155.
Anticancer (Breast) Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.
Anticancer (Cervix)
Anticancer (Lung)
Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl
Antiestrogenic Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.
Antifeedant Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
Antifertility Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.
Antigonadotrophic Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Antiinflammatory
Antileukemic
Antilymphomic
Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml
Antiophidic 2.3 mg musEconomic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.
Antioxidant IC44=10 uM
Antiprogestational Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.
Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks
Antiprostatadenomic Merck 11th Edition
Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man
Antipyretic Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.
Antitumor (Breast) Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.
Antitumor (Cervix)
Antitumor (Lung)
Antiviral Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991.
Apoptotic
Artemicide LC50=110 ppmJung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, c., Patarapanich, C., and McLaughlin, J.L. 1989. Bioactive Constituents of Melodorum fruticosum. Phytochemistry. 29(5): 1667-1670. 1990.
Cancer-Preventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Candidicide Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 155.
Caspase-8-Inducer
Estrogenic
Febrifuge Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.
Gonadotrophic Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.
Hepatoprotective
Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orlMartindale's 30th
Hypocholesterolemic 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orlMartindale's 28th
Hypoglycemic Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.
Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day
Pesticide
Spermicide Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.
Ubiquiot Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat
BICYCLOGERMACRENE Shoot1.0 8.0 -0.84 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
CADINA-1,4-DIENE Shoot-- 0.1 -0.46 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
CAFFEIC-ACID Plant-- 2100.0 -0.75 *
Activities (102)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity)Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.
Allergenic
Analgesic
AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml
AntiLegionella
Antiadenoviral Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.
Antiaggregant Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Antiaging
Antiatherogenic
Antibacterial
Anticancer
Anticarcinogenic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.
Antidepressant
Antiedemic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.
Antielastase IC50=93 um/l
Antielastase IC50=86 ug/ml (475 uM)
Antiescherichic
Antiflu Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.
Antigonadotropic Jim Duke's personal files.
Antihemolytic 25 uMOhnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.
Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus
Antihepatotoxic
Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml
Antiherpetic EC50=>50 ug/ml
Antihistaminic
Antihypercholesterolemic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.
Antihyperthyroid
Antiinflammatory
Antileukemic Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
Antileukotriene
Antimelanogenic
Antimutagenic Ki Soon Rhee. Oilseed Food Ingredients Used To Minimize Oxidative Flavor Deterioration in Meat Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.18.
Antinitrosaminic Ki Soon Rhee. Oilseed Food Ingredients Used To Minimize Oxidative Flavor Deterioration in Meat Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.18.
Antiophidic
Antioxidant 50 uM
Antioxidant IC57=30 ppm
Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin
Antioxidant 30 mM
Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E
Antioxidant 1/2 BHA
Antiperoxidant IC50=44 uMPlanta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.
Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml
Antiperoxidant IC85=100 ug/ml
Antiproliferant Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
Antiprostaglandin
Antiradicular 10 uMOhnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.
Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin
Antiradicular 30 mM
Antiradicular IC50=32-35 uM
Antiseptic
Antispasmodic EC50=3.4-15 uMPhytotherapy Research, 4: 73.
Antistaphylococcic
Antistomatitic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.
Antisunburn
Antithiamin Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.
Antithyroid Jim Duke's personal files.
Antitumor 200 ppm diet orl mus
Antitumor (Skin)
Antitumor-Promoter IC42=10 uMCancer Research, 48: 5941.
Antiulcerogenic
Antivaccinia Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.
Antiviral IC50=62.5 ug/ml
Anxiolytic
CNS-Active Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.
COX-2-Inhibitor IC32=100 uM
Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt
Cancer-Preventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Carcinogenic 2% (diet)
Chemopreventive
Cholagogue Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.
Choleretic Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Clastogenic Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Co-carcinogenic
Collagen-Sparing
Cytoprotective Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Cytotoxic TC50=200 ug/ml
DNA-Active Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
DNA-Protective
Diuretic Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.
Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml
Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol)
Hepatoprotective Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 210.
Hepatotropic
Histamine-Inhibitor
Immunostimulant
Insectifuge Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC27=5 mMOszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=62-148 uM
Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM
Metal-Chelator McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.
Pesticide
Prooxidant
Prostaglandigenic
Sedative 500 mg
Sunscreen IC50=2.5 mg/lLazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.
Sunscreen IC91=5 mg/lLazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.
Sunscreen IC98=25 mg/lLazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.
Tumorigenic Jim Duke's personal files.
Vulnerary
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 uMMills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.
CAMPESTEROL Tissue Culture-- 0.1 -1.0 Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
Activities (2)
Antioxidant IC37=10 uM
Hypocholesterolemic Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
CARYOPHYLLENE-OXIDE Plant0.5 225.0 0.01 J. Aromatherapy 1: 11.
Activities (8)
Antiedemic Shimizu,*M., et al. 1990. Anti-inflammatory Constituents of Topically Applied Crude Drugs. IV.1) Constituents and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Paraguayan Crude Drug 'Alhucema' (Lavandula latifolia Vill.)2). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(8): 2283-2284, 1990.
Antifeedant Bettarini, F., Borgonovi, G.E., et al. 1991. Antiparasitic Compounds from East African Plants: Isolation and Biological Activity of Anonaine, Matricarianol, Canthin-6-One and Caryophyllene Oxide. Insect Sci. Applic. 14(1): 93-99, 1993.
Antiinflammatory Shimizu,*M., et al. 1990. Anti-inflammatory Constituents of Topically Applied Crude Drugs. IV.1) Constituents and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Paraguayan Crude Drug 'Alhucema' (Lavandula latifolia Vill.)2). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(8): 2283-2284, 1990.
Antitumor Zheng, G-Q., Kenney, P.M., and Lam, L.K.T. Sesquiterpenes From Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) As Potential Anticarcinogenic Agents. Journal of Natural Products 55(7): 999-1003, 1992.
Calcium-Antagonist ED50=32 uM gpg
Fungicide
Insecticide Bettarini, F., Borgonovi, G.E., et al. 1991. Antiparasitic Compounds from East African Plants: Isolation and Biological Activity of Anonaine, Matricarianol, Canthin-6-One and Caryophyllene Oxide. Insect Sci. Applic. 14(1): 93-99, 1993.
Pesticide
CATECHIN-TANNINS Shoot30000.0 50000.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
CATECHINS Plant30000.0 50000.0 *
Activities (1)
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
CHLOROGENIC-ACID Plant-- -- *
Activities (77)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=1.8 uM rat (strong activity)Yoshikawa, M., et al. 1999. Medicinal Flowers. I. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Three New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes, Kikkanols A, B, and C, From the Flowers of Chrysanthemum inducum L. Chem Pharm Bull, 47(3): 340-345.
Allelochemic
Allergenic
Analgesic
AntiEBV Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.
AntiHIV Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.
AntiLegionella
Antiatherosclerotic
Antibacterial
Anticancer (Colon)
Anticancer (Forestomach)
Anticancer (Liver)
Anticancer (Skin)
Anticarcinogenic
Antidiabetic
Antifeedant
Antigenotoxic
Antigonadotropic Jim Duke's personal files.
Antihemolytic 10 uMOhnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.
Antihepatotoxic
Antiherpetic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.
Antihistaminic
Antihypercholesterolemic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.
Antihyperthyroid
Antiinflammatory Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.
Antileukotriene
Antimelanogenic
Antimutagenic
Antinitrosaminic
Antioxidant IC53=200 ppmHuang, M-T., and Ferraro, T. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Cancer Prevention. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.2 p.21.
Antioxidant IC80=12 uM
Antioxidant IC50=54.2 uM
Antiperoxidant IC50=36 uMPlanta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.
Antipolio Jim Duke's personal files.
Antiradicular 10 uMOhnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.
Antiradicular 9 x quercetin
Antiseptic
Antisunburn
Antithyroid Jim Duke's personal files.
Antitumor Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Antitumor (Colon)
Antitumor (Forestomach)
Antitumor (Liver)
Antitumor (Skin)
Antitumor-Promoter IC25=10 uM
Antiulcer Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.
Antiviral Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.
Autotoxic
CNS-Active Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.
CNS-Stimulant 1/6 Caffeine
Cancer-Preventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Cardioprotective
Chemopreventive
Cholagogue Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.
Choleretic Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
Clastogenic Friedman, M. and Dao, L. 1990. Effect of Autoclaving and Conventional and Microwave Baking on the Ergot Alkaloid and Chlorogenic Acid Contents of Morning Glory (Ipomoea tricolor Cav. cv.) Heavenly Blue Seeds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 805-808.
Collagen-Sparing
Diuretic
Fungicide Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.
Hepatoprotective Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
Histamine-Inhibitor
Hypoglycemic
Immunostimulant
Insectifuge Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Interferonogenic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.
Juvabional Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
Larvistat Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC23=5 mMOszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.
Metal-Chelator McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.
NO-Genic
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.
Oviposition-Stimulant Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Pesticide
Sunscreen
Sweetener Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Vulnerary
CHLOROGENIC-ACID Shoot-- 19000.0 *
Activities (77)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=1.8 uM rat (strong activity)Yoshikawa, M., et al. 1999. Medicinal Flowers. I. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Three New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes, Kikkanols A, B, and C, From the Flowers of Chrysanthemum inducum L. Chem Pharm Bull, 47(3): 340-345.
Allelochemic
Allergenic
Analgesic
AntiEBV Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.
AntiHIV Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.
AntiLegionella
Antiatherosclerotic
Antibacterial
Anticancer (Colon)
Anticancer (Forestomach)
Anticancer (Liver)
Anticancer (Skin)
Anticarcinogenic
Antidiabetic
Antifeedant
Antigenotoxic
Antigonadotropic Jim Duke's personal files.
Antihemolytic 10 uMOhnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.
Antihepatotoxic
Antiherpetic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.
Antihistaminic
Antihypercholesterolemic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.
Antihyperthyroid
Antiinflammatory Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.
Antileukotriene
Antimelanogenic
Antimutagenic
Antinitrosaminic
Antioxidant IC53=200 ppmHuang, M-T., and Ferraro, T. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Cancer Prevention. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.2 p.21.
Antioxidant IC80=12 uM
Antioxidant IC50=54.2 uM
Antiperoxidant IC50=36 uMPlanta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.
Antipolio Jim Duke's personal files.
Antiradicular 10 uMOhnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.
Antiradicular 9 x quercetin
Antiseptic
Antisunburn
Antithyroid Jim Duke's personal files.
Antitumor Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Antitumor (Colon)
Antitumor (Forestomach)
Antitumor (Liver)
Antitumor (Skin)
Antitumor-Promoter IC25=10 uM
Antiulcer Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.
Antiviral Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.
Autotoxic
CNS-Active Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.
CNS-Stimulant 1/6 Caffeine
Cancer-Preventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Cardioprotective
Chemopreventive
Cholagogue Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.
Choleretic Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
Clastogenic Friedman, M. and Dao, L. 1990. Effect of Autoclaving and Conventional and Microwave Baking on the Ergot Alkaloid and Chlorogenic Acid Contents of Morning Glory (Ipomoea tricolor Cav. cv.) Heavenly Blue Seeds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 805-808.
Collagen-Sparing
Diuretic
Fungicide Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.
Hepatoprotective Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
Histamine-Inhibitor
Hypoglycemic
Immunostimulant
Insectifuge Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Interferonogenic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.
Juvabional Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
Larvistat Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC23=5 mMOszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.
Metal-Chelator McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.
NO-Genic
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.
Oviposition-Stimulant Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Pesticide
Sunscreen
Sweetener Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Vulnerary
CIS-3-HEXEN-1-OL Shoot0.1 2.0 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
CIS-OCIMENE Shoot1.0 24.0 -0.35 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
Activities (3)
Antibacterial Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.
Antistaphylococcic Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.
Fungicide Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.
CIS-ROSE-OXIDE Shoot-- 8.0 *
CIS-ROSENOXIDE Shoot1.0 8.0 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
CITRAL Shoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Activities (53)
Allergenic
Antiallergenic
Antiallergic Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
Antianaphylactic
Antibacterial
Anticancer
Antihelicobacter
Antiherpetic
Antihistaminic Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
Antiinflammatory
Antileishmanic
Antioxidant
Antiseptic 5.2 x phenol
Antishock Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
Antispasmodic
Antitumor
Antitumor (Colon)
Antitumor (Liver)
Antitumor (Skin)
Antiulcer
Antiviral
Apoptotic
Barbituate-Synergist
Bronchorelaxant Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
Calcium-Antagonist
Cancer-Preventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Carcinogenic
Caspase-3-Inducer
Chemopreventive
Cytotoxic
Estrogenic
Expectorant Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
FLavor FEMA 4-170Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Fungicide MIC 625 ug/ml
Glaucomagenic
Glutathionigenic
Herbicide IC50=115 uMKeeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.
Myorelaxant 200 mg/kg
NF-kB-Inhibitor
NO-Inhibitor
Nematicide IC52=100 ug/mlNigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.
Nematicide MLC=100-260 ug/mlShoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.
P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=1.19 uM
Perfumery Merck 11th Edition
Pesticide
Prostatitigenic 185 mg/kg/day/3 ms
Sedative ED 1-32 mg/kgWagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)
Sedative 1 mg/kg
Teratogenic
Trichomonicide LD100=150 ug/ml
Trypanocide
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=1.5 mM
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=1,500 uM
CITRAL-A Shoot10.0 700.0 Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
CITRAL-B Shoot15.0 900.0 Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
CITRONELLAL Shoot1.0 2900.0 -0.2 *
Activities (20)
Acaricide
Allergenic
Antibacterial
Antiseptic 3.8 x phenolWagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)
Antistaphylococcic
Antistreptococcic
Candidicide
Embryotoxic
FLavor FEMA <1Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Fungicide
Insectifuge Merck 11th Edition
Irritant Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.
Motor-Depressant Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC
Mutagenic?
Nematicide MIC 1 mg/mlShoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.
P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=1.56 uM
Perfumery
Pesticide
Sedative ED=1 mg/kgWagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)
Teratogenic
CITRONELLIC-ACID Shoot3.0 24.0 -0.23 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
CITRONELLIC-ACID-METHYL-ESTER Shoot-- 145.0 *
CITRONELLOL Shoot-- 80.0 -0.17 *
Activities (15)
Allergenic
Antibacterial
Antiseptic
Antistaphylococcic
Antistreptococcic
Candidicide
FLavor FEMA 1-50Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Fungicide HerbalGram No. 17.
Herbicide IC50=160 uMKeeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.
Irritant Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.
Nematicide MLC=100 ug/mlShoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.
Perfumery Merck 11th Edition
Pesticide
Sedative Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)
Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml
COPAENE Plant4.0 120.0 1.56 *
Activities (1)
Carminative
COSMOSIIN Shoot-- -- *
Activities (4)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC40=1 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC99=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
Antibacterial MIC=500 ug/mlPlanta Medica, 57: A43, 1991.
Candidicide MIC=500 ug/mlPlanta Medica, 57: A43, 1991.
CYNAROSIDE Shoot-- -- *
Activities (3)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=0.99 uM rat (strong activity)Yoshikawa, M., et al. 1999. Medicinal Flowers. I. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Three New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes, Kikkanols A, B, and C, From the Flowers of Chrysanthemum inducum L. Chem Pharm Bull, 47(3): 340-345.
Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt
Hypocholesterolemic
DAMASCENONE Shoot-- -- *
DEHYDROABIETANE Shoot-- -- *
Activities (3)
Antibacterial
Cytostatic ID50=100 ug/mlDarias, V., Bravo, L., Rabanal, R., Sanchez-Mateo, C.C., and Martin-Herrera, D.A. 1988. Cytostatic and Antibacterial Activity of Some Compounds Isolated from Several Lamiaceae Species from the Canary Islands. Planta Medica 56(1): 70, 1990.
Pesticide
DELTA-CADINENE Shoot1.0 145.0 1.01 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
Activities (9)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Antiacne
Antibacterial MIC800 ug/mlMuroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.
Anticariogenic MIC800 ug/mlMuroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.
Antistreptococcic
Cytochrome-P450-Inducer
P450-Inducer
Pesticide
Testosterone-Inducer
DELTA-CADINOL Shoot1.0 16.0 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
Activities (1)
Termiticide Material und Organismen , 24: 1, 1989.
DELTA-OCTALACTONE Tissue Culture-- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
E-BETA-FANESENE Shoot3.0 24.0 *
EO Shoot100.0 8000.0 -0.21 *
EUGENOL Shoot-- -- *
Activities (76)
Acaricide LD50=5.47 ug/sq cm cf DEET at 37.59 ug/sq cm
Allergenic
Analgesic Merck 11th Edition
Anesthetic 200-400Phytotherapy Research, 4: 93.
AntiTNF
Antiaggregant IC50=0.3 uMPhytotherapy Research, 4: 93.
Antiarachidonate
Antibacterial 500 ppmValnet, J. 1982. The Practice of Aromatherapy. Translated from the 1980 French Edition by Robin Campbell and Libby Houston. Destiny Books, New York. 279 pp.
Antibacterial MBC=400 ug/ml
Anticonvulsant Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Antiedemic 100Phytotherapy Research, 4: 95.
Antiestrogenic
Antifeedant Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
Antigenotoxic 50-500 mg/kg orl mus
Antiherpetic IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml
Antiinflammatory (11 uM) IC~97=1,000 uM
Antikeratotic IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml
Antimitotic Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Antimutagenic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.
Antinitrosating
Antioxidant IC65=30 ppm
Antioxidant 10 uM
Antiprostaglandin 11 uM
Antiprostaglandin IC50=9.2 mM
Antipyretic 3 ml/man/day
Antiradicular EC50=2 ul/l
Antisalmonella MIC=400 ug/ml
Antiseptic 3 ml/man/day
Antiseptic 400 ug/ml
Antispasmodic Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Antistaphylococcic Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.
Antithromboxane Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jul-87.
Antitumor Zheng, G-Q., Kenney, P.M., and Lam, L.K.T. Sesquiterpenes From Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) As Potential Anticarcinogenic Agents. Journal of Natural Products 55(7): 999-1003, 1992.
Antiulcer
Antiviral IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml
Apifuge Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
CNS-Depressant Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
COX-1-Inhibitor IC97=1,000 uM
COX-2-Inhibitor IC>97=1,000 uM
COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=129 uM
Calcium-Antagonist IC50=224 uM
Calcium-Antagonist IC50=200 uM gpg
Cancer-Preventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Candidicide Phytotherapy Research, 4: 93.
Carcinogenic? Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.
Carminative Yamamoto, A., Umemori, S., and Muranishi, S. 1993. Absorption Enhancement of Intrapulmonary Administered Insulin by Various Absorption Enhancers and Protease Inhibitors in Rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46: 14-18, 1994.
Choleretic
Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor Pizzorno, J. 1998. Total Wellness. Prima Health, a division of Prima.
Cytotoxic 25 ug/mlPhytotherapy Research, 4: 93.
Dermatitigenic
Enterorelaxant J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.
FLavor FEMA 10-500Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Fungicide
Hepatoprotective 100 ppm
Herbicide
Insecticide
Insectifuge Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
Irritant
Juvabional Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
Larvicide
Motor-Depressant Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC
Nematicide MLC=2,000 ug/mlShoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.
Neurotoxic R.J. Hixtable (Huxtable, R.J. (as T. Max). 1992. This and That:The Essential Pharmacology of Herbs and Spices. Tips 13:15-20 Huxtable, R.J. 1992b. The Myth of Benficent Nature. The Risk of Herbal Preparations. Anns. Intern. Med. 117(2):165-6; Huxtable, R.
Perfumery Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Pesticide
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 1 mM rbtChen, S. J., Wang, M. H., Chen, I. J. 1996. Antiplatelet and Calcium Inhibitory Properties of Eugenol and Sodium Eugenol Acetate. Gen Pharmacol, 27(4): 629-633.
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor IC50=9.2 uM
Sedative
Termiticide LD100=5 mg/g
Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml
Trichomonistat IC50=10 ug/mlNigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.
Trypsin-Enhancer Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-93.
Ulcerogenic Phytotherapy Research, 4: 93.
Varroacide
Vasodilator
Vermifuge
EUGENYL-ACETATE Plant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Activities (6)
Antiaggregant ED=15 uMPlanta Medica, 56(6): 501, 1990.
Antiinflammatory
Antiprostaglandin ED50=3 uM
Antispasmodic
Perfumery FEMA 0.5-200 ppmAloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Trypsin-Enhancer Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
EUGENYL-GLUCOSIDE Shoot-- -- Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
FAT Seed-- 115000.0 -0.79 *
FURFURAL Tissue Culture-- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
Activities (6)
Antiseptic Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
FLavor FEMA 1-30Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Fungicide
Insecticide
Irritant Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Pesticide
GAMMA-CADINENE Shoot1.0 25.0 -0.18 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
GERANIAL Shoot10.0 1425.0 3.11 *
Activities (13)
AntiEBV IC50=16 uM
Antiaflatoxin
Antibacterial Onawunmi, G.O., Yisak, W-A., Ogunlana,* E.O. 1984. Antibacterial Constituents In The Essential Oil Of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 12: 279-286, 1984.
Antitumor (Colon)
Antitumor (Skin)
Antiviral IC50=16 uM
Antiyeast
Chemopreventive
Estrogenic
Fungicide
Glutathionigenic
Pesticide
Spasmolytic
GERANIC-ACID Shoot-- 0.1 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
GERANIOL Shoot1.0 65.0 -0.47 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
Activities (35)
Allergenic
Anthelmintic Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Antibacterial MIC=400 ug/mlMuroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.
Antibacterial MIC=64 ug/ml
Antibacterial MBC=800 ug/ml
Anticancer (Pancreas) IC50=265 uM
Anticariogenic MIC=400 ug/mlMuroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.
Antimelanomic IC50=150 uM/l
Antisalmonella MIC=400 ug/ml
Antiseptic 7 x phenolWagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)
Antiseptic MIC=64 ug/ml
Antiseptic 400-800 ug/ml
Antispasmodic Buchbauer, G., Jirovetz*, L., Nikiforov, A., Remberg, G., Raverdino, V. 1989. Headspace-Analysis and Aroma Compounds of Austrian Hay-Blossoms (Flores Graminis, Graminis Flos) used in Aromatherapy. J. Ess. Oil Res., 2: 185-191, 1990.
Antitubercular MIC=64 ug/ml
Antitumor Yu, S.G., Anderson, P.J., and Elson, C.E. 1995. Efficacy of B-Ionone in the Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2144-2147.
Antitumor (Pancreas) IC50=265 uM
Ascaricide Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
CNS-Stimulant List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cancer-Preventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Candidicide
Embryotoxic
Emetic 3 x ipecacLawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-97.
Expectorant Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
FLavor FEMA 1-10Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Fungicide IC93=2 mMLydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.
Herbicide IC100-2,000 uMKeeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.
Insectifuge 50 ppm
Insectiphile Merck 11th Edition
Mycobactericide MIC=64 ug/ml
Nematicide IC86=100 ug/mlNigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.
Nematicide MLC=1,000 ug/mlShoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.
Perfumery Merck 11th Edition
Pesticide
Sedative
Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml
GERANYL-ACETATE Shoot0.3 155.0 -0.19 *
Activities (5)
Allergenic
FLavor FEMA 1-20Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Insectiphile Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Perfumery Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Sedative Jim Duke's personal files.
GERMACRA-1-(10)E,5E-DIEN-4-OL Shoot30.0 230.0 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
GERMACRENE-D Shoot-- 1080.0 0.23 *
Activities (2)
Pesticide
Pheromone
HEXANOIC-ACID Tissue Culture-- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
Activities (2)
Acidulant Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
FLavor FEMA 2-450Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
ISOGERANIAL Shoot0.4 16.0 *
ISOPULEGOL Shoot10.0 70.0 2.22 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
Activities (3)
Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=2.0 mM
FLavor FEMA 5-30Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Perfumery Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
ISOQUERCITRIN Shoot-- -- *
Activities (22)
ACE-Inhibitor ID50=300 ug/ml rat (24 hr.)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Antibacterial Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Anticancer
Antielastase IC50=0.7 ug/ml
Antifeedant Russell, G. B., Phytochemical resources for crop protection, N. Z. J. Technol., 2, 1986, 127-134.
Antiinflammatory
Antinociceptive
Antioxidant 1/4 quercetin
Antioxidant IC50=9.0 uM
Antiradicular 1/4 quercetin
Antitumor
Antitumor-Promoter
Cancer-Preventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Capillarigenic
Diaphoretic
Diuretic 10 ppmList, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Hypotensive Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.
Insectiphile Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Pesticide
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor 550 ug/mlBernard, F. X., Sable, S., Cameron, B., Provost, J., Desnottes, J. F., Crouzet, J., Blanche, F. 1997. Glycosylated Flavones as Selective Inhibitors of Topoisomerase IV. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy, 41: 992-998.
LIMONENE Shoot-- 0.1 -0.33 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
Activities (60)
AChE-Inhibitor Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.
Acaricide LC100=8 uM
Allelochemic
Allergenic 1/20th carene
Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM
Antiadenomic
Antialzheimeran? Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.
Antiasthmatic
Antibacterial Revista Itiliana Eppos, 12: 5, 1994.
Anticancer
Antiesophagitic
Antifeedant
Antiflu Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.
Antiinflammatory
Antilithic
Antilymphomic
Antimetastatic (Stomach)
Antimutagenic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.
Antiobesity
Antiseptic
Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/mlFitoterapia No.59-1984.
Antitumor
Antitumor (Breast)
Antitumor (Colon)
Antitumor (Pancreas)
Antitumor (Prostate)
Antitumor (Stomach)
Antiviral
Apoptotic
Bronchoprotectant
Cancer-Preventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Candidistat
Chemopreventive
Cholesterolytic
Detoxicant
Enterocontractant J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.
Expectorant
FLavor
Fungiphilic J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2283.
Fungistat
GST-Inducer
Herbicide IC50=45 uMKeeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.
Histaminic
Immunomodulator
Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly
Insectifuge Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Irritant
Lipolytic
Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg
NO-Genic
Nematicide IC=100 ug/mlNigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet)
Ozone-Scavenger
P450-Inducer
Peristaltic
Pesticide
Photosensitizer Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.
Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kgWagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)
Transdermal
LINALOL Shoot1.0 16.0 -0.22 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
LINALOOL Shoot1.0 80.0 -0.22 *
Activities (53)
Acaricide C90=<15 ul/l (=<15 ppm
Allergenic
Analgesic
Anesthetic 0.01-1 ug/ml
Antiacetylcholinesterase
Antiallergic Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
Antianaphylactic
Antibacterial MIC=1,600 ug/ml
Anticariogenic MIC=1,600 ug/mlMuroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.
Anticolic
Anticonvulsant 200 mg/kg ipr mus
Antiedemic
Antiglutamaergic
Antihistaminic Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
Antiinflammatory
Antileukemic IC50=3.5-4.2 ug/mlChiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
Antilymphomic IC50=3.5-4.2 ug/mlChiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
Antimange
Antimite
Antimutagenic
Antiseptic 5 x phenolWagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)
Antishock Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
Antispasmodic Buchbauer, G., Jirovetz*, L., Nikiforov, A., Remberg, G., Raverdino, V. 1989. Headspace-Analysis and Aroma Compounds of Austrian Hay-Blossoms (Flores Graminis, Graminis Flos) used in Aromatherapy. J. Ess. Oil Res., 2: 185-191, 1990.
Antiviral
Barbituate-Synergist
Bronchorelaxant Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
CNS-Depressant
Cancer-Preventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Candidistat
Carminative
Culicide LC50=156-194 mg/l
Cytotoxic
Expectorant Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
FLavor FEMA 2-40Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Fungicide Acta Botanica Sinica, 32: 49.
GABA-nergic
Hypnotic
Hypothermic
Insecticide LC50=156-194 mg/l
Insectifuge Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
Irritant Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.
Larvicide LC50=156-194 mg/l
Mosquitofuge > Deet
Motor-Depressant Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC
Nematicide MLC=1 mg/mlShoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.
Perfumery Merck 11th Edition
Pesticide
Prooxidant Charalambous, G. (Ed.). 1994. Spices, Herbs and Edible Fungi. Elsevier Science B. V. Amsterdam. 764 pp.
Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kgWagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)
Sedative 200 mg/kg ipr mus (1% as active as diazepam)
Termitifuge Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
Trichomonicide LD100=600 ug/ml
Tumor-Promoter
LUTEOLIN-7-GLUCOSIDE Shoot-- -- *
Activities (7)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC73=10 uM
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC31=1 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
Antidermatic Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Antiherpetic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 204.
Antiinflammatory Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Antiviral Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 204.
Pesticide
METHYL-CITRONELLATE Shoot50.0 390.0 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
METHYL-EUGENOL Shoot-- -- *
Activities (20)
Anesthetic
Antibacterial Internat. J. Oriental Med. 15(4): 199, 1990+
Anticonvulsant
Antidote (Strychnine)
Antifeedant Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
Antioxidant EC50=100 ul/l
Antiradicular EC50=100 ul/l
Antiseptic
Cancer-Preventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Carcinogenic Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
FLavor FEMA 5-15Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Fungicide
Fungistat 100 ug/mlLaekeman, G.M., Van Hoof, L., Haemers, A., Vanden Berghe, D.A., Herman, A.G., and Vlietinck, A.J. Eugenol a Valuable Compound for In Vitro Experimental Research and Worthwhile for Further In Vivo Investigation. Phytotherapy Research 4(3): 93, 1990.
Insectifuge Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
Myorelaxant Fitoterapia No.61: 254, 1990.
Narcotic
Nematicide MIC=1 mg/mlShoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.
Perfumery Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Pesticide
Sedative
METHYL-GERANIATE Shoot4.0 32.0 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
METHYL-HEPTENONE Shoot2.0 215.0 J. Aromatherapy 1: 11.
METNYL-GERANIATE Shoot4.0 32.0 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
MYRCENE Shoot1.0 8.0 -0.33 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
Activities (22)
ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/mlOkamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.
Allergenic
Analgesic Kauderer, B., Zamith, H., Paumgartten, F.J.R., and Speit, G. Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of B-Myrcene in Mammalian Cells In Vitro. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: 28-34, 1991.
Antibacterial
Anticonvulsant
Antimutagenic Kauderer, B., Zamith, H., Paumgartten, F.J.R., and Speit, G. Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of B-Myrcene in Mammalian Cells In Vitro. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: 28-34, 1991.
Antinitrosaminic
Antinociceptive 10-20 mg/kg ipr musRao, V.S.N., Menezes, A.M.S., Viana, G.S.B. 1990. Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 877-878, 1990.
Antinociceptive 20-40 mg/kg scu musRao, V.S.N., Menezes, A.M.S., Viana, G.S.B. 1990. Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 877-878, 1990.
Antioxidant Jim Duke's personal files.
Antispasmodic Jim Duke's personal files.
Chemopreventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
FLavor FEMA 0.5-9Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Fungicide Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.
Hypothermic
Insectifuge
Irritant Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.
Myorelaxant 100-200 mg/kg
P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.14 uM
Perfumery Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Pesticide
N-DOCOSANE Tissue Culture-- 0.1 Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
N-EICOSANE Tissue Culture-- 0.1 Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
N-HENEICOSANE Tissue Culture-- 0.1 Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
N-HEPTADECANE Tissue Culture-- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
N-HEXADECANE Tissue Culture-- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
N-NONADECANE Tissue Culture-- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
N-OCTADECANE Tissue Culture-- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
N-PENTADECANE Tissue Culture-- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
N-TETRADECANE Tissue Culture-- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
N-TRIDECANE Tissue Culture-- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
NERAL Shoot10.0 1100.0 2.93 *
Activities (4)
Antibacterial Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.
Antispasmodic
Pesticide
Termiticide LD100=5 mg/g
NERIC-ACID Shoot-- -- *
NEROL Shoot1.0 24.0 -0.3 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
Activities (10)
Antibacterial HerbalGram No. 17.
Antihelicobacter
Antiseptic Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Antiulcer
Estrogenic
FLavor FEMA 1-20Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Perfumery Merck 11th Edition
Pesticide
Sedative Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.
Trichomonicide ED100=300 ug/ml
NERYL-ACETATE Shoot-- -- *
Activities (5)
Antiflu
Antiviral
FLavor FEMA 1-15Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Perfumery Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Pesticide
OCTANOIC-ACID Tissue Culture-- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
Activities (5)
Candidicide Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
FLavor FEMA 3-20Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Fungicide Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Perfumery Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Pesticide
OCTYL-BENZOATE Plant2.6 80.0 *
OCTYL-BENZOATE Shoot-- -- Abstract (See species file)
OLEANOLIC-ACID Shoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Activities (64)
Abortifacient
AntiHIV IC50=21.8 ug/ml
AntiHIV EC50=1.7 ug/mlKashiwada, Y., et. al. 1998. Anti-AIDS Agents. 30. Anti-HIV Activity of Oleanolic Acid, Pomolic Acid, and Structurally Related Triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod., 61 (9): 1090-1095.
AntiPGE2 IC50=24 uM
AntiTGF-beta IC50=19-24 uM
Antiallergic
Antiarrhythmic 40 mg/kg
Antiatherosclerotic
Antibacterial MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml
Anticarcinomic Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
Anticariogenic Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Anticomplement IC40-50 0.01 mM/l gpgHansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Anticomplement IC80-90 0.05 mM/l gpgHansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Antiedemic IC36=40 mg/kg ipr rat
Antifertility
Antigingivitic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml
Antihepatotoxic
Antihyperlipidemic
Antiinflammatory 40 mg/kg iprAquino, R., De Feo, V., De Simone, F., Pizza, C.*, and Cirino, G. Plant Metabolites. New Compounds And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Uncaria tomentosa. Journal of Natural Products, 54(2): 453-459, 1991.
Antiischemic 40 mg/kg
Antileukemic Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
Antileukotriene IC50=17 uM
Antimalarial IC50=70-89 ug/ml
Antinephritic IC50=19-24 uM
Antioxidant Balanehru, S. and Nagarajan, B. 1992. Intervention of Adriamycin Induced Free Radical Damage. Biochemistry International 28(4): 735-744, 1992.
Antioxidant IC46=10 uM
Antiperiodontic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml
Antiperoxidant IC30=200 ug/ml
Antiplaque MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml
Antiplasmodial IC50=70-89 ug/ml
Antisarcomic
Antiseptic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml
Antitumor
Antitumor (Breast) Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
Antitumor (Colon) Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
Antitumor (Kidney) Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
Antitumor (Lung) Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
Antitumor (Pancreas) Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
Antiulcer >carbenoxolone
Antiviral EC50=1.7 ug/mlKashiwada, Y., et. al. 1998. Anti-AIDS Agents. 30. Anti-HIV Activity of Oleanolic Acid, Pomolic Acid, and Structurally Related Triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod., 61 (9): 1090-1095.
Antiviral IC50=21.8 ug/mlKashiwada, Y., et. al. 1998. Anti-AIDS Agents. 30. Anti-HIV Activity of Oleanolic Acid, Pomolic Acid, and Structurally Related Triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod., 61 (9): 1090-1095.
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Beta-Blocker
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor ~100 mg/kg
COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=295 uM/
COX-2-Inhibitor Ringbom, T., Seguar, L., Noreen, Y., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Ursolic Acid from Plantago major, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 Catalyzed Prostaglandin Biosynthesis. J. Nat. Prod., 61(10): 1212-1215.
Cancer-Preventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Cardioprotective 40 mg/kg
Cardiotonic
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Diuretic Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Elastase-Inhibitor IC50=~15 uM
Hepatoprotective Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 211.
Hypolipemic
Hypotensive
Immunomodulator
Leucocytogenic
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Phagocytotic
Piscicide ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor igs mus
Sedative
Uterotonic
Vasopressor
P-COUMARIC-ACID Shoot-- 8.3 1.41 *
Activities (25)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity)Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.
Allelopathic Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Antibacterial Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.
Anticlastogen
Antifertility
Antihepatotoxic Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/mlChiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
Antinitrosaminic Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.
Antioxidant IC24=30 ppm
Antioxidant 1/3 BHA
Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uMPlanta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.
Antiseptic
Antispasmodic Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Antitumor
Cancer-Preventive
Chemopreventive
Choleretic
Cytotoxic Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Diaphoretic? Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-90.
Fungicide Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=5 mMOszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.
Pesticide
Prostaglandigenic
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=3,650 uM
P-CYMOL Shoot-- 0.1 -1.0 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
POMOLIC-ACID Shoot-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Activities (2)
AntiHIV IC50=23.3 ug/mlKashiwada, Y., et. al. 1998. Anti-AIDS Agents. 30. Anti-HIV Activity of Oleanolic Acid, Pomolic Acid, and Structurally Related Triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod., 61 (9): 1090-1095.
AntiHIV EC50=1.4 ug/mlKashiwada, Y., et. al. 1998. Anti-AIDS Agents. 30. Anti-HIV Activity of Oleanolic Acid, Pomolic Acid, and Structurally Related Triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod., 61 (9): 1090-1095.
PROTEIN Seed-- 293000.0 0.53 *
PROTOCATECHUIC-ACID Plant-- -- *
Activities (43)
Allergenic
Alpha-Glucosidase-Inhibitor
AntiLegionella
Antiarrhythmic Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 407.
Antiasthmatic
Antibacterial Lamikanra, A., Ogundaini, A.O., and Ogungbamila*, F.O. Antibacterial Constituents of Alchornea cordifolia Leaves. Phytotherapy Research 4(5): 198.
Anticlastogen
Antihepatotoxic Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Antiherpetic
Antiinflammatory Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Antiischemic Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Antileukemic
Antimelanogenic ID60=0.5 uM/ml
Antimutagenic
Antiophidic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.
Antioxidant 2/3 quercetin
Antioxidant 10 x alpha-tocopherol
Antioxidant 1/2 BHT
Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uMPlanta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.
Antiperoxidant IC75=200 ug/ml
Antiradicular
Antiseptic
Antispasmodic EC50=4.6-17 uMOrtiz de Urbina, J.J., Martin, M.L., Sevilla, M.A., Montero, M.J., Carron, R., and San Roman, L. Antispasmodic Activity on Rat Smooth Muscle of Polyphenol Compounds Caffeic and Protocathechic Acids. Phytotherapy Research 4(2): 73, 1990.
Antitumor (Colon)
Antitumor (Mouth)
Antitumor (Skin)
Antitussive Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 200.
Antiviral
Apoptotic
Carcinogenic
Cardioprotective
Chemopreventive 100 ppm orl rat
Fungicide 500 ug/mlLydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.
Glutathione-Depleting
Hepatotoxic
Immunostimulant Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.
Nephrotoxic
Pesticide
Phagocytotic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.
Prostaglandigenic
Secretogogue Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID60=0.5 uM/ml
Ubiquiot Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
PULEGOL Shoot-- -- *
RHAMNAZIN Plant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
RHAMNOCITRIN Shoot-- -- *
Activities (7)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 10 ug/ml cowOkada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
Antibacterial MIC=625 ug/ml
Antigingivitic MIC=625 ug/ml
Antiperiodontic MIC=625 ug/ml
Antiplaque MIC=625 ug/ml
Antiseptic MIC=625 ug/ml
Pesticide
ROSMARINIC-ACID Leaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Activities (57)
ABeta-Inhibitor
Adenylate-Cyclase-Inhibitor
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
AntiHIV EC50=40 ug/ml
Antiaggregant Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Antiallergic
Antialzheimeran
Antianaphylactic 1-100 mg/kg orlInt. J. Immunopharmacology. Vol 10: 729, 1988.
Antianaphylactic ID50=1 mg/kg ivn rat
Antianaphylactic ID50=10 mg/kg ims rat
Antiatherosclerotic IC50=0.74 uM
Antibacterial Planta Medica, 55: 663.
Anticoagulant Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Anticomplementary 1/2 aspirin
Anticomplementary 20 mg/kg ivnNewall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Antidepressant
Antiedemic 0.316-3.16 mg/kg imsInt. J. Immunopharmacology. Vol 10: 729, 1988.
Antigonadotropic
Antihemolytic IC70=5-10 um/lInt. J. Immunopharmacology. Vol 10: 729, 1988.
Antihepatotoxic
Antiherpetic 50 ug/mlVlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.
Antiherpetic EC50=20 ug/ml
Antihyperthyroid
Antiinflammatory IC~58=1,000 uM
Antiintegrase 10 ug/ml
Antileukotriene
Antilipoperoxidant
Antimutagenic
Antinephritic
Antioxidant EC50=2.7 ug/mlParveen, N. 1991. Antifilarial Activity of Vitex negundo Against Setaria cervi. Fitoterapia, 62(2): 163, 1991.
Antioxidant 10 uM
Antioxidant (LDL) IC50=0.74 uM
Antiplaque
Antiproliferant
Antiprostaglandin 20 mg/kg ivnNewall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Antiproteolytic IC50=0.9 mol lHansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Antipulmonotic Tyler, V.E.. 1994.
Antiradicular
Antishock Int. J. Immunopharmacology. Vol 10: 735, 1988.
Antithyreotropic
Antithyroid Jim Duke's personal files.
Antiuremic
Antiviral EC50=40 ug/ml
Anxiolytic
Apoptotic
COX-1-Inhibitor IC58=1,000 uM
COX-2-Inhibitor IC>58=1,000 uM
Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt
Cancer-Preventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Cytotoxic TC50=100-150 ug/ml
Deiodinase-Inhibitor Jim Duke's personal files.
Immunomodulator
Immunostimulant
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Neuroprotective
Pesticide
Radioprotective
ROSMARINIC-ACID Plant8400.0 47000.0 1.13 *
Activities (57)
ABeta-Inhibitor
Adenylate-Cyclase-Inhibitor
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
AntiHIV EC50=40 ug/ml
Antiaggregant Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Antiallergic
Antialzheimeran
Antianaphylactic 1-100 mg/kg orlInt. J. Immunopharmacology. Vol 10: 729, 1988.
Antianaphylactic ID50=1 mg/kg ivn rat
Antianaphylactic ID50=10 mg/kg ims rat
Antiatherosclerotic IC50=0.74 uM
Antibacterial Planta Medica, 55: 663.
Anticoagulant Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Anticomplementary 1/2 aspirin
Anticomplementary 20 mg/kg ivnNewall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Antidepressant
Antiedemic 0.316-3.16 mg/kg imsInt. J. Immunopharmacology. Vol 10: 729, 1988.
Antigonadotropic
Antihemolytic IC70=5-10 um/lInt. J. Immunopharmacology. Vol 10: 729, 1988.
Antihepatotoxic
Antiherpetic 50 ug/mlVlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.
Antiherpetic EC50=20 ug/ml
Antihyperthyroid
Antiinflammatory IC~58=1,000 uM
Antiintegrase 10 ug/ml
Antileukotriene
Antilipoperoxidant
Antimutagenic
Antinephritic
Antioxidant EC50=2.7 ug/mlParveen, N. 1991. Antifilarial Activity of Vitex negundo Against Setaria cervi. Fitoterapia, 62(2): 163, 1991.
Antioxidant 10 uM
Antioxidant (LDL) IC50=0.74 uM
Antiplaque
Antiproliferant
Antiprostaglandin 20 mg/kg ivnNewall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Antiproteolytic IC50=0.9 mol lHansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Antipulmonotic Tyler, V.E.. 1994.
Antiradicular
Antishock Int. J. Immunopharmacology. Vol 10: 735, 1988.
Antithyreotropic
Antithyroid Jim Duke's personal files.
Antiuremic
Antiviral EC50=40 ug/ml
Anxiolytic
Apoptotic
COX-1-Inhibitor IC58=1,000 uM
COX-2-Inhibitor IC>58=1,000 uM
Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt
Cancer-Preventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Cytotoxic TC50=100-150 ug/ml
Deiodinase-Inhibitor Jim Duke's personal files.
Immunomodulator
Immunostimulant
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Neuroprotective
Pesticide
Radioprotective
STACHYOSE Plant-- -- *
Activities (1)
Flatugenic Singh, J., Gupta, K., and Arora, S.K. 1993. Changes in the anti-nutritional factors of developing seeds and pod walls of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 46: 77-84, 1994.
SUCCINIC-ACID Plant-- -- *
Activities (7)
Additive FEMA 200-2,000Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Antifeedant
Bruchiphobe Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
Cancer-Preventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Dye Merck 11th Edition
Perfumery Merck 11th Edition
Pesticide
T-CADINOL Shoot3.0 24.0 0.34 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
T-MUUROLOL Shoot5.0 40.0 -0.34 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
THYMOL Plant-- -- *
Activities (71)
Acaricide
Allergenic
Analgesic Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Ancylostomicide Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Anesthetic Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Ankylostomacide Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Anthelmintic Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Antiacne Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.
Antiaggregant IC50=0.75Tramil, 42: 511.
Antialzheimeran? L. Gracza (1985) as cited by Buchbauer re antiacetylcholinesterase.
Antiarthritic Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Antiatherosclerotic IC50=4 uM
Antibacterial MIC=50-400 ug/ml
Antibronchitic Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Anticariogenic MIC=200-400 ug/ml
Anticholinesterase L. Gracza (1985) as cited by Buchbauer re antiacetylcholinesterase.
Antihalitosic American Health, 12(4): 17, 1993.
Antiherpetic Martindale's 28th
Antiinflammatory (=indomethacin)
Antilepric Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Antimelanomic IC50=120 uM/l
Antineuritic
Antioxidant 100 ppmMartindale's 28th
Antioxidant (LDL) IC50=4 uM
Antiperiodontic MIC=50-200 ug/ml
Antiplaque MIC=39-625 ug/mlOsawa, K., Matsumoto, T., Maruyama, T., Takiguchi, T., Okuda, K., and Takazoe, I., Studies of the antibacterial activity of plant extracts and their constituents against periodontopathic bacteria, Bull Tokyo Dent. Coll., 31 (1), 1990, 17-21
Antiradicular EC=60Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Antirheumatic Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Antisalmonella
Antiseptic 20 x phenolWagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)
Antispasmodic
Antistaphylococcic
Antistreptococcic MIC=200-400 ug/ml
Antitrichinosic 5%Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Antitussive Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.
Ataxigenic Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.
Candidicide 100 ug/ml (>Nystatin)
Carminative Yamamoto, A., Umemori, S., and Muranishi, S. 1993. Absorption Enhancement of Intrapulmonary Administered Insulin by Various Absorption Enhancers and Protease Inhibitors in Rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46: 14-18, 1994.
Counterirritant Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.
Culicide LC50=36-49 mg/l
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor (=indomethacin)
Dentifrice Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Deodorant Martindale's 28th
Dermatitigenic
Enterorelaxant J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.
Enterotoxic Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.
Expectorant Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
FLavor FEMA 2-100Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Fungicide Merck 11th Edition
Gastroirritant Martindale's 29th
Gram(+)icide MIC=200-400 ug/ml
Gram(-)icide MIC=50-200 ug/ml
Insecticide LC50=36-49 mg/l
Insecticide 0.22 uM/fly
Insectifuge
Irritant Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Larvicide 10 ppmBerenbaum, M. R., The natives knew, Chemtech, (May), 1990, 275-279.
Larvicide 58 ppm
Larvicide LC50=36-49 mg/l
Molluscicide
Myorelaxant J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.
Nematicide MLC=0.1 mg/mlShoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.
Perfumery Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Pesticide
Sedative Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.
Sprout-Inhibitor Duke, J.A.. Personal Communication.
Tracheorelaxant
Trichomonicide LD100=25 ug/ml
Urinary-Antiseptic Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Varroacide
Vermicide Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
THYMOL Shoot-- -- *
Activities (71)
Acaricide
Allergenic
Analgesic Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Ancylostomicide Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Anesthetic Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Ankylostomacide Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Anthelmintic Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Antiacne Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.
Antiaggregant IC50=0.75Tramil, 42: 511.
Antialzheimeran? L. Gracza (1985) as cited by Buchbauer re antiacetylcholinesterase.
Antiarthritic Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Antiatherosclerotic IC50=4 uM
Antibacterial MIC=50-400 ug/ml
Antibronchitic Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Anticariogenic MIC=200-400 ug/ml
Anticholinesterase L. Gracza (1985) as cited by Buchbauer re antiacetylcholinesterase.
Antihalitosic American Health, 12(4): 17, 1993.
Antiherpetic Martindale's 28th
Antiinflammatory (=indomethacin)
Antilepric Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Antimelanomic IC50=120 uM/l
Antineuritic
Antioxidant 100 ppmMartindale's 28th
Antioxidant (LDL) IC50=4 uM
Antiperiodontic MIC=50-200 ug/ml
Antiplaque MIC=39-625 ug/mlOsawa, K., Matsumoto, T., Maruyama, T., Takiguchi, T., Okuda, K., and Takazoe, I., Studies of the antibacterial activity of plant extracts and their constituents against periodontopathic bacteria, Bull Tokyo Dent. Coll., 31 (1), 1990, 17-21
Antiradicular EC=60Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Antirheumatic Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Antisalmonella
Antiseptic 20 x phenolWagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)
Antispasmodic
Antistaphylococcic
Antistreptococcic MIC=200-400 ug/ml
Antitrichinosic 5%Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Antitussive Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.
Ataxigenic Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.
Candidicide 100 ug/ml (>Nystatin)
Carminative Yamamoto, A., Umemori, S., and Muranishi, S. 1993. Absorption Enhancement of Intrapulmonary Administered Insulin by Various Absorption Enhancers and Protease Inhibitors in Rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46: 14-18, 1994.
Counterirritant Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.
Culicide LC50=36-49 mg/l
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor (=indomethacin)
Dentifrice Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Deodorant Martindale's 28th
Dermatitigenic
Enterorelaxant J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.
Enterotoxic Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.
Expectorant Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
FLavor FEMA 2-100Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Fungicide Merck 11th Edition
Gastroirritant Martindale's 29th
Gram(+)icide MIC=200-400 ug/ml
Gram(-)icide MIC=50-200 ug/ml
Insecticide LC50=36-49 mg/l
Insecticide 0.22 uM/fly
Insectifuge
Irritant Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Larvicide 10 ppmBerenbaum, M. R., The natives knew, Chemtech, (May), 1990, 275-279.
Larvicide 58 ppm
Larvicide LC50=36-49 mg/l
Molluscicide
Myorelaxant J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.
Nematicide MLC=0.1 mg/mlShoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.
Perfumery Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Pesticide
Sedative Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.
Sprout-Inhibitor Duke, J.A.. Personal Communication.
Tracheorelaxant
Trichomonicide LD100=25 ug/ml
Urinary-Antiseptic Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Varroacide
Vermicide Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
TRANS-OCIMENE Plant1.0 250.0 -0.12 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
TRANS-ROSE-OXIDE Shoot-- 4.0 *
TRANS-ROSENOXIDE Shoot0.5 4.0 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
URSOLIC-ACID Plant-- -- *
Activities (89)
Analgesic
AntiEBV Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
AntiHIV EC50=2.0 ug/mlKashiwada, Y., et. al. 1998. Anti-AIDS Agents. 30. Anti-HIV Activity of Oleanolic Acid, Pomolic Acid, and Structurally Related Triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod., 61 (9): 1090-1095.
AntiHIV IC50=6.5 ug/mlKashiwada, Y., et. al. 1998. Anti-AIDS Agents. 30. Anti-HIV Activity of Oleanolic Acid, Pomolic Acid, and Structurally Related Triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod., 61 (9): 1090-1095.
AntiHIV IC85=18 ug/ml
AntiHIV 6.7 uM
AntiTGF-beta IC50=6-7.5 uM
Antialzheimeran Ringbom, T., Seguar, L., Noreen, Y., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Ursolic Acid from Plantago major, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 Catalyzed Prostaglandin Biosynthesis. J. Nat. Prod., 61(10): 1212-1215.
Antiarrhythmic
Antiarthritic Planta Medica, 57: A56, 1991.
Antibacterial
Anticancer Ringbom, T., Seguar, L., Noreen, Y., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Ursolic Acid from Plantago major, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 Catalyzed Prostaglandin Biosynthesis. J. Nat. Prod., 61(10): 1212-1215.
Anticancer (Colon) Ringbom, T., Seguar, L., Noreen, Y., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Ursolic Acid from Plantago major, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 Catalyzed Prostaglandin Biosynthesis. J. Nat. Prod., 61(10): 1212-1215.
Anticarcinomic Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
Anticariogenic Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Anticholestatic 28-100 mg/kg orlShukla, B., Visen, P.K.S., Patnaik, G.K., Tripathi, S.C., Srimal, R.C., Dayal, R., and Dobhal, P.C. Hepatoprotective Activity in the Rat of Ursolic Acid Isolated from Eucalyptus Hybrid. Phytotherapy Research 6: 74-79, 1992.
Anticomplement IC100 0.1 mM/l gpgHansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Anticomplement IC80-90 0.05 mM/l gpgHansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Antidiabetic Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Antiedemic
Antiescherichic
Antifibrosarcomic IC80=10 uM
Antihepatotoxic 5-20 mg/kg iprShukla, B., Visen, P.K.S., Patnaik, G.K., Tripathi, S.C., Srimal, R.C., Dayal, R., and Dobhal, P.C. Hepatoprotective Activity in the Rat of Ursolic Acid Isolated from Eucalyptus Hybrid. Phytotherapy Research 6: 74-79, 1992.
Antihistaminic Tsuruga, T., Chun, Y.-T., Ebizuka, Y., and Sankawa, U. 1991. Biologically Active Constituents of Melaleuca leucadendron: Inhibitors of Induced Histamine Release from Rat Mast Cells. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 39(12): 3276-3278, 1991.
Antihyperlipidemic
Antiinflammatory 1/3 indomethacin
Antiinflammatory IC24=500 mg/kg
Antileishmanic ED50=20 uM
Antileukemic IC50=2.5-17.8 ug/ml
Antilymphomic Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Antimalarial IC50=28-37 ug/ml
Antimetastatic IC80=10 uM
Antimutagenic IC57-80=80 mg/kg
Antinephritic IC50=6-7.5 uM
Antiobesity? Internat. J. Oriental Med. 16: 4.
Antioxidant IC50=10 uM
Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml
Antiplasmodial IC50=28-37 ug/ml
Antiproliferative IC50=15-20 uM
Antistaphylococcic
Antithromboxane IC50=50 uM
Antitrypanosomic
Antitumor Cancer Research, 54: 701, 1994.
Antitumor (Breast) 0.5% diet
Antitumor (Breast) IC50=15-20 uM
Antitumor (Cervix) Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
Antitumor (Colon)
Antitumor (Lung)
Antitumor (Ovary) Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
Antitumor (Stomach) IC50=15-20 uM
Antitumor (brain) Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
Antitumor-Promoter Planta Medica, 57: A56, 1991.
Antiulcer Shukla, B., Visen, P.K.S., Patnaik, G.K., Tripathi, S.C., Srimal, R.C., Dayal, R., and Dobhal, P.C. Hepatoprotective Activity in the Rat of Ursolic Acid Isolated from Eucalyptus Hybrid. Phytotherapy Research 6: 74-79, 1992.
Antiviral IC85=18 ug/ml
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Beta-Blocker
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor ~100 mg/kg
CNS-Depressant
COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=130 uM/
Cancer-Preventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Candidicide
Cardioprotective
Cardiotonic
Choleretic 5-20 mg/kg orlShukla, B., Visen, P.K.S., Patnaik, G.K., Tripathi, S.C., Srimal, R.C., Dayal, R., and Dobhal, P.C. Hepatoprotective Activity in the Rat of Ursolic Acid Isolated from Eucalyptus Hybrid. Phytotherapy Research 6: 74-79, 1992.
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor Ringbom, T., Seguar, L., Noreen, Y., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Ursolic Acid from Plantago major, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 Catalyzed Prostaglandin Biosynthesis. J. Nat. Prod., 61(10): 1212-1215.
Cytotoxic 50 ppm
Cytotoxic ED50=3.75 ug/ml
Cytotoxic 7.2 uM
Diuretic
Elastase-Inhibitor IC50=~15 uM
Hepatoprotective 1-100 ug/ml
Hepatoprotective 10 mg/kg
Hypoglycemic Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.
Hypotensive
Immunomodulator
Leucocytogenic
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=0.18 mM
MMP-9-Inhibitor IC80=10 uM
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Pesticide
Piscicide
Potassium-Sparing 3 mg/ratIwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.
Protease-Inhibitor IC85=18 ug/ml
Protisticide Chemical Express, 7: 285, 1992.
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 5 ug/mlLee, S. K., Song, Y., Mata-Greenwood, E., Kelloff, G. J., Steele, V. E., Pezzuto, J. M. 1999. Modulation of in vitro Biomarkers of the Carcinogenic Process by Chemopreventive Agents. Anticancer Res., 19: 35-44.
Sodium-Sparing 3 mg/ratIwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.
TOPO-2-Inhibitor
Trypanocide
Vasopressor
WAX Plant-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.