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Activities: 536
Chemicals w/Activities: 150
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# Activity Chemical Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
67 1,8-CINEOLE Fruit 40.0 138.0 -0.42 *
67 1,8-CINEOLE Seed 40.0 138.0 -0.69 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
19 ACETYL-CHOLINE Seed -- 68.0 -0.22 *
11 ALPHA-PHELLANDRENE Seed -- 60.0 -0.92 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
11 ALPHA-PHELLANDRENE Seed Essent. Oil -- 8400.0 0.78 *
11 ALPHA-PHELLANDRENE Fruit -- 60.0 -0.55 *
28 ALPHA-PINENE Seed Essent. Oil -- 3000.0 -0.72 *
28 ALPHA-PINENE Fruit 9.0 330.0 -0.63 *
28 ALPHA-PINENE Seed 9.0 330.0 -0.47 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
13 ALPHA-TERPINENE Fruit -- 27.0 -0.31 *
13 ALPHA-TERPINENE Seed -- 27.0 -0.49 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
13 ALPHA-TERPINENE Seed Essent. Oil -- 5000.0 -0.75 *
23 ALPHA-TERPINEOL Fruit 30.0 275.0 -0.18 *
23 ALPHA-TERPINEOL Seed 30.0 275.0 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
23 ALPHA-TERPINEOL Seed Essent. Oil -- 500.0 -0.74 *
7 ANISALDEHYDE Fruit -- 837.0 0.3 *
7 ANISALDEHYDE Seed -- 837.0 -0.94 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
4 APIIN Seed -- -- *
112 ASCORBIC-ACID Fruit -- 76.0 -0.28 *
112 ASCORBIC-ACID Seed -- 76.0 -0.29 *
112 ASCORBIC-ACID Tissue Culture -- -- *
4 BENZYL-CINNAMATE Fruit -- 1341.0 *
4 BENZYL-CINNAMATE Seed -- 1341.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
6 BETA-BISABOLENE Seed 60.0 360.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
6 BETA-BISABOLENE Fruit 60.0 360.0 -0.63 *
53 BETA-CAROTENE Seed 5.0 8.0 0.07 *
53 BETA-CAROTENE Fruit 5.0 8.0 -0.14 *
5 BETA-ELEMENE Seed -- 30.0 -0.77 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
5 BETA-ELEMENE Fruit -- 30.0 -0.53 *
3 BETA-PHELLANDRENE Seed 90.0 279.0 -0.99 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
3 BETA-PHELLANDRENE Seed Essent. Oil -- 700.0 -1.08 *
3 BETA-PHELLANDRENE Fruit 90.0 279.0 -0.42 *
13 BETA-PINENE Seed Essent. Oil -- 60300.0 -0.4 *
13 BETA-PINENE Fruit 48.0 6600.0 -0.09 *
13 BETA-PINENE Seed 48.0 6600.0 0.11 *
47 BETA-SITOSTEROL Seed -- 300.0 -0.52 Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)
12 BORNYL-ACETATE Seed -- 36.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
12 BORNYL-ACETATE Fruit -- 36.0 -0.71 *
4 BORON Fruit 34.0 50.0 0.2 *
4 BORON Seed 34.0 50.0 1.23 Betting on Boron, Unpublished draft by J. A. Duke on file at USDA, draft and papers relating to boron percentages. Includes Internat. Z. Vit. Ern. Forschung 43:1973 (boron).
28 CALCIUM Seed 9310.0 15511.0 2.09 *
28 CALCIUM Fruit 9310.0 15511.0 2.69 *
2 CAMPESTEROL Seed -- 50.0 -0.52 Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)
9 CAMPHENE Seed Essent. Oil -- 400.0 -1.49 *
1 CARVEOL Seed -- 435.0 -1.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
1 CARVEOL Fruit -- 435.0 *
31 CARYOPHYLLENE Seed 144.0 320.0 -1.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
31 CARYOPHYLLENE Fruit 144.0 320.0 -0.39 *
8 CARYOPHYLLENE-OXIDE Fruit -- 435.0 -0.5 *
8 CARYOPHYLLENE-OXIDE Seed -- 435.0 1.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
20 CHOLINE Seed -- 3003.0 1.25 *
24 CHROMIUM Seed -- 8.4 0.54 *
24 CHROMIUM Fruit -- 8.4 0.67 *
2 COBALT Seed -- 2.2 -0.11 *
2 COBALT Fruit -- 2.2 -0.27 *
1 COPAENE Seed -- 30.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
1 COPAENE Fruit -- 30.0 -0.71 *
12 COPPER Seed 9.0 16.0 0.11 *
12 COPPER Fruit 9.0 16.0 0.25 *
4 COSMOSIIN Seed -- 1500.0 *
1 CUMENE Seed -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
1 CUMENE Fruit -- -- *
1 CUMIN-ALCOHOL Seed Essent. Oil -- 4200.0 *
10 CUMINALDEHYDE Seed 4000.0 16000.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
10 CUMINALDEHYDE Fruit 4000.0 16000.0 1.0 *
10 CUMINALDEHYDE Seed Essent. Oil 205100.0 480000.0 *
10 CUMINALDEHYDE Essential Oil -- 350000.0 -1.0 *
3 CYNAROSIDE Seed -- 500.0 -1.0 *
8 DELTA-3-CARENE Fruit -- 270.0 -0.16 *
8 DELTA-3-CARENE Seed -- 270.0 1.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
7 DIPENTENE Fruit -- -- *
7 DIPENTENE Seed -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
76 EUGENOL Fruit -- -- *
76 EUGENOL Seed -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
17 FARNESOL Fruit -- 834.0 1.41 *
17 FARNESOL Seed -- 834.0 -1.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
15 FIBER Fruit 105000.0 136000.0 -0.05 *
15 FIBER Seed 105000.0 136000.0 0.01 *
11 GAMMA-TERPINENE Seed Essent. Oil -- 135100.0 1.77 *
11 GAMMA-TERPINENE Essential Oil -- -- *
11 GAMMA-TERPINENE Fruit 174.0 11800.0 1.52 *
11 GAMMA-TERPINENE Seed 174.0 11800.0 1.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
6 IRON Seed 155.0 748.0 2.77 *
6 IRON Fruit 155.0 748.0 2.44 *
1 ISOCARYOPHYLLENE Seed Essent. Oil -- 2800.0 *
60 LIMONENE Seed 60.0 696.0 -0.71 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
60 LIMONENE Seed Essent. Oil -- 2500.0 -0.86 *
60 LIMONENE Fruit 60.0 696.0 -0.65 *
53 LINALOOL Seed Essent. Oil -- 300.0 -0.56 *
53 LINALOOL Seed 30.0 318.0 -0.16 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
78 LUTEOLIN Leaf -- -- *
78 LUTEOLIN Seed -- -- *
78 LUTEOLIN Fruit -- -- *
7 LUTEOLIN-7-GLUCOSIDE Seed -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
7 LUTEOLIN-7-GLUCOSIDE Fruit -- -- *
14 MANGANESE Seed 24.0 33.0 -0.26 *
14 MANGANESE Fruit 24.0 33.0 -0.19 *
18 MANNITOL Seed -- -- *
6 METHYL-CHAVICOL Fruit -- 30.0 -0.91 *
6 METHYL-CHAVICOL Seed -- 30.0 -1.03 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
5 METHYL-CINNAMATE Fruit -- 138.0 *
5 METHYL-CINNAMATE Seed -- 138.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
22 MYRCENE Seed 36.0 120.0 -1.02 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
22 MYRCENE Fruit 36.0 120.0 -0.37 *
22 MYRCENE Seed Essent. Oil -- 5000.0 -0.67 *
2 MYRTENOL Fruit -- -- *
2 MYRTENOL Seed -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
39 NIACIN Fruit 46.0 49.0 -0.16 *
39 NIACIN Seed 46.0 49.0 0.18 *
3 NICKEL Fruit -- 3.6 0.32 *
3 NICKEL Seed -- 3.6 -0.22 *
18 OLEIC-ACID Seed -- 154000.0 0.29 *
18 OLEIC-ACID Seed Oil -- -- *
16 P-CYMENE Seed 810.0 12639.0 2.57 *
16 P-CYMENE Seed Essent. Oil -- 57400.0 1.17 *
16 P-CYMENE Essential Oil -- -- *
16 P-CYMENE Fruit 810.0 12639.0 1.09 *
11 PERILLALDEHYDE Seed -- 336.0 1.39 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
11 PERILLALDEHYDE Fruit -- 336.0 1.41 *
4 PHOSPHORUS Seed 4900.0 5673.0 0.08 *
4 PHOSPHORUS Fruit 4900.0 5673.0 0.75 *
2 PHYTOSTEROLS Root -- 680.0 -0.56 Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)
7 PIPERITONE Seed -- 172.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
7 PIPERITONE Fruit -- 172.0 *
14 POTASSIUM Fruit 17880.0 20916.0 0.27 *
14 POTASSIUM Seed 17880.0 20916.0 0.73 *
15 RIBOFLAVIN Seed 3.0 4.0 0.18 *
15 RIBOFLAVIN Fruit 3.0 4.0 -0.22 *
5 SABINENE Seed Essent. Oil -- 3200.0 -0.48 *
5 SABINENE Fruit 30.0 1014.0 -0.22 *
5 SABINENE Seed 30.0 1014.0 -0.39 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
7 SALICYLATES Seed -- 450.0 2.07 *
1 SODIUM Seed 1680.0 2028.0 2.5 *
1 SODIUM Fruit 1680.0 2028.0 0.01 *
12 STIGMASTEROL Seed -- 310.0 -0.14 Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)
35 TANNIN Fruit -- -- *
35 TANNIN Seed -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
23 TERPINEN-4-OL Seed Essent. Oil -- 1000.0 -0.66 *
23 TERPINEN-4-OL Fruit -- 30.0 -0.35 *
23 TERPINEN-4-OL Seed -- 30.0 -0.68 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
9 TERPINOLENE Seed Essent. Oil -- 400.0 -0.78 *
31 THIAMIN Fruit 6.0 7.0 0.21 *
31 THIAMIN Seed 6.0 7.0 0.1 *
71 THYMOL Seed Essent. Oil -- 200.0 -0.73 *
2 TRANS-PINOCARVEOL Fruit -- 30.0 *
2 TRANS-PINOCARVEOL Seed -- 30.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
3 XANTHOPHYLL Seed -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
3 XANTHOPHYLL Fruit -- -- *
77 ZINC Seed 41.0 58.0 0.37 *
77 ZINC Fruit 41.0 58.0 0.83 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.