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Activities: 633
Chemicals w/Activities: 172
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# Activity Chemical Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
112 ASCORBIC-ACID Stem -- 3300.0 -0.07 *
112 ASCORBIC-ACID Seed -- -- -0.34 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
102 CAFFEIC-ACID Fruit -- -- *
102 CAFFEIC-ACID Seed -- -- *
77 ZINC Stem -- 21.0 -1.42 *
77 ZINC Sprout Seedling -- 20.0 -1.39 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
77 ZINC Seed 20.0 30.0 -0.43 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
77 CHLOROGENIC-ACID Fruit -- -- *
77 CHLOROGENIC-ACID Seed -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
65 MAGNESIUM Stem -- 2250.0 -1.06 *
65 MAGNESIUM Sprout Seedling -- 1670.0 -0.58 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
65 MAGNESIUM Seed 100.0 2300.0 -0.26 Jim Duke's personal files.*
61 FERULIC-ACID Seed -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
60 SELENIUM Stem -- 24.0 2.71 *
57 COUMARIN Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
53 BETA-CAROTENE Stem -- 312.0 1.4 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
53 BETA-CAROTENE Seed -- 1.0 -0.37 Jim Duke's personal files.*
53 BETA-CAROTENE Plant 149.0 660.0 2.85 Jim Duke's personal files.*
47 BETA-SITOSTEROL Plant -- -- *
47 BETA-SITOSTEROL Embryo -- -- *
47 BETA-SITOSTEROL Sprout Seedling -- 980.0 1.32 Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)
44 SCOPOLETIN Protoplast -- -- *
44 SCOPOLETIN Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
43 PYRIDOXINE Seed -- 11.0 1.2 Jim Duke's personal files.*
43 CATECHIN Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
39 NIACIN Stem -- -- *
39 NIACIN Seed 17.0 115.0 2.16 Jim Duke's personal files.*
34 SALICYLIC-ACID Shoot -- 1.0 *
33 AESCULIN Protoplast -- -- *
32 ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL Sprout Seedling -- -- *
32 ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL Seed 3.0 11.0 -0.7 Jim Duke's personal files.*
32 AESCULETIN Protoplast -- -- *
32 AESCULETIN Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
32 ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL Leaf -- -- *
32 ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL Tissue Culture -- -- *
32 ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL Root -- -- *
31 THIAMIN Stem -- 13.0 1.0 *
31 THIAMIN Seed 1.0 10.0 0.81 *
30 (+)-CATECHIN Seed -- -- *
30 ESCULETIN Plant -- -- *
29 TRYPTOPHAN Sprout Seedling -- -- *
29 ESCULIN Plant -- -- *
29 TRYPTOPHAN Seed 1000.0 3000.0 -0.11 Jim Duke's personal files.*
28 CALCIUM Stem -- 11000.0 -0.84 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
28 CALCIUM Sprout Seedling -- 720.0 -0.58 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
28 CALCIUM Seed 160.0 4100.0 -0.01 Jim Duke's personal files.*
28 CALCIUM Plant 800.0 10400.0 -0.34 Jim Duke's personal files.*
27 LINOLEIC-ACID Seed 2185.0 24035.0 -0.71 Jim Duke's personal files.*
27 LINOLEIC-ACID Leaf -- -- *
25 P-COUMARIC-ACID Seed -- -- *
25 P-COUMARIC-ACID Fruit -- -- *
24 VANILLIC-ACID Fruit -- -- *
24 VITAMIN-B-1 Seed -- 4.47 -1.0 *
24 CHROMIUM Stem -- 31.0 3.46 *
23 FOLIC-ACID Seed -- 1.5 -0.35 Jim Duke's personal files.*
23 MELATONIN Seed -- -- Hattori, A., et. al. 1995. Identification of Melatonin in Plants and its Effects on Plasma Melatonin Levels and Binding to Melatonin Receptors in Vertebrates. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int., 35(3): 627-634.
22 UMBELLIFERONE Sprout Seedling -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
22 UMBELLIFERONE Fruit -- -- *
20 CHOLINE Seed 928.0 1617.0 -0.05 *
18 MANNITOL Root -- -- *
18 OLEIC-ACID Leaf -- -- *
18 OLEIC-ACID Seed 1325.0 14575.0 -0.86 Jim Duke's personal files.*
15 METHIONINE Seed 1000.0 4000.0 -0.08 Jim Duke's personal files.*
15 TRIGONELLINE Seed -- 9.0 -0.47 *
15 FOLACIN Seed -- 1.48 -0.46 *
15 FIBER Stem -- 134000.0 -0.63 *
15 FIBER Seed 5000.0 151000.0 0.13 Jim Duke's personal files.*
15 FIBER Plant 128000.0 446000.0 1.65 Jim Duke's personal files.*
15 RIBOFLAVIN Stem 27.0 28.0 1.39 *
15 RIBOFLAVIN Seed 1.0 9.0 2.1 Jim Duke's personal files.*
15 LUTEIN Sprout Seedling -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
14 BETAINE Shoot -- 1.8 -0.58 *
14 BETAINE Root -- 234.0 -0.35 *
14 POTASSIUM Stem -- 25000.0 1.03 *
14 MANGANESE Stem -- 60.0 -1.19 *
14 POTASSIUM Sprout Seedling -- 6130.0 -1.62 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
14 MANGANESE Sprout Seedling -- 26.0 0.84 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
14 POTASSIUM Seed 1600.0 9900.0 -0.23 *
14 MANGANESE Seed 2.0 120.0 0.83 *
14 POTASSIUM Plant 19880.0 44000.0 1.55 Jim Duke's personal files.*
14 SULFUR Seed -- 200.0 -1.32 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
13 LIGNIN Plant 15000.0 77000.0 -1.04 Jim Duke's personal files.*
13 PALMITIC-ACID Seed 370.0 4070.0 -0.62 Jim Duke's personal files.*
13 P-HYDROXY-BENZOIC-ACID Seed -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
13 PALMITIC-ACID Leaf -- -- *
12 STIGMASTEROL Embryo -- -- *
12 COPPER Sprout Seedling -- 8.0 -1.0 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
12 COPPER Seed 1.0 20.0 0.47 Jim Duke's personal files.*
12 STIGMASTEROL Sprout Seedling -- 1010.0 1.12 *
12 STIGMASTEROL Plant -- -- *
12 HERNIARIN Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
11 PANTOTHENIC-ACID Seed 2.0 12.0 -0.5 Jim Duke's personal files.*
11 TYRAMINE Sprout Seedling -- 26.0 *
10 PIPERIDINE Seed -- 1.0 *
9 TRICIN Shoot -- -- *
9 SINAPIC-ACID Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
9 PHYTIC-ACID Seed 5600.0 11500.0 -0.47 *
8 GLUTAMIC-ACID Seed 32000.0 38000.0 -0.16 Jim Duke's personal files.*
8 STEARIC-ACID Leaf -- -- *
8 FRUCTOSE Seed -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
8 HORDENINE Root -- -- *
8 UBIQUINONE Sprout Seedling -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
8 TYROSINE Seed 2000.0 6000.0 -0.4 Jim Duke's personal files.*
8 HORDENINE Sprout Seedling -- 63.0 *
8 STEARIC-ACID Seed 130.0 1430.0 -0.53 Jim Duke's personal files.*
7 GLUCOSE Seed -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
7 SALICYLATES Seed -- -- -0.34 *
6 IRON Stem -- 160.0 -0.54 *
6 SYRINGIC-ACID Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
6 IRON Sprout Seedling -- 100.0 -0.45 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
6 IRON Seed 40.0 100.0 -0.24 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
5 GRAMINE Leaf -- -- *
5 GRAMINE Shoot -- -- *
5 ALUMINUM Stem -- 212.0 -0.79 *
5 GRAMINE Sprout Seedling -- -- *
5 GRAMINE Protoplast -- -- *
5 PHYLLOQUINONE Seed -- 0.07 -0.45 *
5 ALUMINUM Seed -- 7.0 -0.35 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
5 GRAMINE Root -- -- *
5 STARCH Seed -- 620000.0 1.25 *
4 CANDICINE Sprout Seedling -- -- *
4 TIN Stem -- 12.0 0.71 *
4 ISOVITEXIN Leaf -- -- *
4 SILICON Stem -- 34.0 -0.86 *
4 ISOORIENTIN Leaf -- -- *
4 TRYPTAMINE Sprout Seedling -- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
4 ORIENTIN Leaf -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
4 PHOSPHORUS Stem -- 5950.0 2.57 *
4 DICENTRINE Root -- -- *
4 BORON Seed 2.0 6.0 -0.86 Betting on Boron, Unpublished draft by J. A. Duke on file at USDA, draft and papers relating to boron percentages. Includes Internat. Z. Vit. Ern. Forschung 43:1973 (boron).
4 PHOSPHORUS Seed 1890.0 9200.0 1.02 Jim Duke's personal files.*
4 BIOTIN Seed 0.1 0.9 -0.53 Jim Duke's personal files.*
4 PHOSPHORUS Plant 2300.0 6900.0 1.59 Jim Duke's personal files.*
3 HORDATINE-B Sprout Seedling -- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
3 ALPHA-ALLOCRYPTOPINE Root -- -- *
3 HORDATINE-A Sprout Seedling -- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
3 HETERODENDRIN Plant -- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
3 VALINE Seed 6000.0 9000.0 -0.37 Jim Duke's personal files.*
2 DIMETHYL-AMINE Seed -- 1.6 -1.03 *
2 DIETHYL-AMINE Seed -- 5.7 *
2 PALMITOLEIC-ACID Leaf -- -- *
2 PROCYANIDIN-B-3 Seed -- -- *
2 CYSTINE Seed 1000.0 2000.0 -0.8 Jim Duke's personal files.*
2 TRANS-FERULIC-ACID Plant -- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
2 VIOLAXANTHIN Sprout Seedling -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
2 GLUTEN Seed -- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
2 CAMPESTEROL Sprout Seedling -- 330.0 1.0 Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)
2 MALTOSE Seed -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
2 COBALT Stem -- 49.0 1.45 *
2 CITRININ Seed -- -- *
2 NEOXANTHIN Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
2 ARSENIC Sprout Seedling -- 0.01 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
2 PHYTOSTEROLS Sprout Seedling -- 2340.0 1.48 Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)
1 PYRROLIDINE Seed -- 0.9 *
1 MALONIC-ACID Seed -- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
1 CELLULOSE Plant 190000.0 322000.0 0.14 Jim Duke's personal files.*
1 SODIUM Stem -- 2240.0 2.21 *
1 MERCURY Sprout Seedling -- 0.07 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
1 SODIUM Sprout Seedling -- 256.0 -1.07 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
1 (+)-GLAUCINE Root -- -- *
1 LEUCOCYANIDIN Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
1 CALMODULIN Shoot -- -- *
1 CALMODULIN Cotyledon -- -- *
1 N-METHYL-TYRAMINE Fruit -- -- *
1 ACONITIC-ACID Root -- -- *
1 SERINE Seed -- 5000.0 -1.07 Jim Duke's personal files.*
1 SPERMINE Seed -- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
1 N-METHYL-TYRAMINE Root -- -- *
1 N-METHYL-TYRAMINE Sprout Seedling -- 48.0 *
1 RAFFINOSE Seed -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
1 METHYL-AMINE Seed -- 4.5 -1.22 *
1 GIBBERELLIN Seed -- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.