Data Views Exclude Ubiquitous Chemicals

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# Chemicals Activity *Reference
2 (-)-Chronotropic Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
2 (-)-Inotropic Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
3 11B-HSD-Inhibitor *
3 5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor *
1 5-HT-Inhibitor *
1 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor *
4 Abortifacient *
7 Acaricide *
9 ACE-Inhibitor *
1 AChE-Inhibitor Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.
2 Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor *
22 Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor Oliveira, T. T., Nagem, T. J., Miranda, L. C. G., Paula, V. F., Teixeira, M. A. 1997. Inhibitory Action on Aldose Reductase by Soybean Flavonoids. J Braz Chem Soc, 8(3): 211-213.
8 Allelochemic *
5 Allelopathic Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.
22 Allergenic *
1 Alpha-Glucosidase-Inhibitor *
1 Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor *
15 Analgesic Martindale's 28th
1 Ancylostomicide Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
1 Anemiagenic *
5 Anesthetic *
1 Anhydrotic Martindale's 29th
1 Ankylostomacide Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
3 Anthelmintic Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
1 Antiacetylcholine Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
10 Antiacetylcholinesterase *
7 Antiacne *
1 AntiADD *
1 Antiadenomic *
1 Antiadenoviral Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.
1 Antiadenovirus Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.
6 Antiaflatoxin *
9 Antiaggregant Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
4 Antiaging *
2 Antiallergenic Dorsch, W., Wagner, H. New Antiasthmatic Drugs from Traditional Medicine? Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 94: 262-265, 1991.
12 Antiallergic J. Food Hyg. Soc. Jap. 33(6): 569.
3 Antialopecic *
4 Antialzheimeran Ringbom, T., Seguar, L., Noreen, Y., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Ursolic Acid from Plantago major, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 Catalyzed Prostaglandin Biosynthesis. J. Nat. Prod., 61(10): 1212-1215.
3 Antialzheimeran? L. Gracza (1985) as cited by Buchbauer re antiacetylcholinesterase.
1 Antiamnesic *
1 Antiamyloid-Beta *
6 Antianaphylactic Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
3 Antiandrogenic *
1 Antianginal *
5 Antiangiogenic *
1 Antianoxic Yamahara, J., Matsuda, H., Naitoh, Y., Fujimura, H., and Tamai, Y. 1990. Antianoxic Action and Active Constituents of Atractylodis Lanceae Rhizoma. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(7): 2033-2034, 1990.
1 Antiapoplectic *
6 Antiarrhythmic *
1 Antiarteriosclerotic *
5 Antiarthritic *
8 Antiasthmatic *
3 Antiatherogenic *
7 Antiatherosclerotic *
2 Antibacillary *
56 Antibacterial Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.
1 Antibiotic *
4 Antibronchitic *
13 Anticancer *
2 Anticancer (Cervix) Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.
4 Anticancer (Colon) *
1 Anticancer (Esophagus) Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.
2 Anticancer (Forestomach) *
2 Anticancer (Liver) *
1 Anticancer (Lung) *
1 Anticancer (Mouth) Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.
1 Anticancer (Pancreas) *
2 Anticancer (Skin) *
3 Anticapillary-Fragility *
4 Anticarcinogenic *
4 Anticarcinomic *
1 Anticarcinomic (Breast) Medline (post 1990 searches filed in my computer)
19 Anticariogenic *
6 Anticataract Shin*, K.H., Chung, M.S., Chae, Y.J., Yoon, K.Y., Cho, T.S. 1992. A survey for aldose reductase inhibition of herbal medicines. Fitoterapia 64(2): 130, 1993.
1 Anticatarrh Martindale's 29th
1 Anticholestatic Shukla, B., Visen, P.K.S., Patnaik, G.K., Tripathi, S.C., Srimal, R.C., Dayal, R., and Dobhal, P.C. Hepatoprotective Activity in the Rat of Ursolic Acid Isolated from Eucalyptus Hybrid. Phytotherapy Research 6: 74-79, 1992.
3 Anticholinesterase *
2 Anticlastogen *
1 Anticoagulant *
1 Anticolic *
1 Anticolitic Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).
2 Anticomplement Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
5 Anticomplementary *
5 Anticonvulsant Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
1 Anticoronary Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
1 AntiCrohn's Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).
1 AntiCVI *
1 Anticystitic *
2 Antidementia Bruneton, J. 1999. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. 2nd Ed. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris. 1119 pp.
2 Antidepressant *
1 Antidermatic Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
5 Antidermatitic *
5 Antidiabetic Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
1 Antidysmenorrheic *
3 AntiEBV *
1 Antieczemic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.
10 Antiedemic Shimizu,*M., et al. 1990. Anti-inflammatory Constituents of Topically Applied Crude Drugs. IV.1) Constituents and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Paraguayan Crude Drug 'Alhucema' (Lavandula latifolia Vill.)2). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(8): 2283-2284, 1990.
4 Antielastase *
1 Antiencephalitic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 199.
1 Antierythemic *
6 Antiescherichic *
1 Antiesophagitic *
6 Antiestrogenic *
1 Antifatigue *
15 Antifeedant Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
1 Antifertility *
3 Antifibrinolytic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.
2 Antifibrosarcomic *
1 Antifibrotic *
8 Antiflu Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.
1 Antigastric Rastitel'nye Resursy, 21: 85.
1 Antigenotoxic *
2 Antigingivitic *
1 Antiglaucomic Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.
1 Antigliomic *
1 Antiglutamaergic *
3 Antigonadotropic Jim Duke's personal files.
1 Antigout *
1 Antigranular *
2 AntiGTF *
2 Antihalitosic American Health, 12(4): 17, 1993.
2 Antihelicobacter *
1 Antihematuric *
2 Antihemolytic Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.
1 Antihemorrhagic Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
2 Antihemorrhoidal Martindale's 29th
1 Antihepatoadenomic *
13 Antihepatotoxic Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
15 Antiherpetic *
11 Antihistaminic *
14 AntiHIV *
1 Antihydrophobic Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.
2 Antihypercholesterolemic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.
2 Antihyperlipidemic *
3 Antihypertensive Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
3 Antihyperthyroid *
1 Antiinfarctal Soumyanath, A. Ed. 2006. Traditional Medicines for Modern Times - Antidiabetic Plants. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. Boca Raton, FL. 314 pp.
1 Antiinfertility *
35 Antiinflammatory *
4 Antiischemic *
1 Antilaryngitic *
3 AntiLegionella *
5 Antileishmanic *
1 Antilepric Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
12 Antileukemic *
4 Antileukotriene Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).
2 Antileukotriene-D4 *
1 Antilipoperoxidant *
1 Antilithic *
1 Antilithic? Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
4 Antilymphomic *
1 Antimaculitic *
8 Antimalarial Rukunga, G. and Simons, A. J. 2006. The Potential of Plants as a Source of Antimalarial Agents - A Review. Africa Herbal Antimalaria Meeting. PlantaPhile Publications, Berlin. 72 pp.
1 Antimange *
1 AntiMDR *
3 Antimelanogenic *
6 Antimelanomic *
1 Antimenorrhagic Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).
4 Antimetastatic *
1 Antimetastatic (Stomach) *
1 Antimite *
1 Antimitotic Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
1 AntiMRSA *
1 AntiMS Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.
23 Antimutagenic *
1 Antimyocarditic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 199.
1 Antineoplastic *
3 Antinephritic *
1 Antineuritic *
1 Antineuropathic *
8 Antinitrosaminic *
8 Antinociceptive *
1 Antiobesity *
1 Antiobesity? Internat. J. Oriental Med. 16: 4.
1 Antionychyotic Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
2 Antiophidic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.
1 Antiotitic *
34 Antioxidant *
1 Antioxidant (LDL) *
1 Antipancreatitic Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.
1 Antiparkinsonian *
2 Antipeptic Chem & Pharm. Bull., 34: 3854, 1986.
1 Antiperiodontal Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).
11 Antiperiodontic *
1 Antiperiodontitic *
3 Antiperistaltic *
1 Antipermeability *
11 Antiperoxidant Planta Medica, 57: A110, 1991.
1 Antiperoxidative Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
1 AntiPGE2 *
2 Antipharyngitic *
5 Antiplaque *
7 Antiplasmodial Rukunga, G. and Simons, A. J. 2006. The Potential of Plants as a Source of Antimalarial Agents - A Review. Africa Herbal Antimalaria Meeting. PlantaPhile Publications, Berlin. 72 pp.
1 Antiplatelet *
1 AntiPMS Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).
1 Antipneumonic *
1 Antipodriac *
4 Antipolio Jim Duke's personal files.
1 Antiproctalgic Martindale's 29th
9 Antiproliferant *
1 Antiproliferant (colon) *
3 Antiproliferative *
2 Antiprostaglandin *
1 Antiprostanoid *
2 Antiprostatitic Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.
1 Antiproteolytic *
1 Antiprotozoal *
1 Antipruritic Martindale's 28th
1 Antipsoriac Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).
2 Antipurpuric *
1 Antipyretic *
14 Antiradicular *
1 Antiretinotic *
1 Antirheumatalgic Martindale's 28th
4 Antirheumatic *
1 Antirhinitic *
5 Antisalmonella *
1 Antisarcomic *
25 Antiseptic Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
1 Antiserotonin Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
1 Antishigellic *
2 Antishock Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
1 Antisindhis *
1 Antisinusitic *
26 Antispasmodic Phytotherapy Research, 4: 73.
14 Antistaphylococcic *
1 Antistomatitic Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.
15 Antistreptococcic *
2 Antistress *
1 Antistroke *
3 Antisunburn *
2 AntiTGF-beta *
2 Antithiamin Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.
3 Antithrombic *
2 Antithrombogenic *
1 Antithromboxane *
5 Antithyroid Jim Duke's personal files.
1 Antitrichinosic Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
3 Antitrypanosomic *
2 Antitubercular *
25 Antitumor *
2 Antitumor (Bladder) *
2 Antitumor (brain) Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
7 Antitumor (Breast) *
2 Antitumor (Cervix) Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.
10 Antitumor (Colon) *
2 Antitumor (Forestomach) *
2 Antitumor (Kidney) Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
3 Antitumor (Liver) *
5 Antitumor (Lung) *
1 Antitumor (Mouth) *
3 Antitumor (Ovary) *
4 Antitumor (Pancreas) *
2 Antitumor (Prostate) *
8 Antitumor (Skin) *
5 Antitumor (Stomach) Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
1 Antitumor (Thyroid) *
11 Antitumor-Promoter *
1 Antitumor-Promoter? *
6 Antitussive *
15 Antiulcer Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
1 Antiulcerogenic *
1 Antivaccinia Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.
1 Antivaricose *
24 Antiviral Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.
1 Antiwrinkle *
2 Antiyeast *
3 Anxiolytic *
3 Aphidifuge *
11 Apoptotic *
6 Aromatase-Inhibitor *
1 Arteriodilator Ozaki, Y. and Ma, J-P. 1989. Inhibitory Effects of Tetramethylpyrazine and Ferulic Acid on Spontaneous Movement of Rat Uterus in Situ. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(6): 1620-1623, 1990.
1 Ascaricide Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
2 Astringent Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
1 Ataxigenic Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.
1 ATPase-Inhibitor Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.
1 Autotoxic *
1 Bacteriostatic Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis.
2 Bacteristat Lamikanra, A., Ogundaini, A.O., and Ogungbamila*, F.O. Antibacterial Constituents of Alchornea cordifolia Leaves. Phytotherapy Research 4(5): 198.
2 Barbituate-Synergist *
1 Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker Zhu, M., Phillipson, J. D., Greengrass, P. M., Bowery, N. E., Cai, Y. 1997. Plant Polyphenols: Biologically Active Compounds or Non-Selective Binders to Protein? Phytochemistry, 44(3): 441-447.
2 Beta-Blocker *
4 Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor *
1 Bradycardiac Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
1 Bronchodilator Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
1 Bronchoprotectant *
2 Bronchorelaxant Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
6 Calcium-Antagonist *
1 Calcium-Antagonist? Biochimica & Biophysica Acta, 1115: 69, 1991.
1 Calmodulin-Antagonist Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).
1 cAMP-Inhibitor Schussler, M., Fricke, U., Nikolov, N., and Holzl, J. 1991. Comparison of the Flavonoids Occurring in Crataegus species and Inhibition of 3',5'-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Phosphodiesterase. Plant Medica 57: Suppl Issue 2. p.A-133.
4 cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).
31 Cancer-Preventive Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
1 Candida-SAP-Inhibitor *
19 Candidicide *
3 Candidistat *
1 Capillarifortificant Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
2 Capillarigenic *
2 Capillariprotective Merck 11th Edition
7 Carcinogenic Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.
1 Cardiac Ozaki, Y. and Ma, J-P. 1989. Inhibitory Effects of Tetramethylpyrazine and Ferulic Acid on Spontaneous Movement of Rat Uterus in Situ. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(6): 1620-1623, 1990.
5 Cardioprotective *
4 Cardiotonic *
1 Cardiotoxic *
3 Carminative *
1 Caspase-3-Inducer *
1 Caspase-3-Inhibitor *
1 Caspase-9-Inhibitor *
2 Catabolic *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.