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# Chemicals Activity *Reference
1 Quinone-Reductase-Inducer Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.
1 Respirastimulant *
1 Spasmogenic *
3 Stimulant *
2 Tachycardic *
3 Teratogenic Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.
1 Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor Tohda, H., Zhao, J. H., Oikawa, A. 1992. A Possible Involvement of DNA Topoisomerase I in 'Caffeine Effect' After Ultraviolet Irradiation. Tohoku J Exp Med, 168: 129-132.
1 Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor Shin, C. G., Strayer, J. M., Wani, M., Snapka, R. M. 1990. Rapid Evaluation of Topoisomerase Inhibitors: Caffeine Inhibition of Topoisomerases in vivo. Teratogen Carcinogen Mutagen, 10: 41-52.
1 Tumor-Promoter Jim Duke's personal files.
1 Vasoconstrictor Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
4 Vasodilator *
1 Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.