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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Achillea millefoliumLeaf0.5 22.0 -0.37 *
Agastache rugosaEssential Oil-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Amomum compactumSeed-- 720.0 Duke, J. A. and duCellier, J. L. 1993. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL 33431. 536 pp. US $312.50.
Apium graveolensLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Apium graveolensSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Artemisia annuaPlant1.0 120.0 1.0 *
Carthamus tinctoriusLeaf-- 1.13 -0.47 *
Carthamus tinctoriusFlower1.6 2.0 *
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticumPlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumBark20.0 124.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cinnamomum camphoraPlant-- -- *
Citrus reticulataFruit-- 5.0 -0.79 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus paradisiPericarp-- -- *
Citrus paradisiFruit-- -- *
Coleus barbatusRoot Essent. Oil-- 17000.0 -1.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Echinacea sppRoot8.0 12.0 Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 253.
Elettaria cardamomumFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- 7.4 -0.44 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia cristataShoot-- 55.0 -0.34 Kobold, U., Vostrowsky, O., Bestmann, H.J., Bisht, J.C., Pant, A.K., Melkani, A.B. and Mathela, C.S. 1987. Terpenoids from Elsholtzia Species; II. Constituents of Essential Oil from a New Chemotype of Elsholtzia cristata. Planta Medica 1987: 268-271.
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- 7.4 -0.44 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia pilosaShoot-- 6.0 -0.75 *
Houttuynia cordataShoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Humulus lupulusEssential Oil-- -- *
Humulus lupulusFruit-- 1200.0 1.41 *
Humulus lupulusPlant-- -- *
Humulus lupulusFlower-- -- *
Hypericum perforatumEssential Oil-- -- *
Hypericum perforatumPlant-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Juniperus communisFruit-- 102.0 -0.62 *
Laurus nobilisLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Melaleuca alternifoliaLeaf0.001 12.0 -0.42 *
Metrosideros sclerocarpaLeaf177.0 708.0 2.62 *
Myrciaria dubiaFruit-- -- *
Ocimum basilicumEssential Oil-- -- *
Ocimum gratissimumShoot-- 300.0 1.71 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Ocimum canumShoot-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Ocimum gratissimumPlant5.0 30.0 -1.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Opopanax chironiumEssential Oil-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot Essent. Oil-- 24000.0 1.0 *
Panax ginsengStem Essent. Oil-- -- *
Panax ginsengLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pelargonium graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Pilocarpus microphyllusLeaf-- 100.0 -0.03 *
Pinus sylvestrisEssential Oil-- -- *
Piper cubebaFruit Essent. Oil-- 42000.0 *
Piper auritumLeaf-- -- Tramil
Pogostemon cablinPlant-- -- *
Populus balsamiferaPlant-- -- *
Populus tacamahaccaPlant-- -- *
Ribes nigrumLeaf-- 4.0 -0.45 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ribes nigrumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Salvia officinalisEssential Oil-- 17900.0 -1.0 *
Salvia officinalisLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Sarracenia flavaEssential Oil-- -- *
Satureja montanaEssential Oil-- 39400.0 1.0 *
Scutellaria laterifloraPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Sideritis scardicaShoot-- 22.0 -0.62 Menkovic, N., et al. 1991. The Essential Oil of Sideritis scardica. Pl. Med. 57. Suppl. 2. pp. A137-A132.
Zingiber officinaleRoot-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.