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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit310.0 3100.0 0.97 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Acacia farnesianaLeaf1840.0 9870.0 2.26 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Aesculus hippocastanumLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Albizia lebbeckSeed-- -- Wealth of India.
Allium cepaBulb190.0 2071.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf480.0 6090.0 0.36 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium ampeloprasumPlant-- -- *
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb2.4 8300.0 1.0 *
Aloe veraLeaf-- 2327.0 -1.53 *
Alpinia galangaLeaf-- -- *
Amaranthus sp.Leaf520.0 6256.0 0.44 *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed3990.0 4059.0 -0.55 *
Ananas comosusFruit48.0 667.0 -0.73 *
Anethum graveolensSeed3200.0 3466.0 -0.71 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Anethum graveolensFruit3200.0 3466.0 1.23 *
Angelica sinensisRoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Apium graveolensPt110.0 2425.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Arachis hypogaeaSeed6610.0 8013.0 0.5 *
Arctium lappaRoot310.0 1550.0 -0.24 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artocarpus altilisSeed2070.0 4735.0 -0.37 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Asimina trilobaFruit124.0 1336.0 -0.26 *
Asparagus officinalisShoot470.0 6065.0 -1.0 *
Avena sativaSeed1000.0 6000.0 -0.03 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Averrhoa carambolaFruit40.0 440.0 -0.89 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Basella albaLeaf390.0 5650.0 0.14 *
Bertholletia excelsaSeed4020.0 4159.0 -0.52 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Beta vulgarisRoot200.0 1577.0 -0.21 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Bixa orellanaSeed3620.0 3930.0 -0.58 *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf690.0 4440.0 -0.47 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower400.0 5165.0 *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaLeaf760.0 5426.0 0.02 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica napus var. napobrassicaRoot300.0 2900.0 1.08 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf500.0 5370.0 -0.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapaRoot140.0 1720.0 -0.07 *
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l.Leaf300.0 4917.0 -0.23 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf500.0 5370.0 -0.0 *
Brassica chinensisLeaf260.0 5556.0 0.09 *
Brassica rapaLeaf260.0 5556.0 0.09 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleraceaStem190.0 2111.0 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf250.0 3343.0 -1.02 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica nigraLeaf450.0 6627.0 0.63 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cajanus cajanSeed7090.0 8655.0 0.67 *
Calathea allouiaRoot1080.0 1190.0 -0.59 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- -- *
Cannabis sativaSeed-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Capsicum frutescensFruit410.0 3346.0 1.15 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Capsicum annuumFruit170.0 2319.0 0.43 *
Carica papayaFruit50.0 448.0 -0.89 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carum carviSeed5500.0 6105.0 -0.01 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Castanea mollisimaSeed1267.0 2256.0 -1.03 *
Castanea dentataSeed1230.0 2158.0 -1.05 *
Castanea sativaSeed554.0 1218.0 -1.3 *
Ceratonia siliquaSeed-- 11750.0 1.5 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Chenopodium albumLeaf1160.0 7389.0 1.01 *
Cicer arietinumSeed4620.0 6000.0 -0.03 *
Cichorium endiviaLeaf230.0 3704.0 -0.84 *
Cichorium intybusLeaf150.0 3468.0 -0.96 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Citrullus lanatusSeed-- 7018.0 0.24 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrullus lanatusFruit-- 707.0 -0.71 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrus paradisiFruit-- 140.0 -1.1 *
Citrus sinensisFruit180.0 1359.0 -0.25 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Citrus reticulataFruit440.0 3546.0 1.29 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Coccinia grandisFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cocos nuciferaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cocos nuciferaSeed770.0 1455.0 -1.24 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Colocasia esculentaRoot340.0 1160.0 -0.62 *
Colocasia esculentaLeaf1140.0 7950.0 1.29 *
Corchorus olitoriusLeaf690.0 8950.0 1.79 *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- *
Crocus sativusBulb-- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonicaRoot-- -- *
Cucumis sativusFruit80.0 2025.0 0.22 *
Cucurbita foetidissimaSeed5835.0 19000.0 3.42 *
Cucurbita sppFruit250.0 3955.0 1.57 *
Cucurbita pepoSeed6810.0 9615.0 0.93 *
Cucurbita pepoFruit140.0 1905.0 0.13 *
Daucus carotaRoot160.0 1310.0 -0.47 *
Dioscorea pentaphyllaRoot300.0 1615.0 -0.17 *
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed-- 2750.0 -0.9 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Ficus caricaFruit110.0 527.0 -0.83 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Foeniculum vulgareFruit3310.0 3631.0 1.35 *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed3310.0 3631.0 -0.66 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Fragaria sppFruit120.0 1423.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ginkgo bilobaSeed1020.0 2785.0 -0.89 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glycine maxSeed9840.0 10770.0 1.24 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glycine maxShoot-- -- *
Glycine maxSprout Seedling-- -- *
Harpagophytum procumbensRoot-- -- *
Helianthus tuberosusTuber-- 1906.0 -0.92 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Helianthus annuusSeed6320.0 20000.0 3.69 *
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ipomoea batatasRoot300.0 1200.0 -0.58 *
Ipomoea aquaticaLeaf470.0 6240.0 0.43 *
Juglans cinereaSeed8080.0 8359.0 0.59 *
Juglans nigraSeed6800.0 7110.0 0.26 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans regiaSeed3590.0 3725.0 -0.64 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lablab purpureusSeed1090.0 8986.0 0.76 *
Lactuca sativaLeaf220.0 3667.0 -0.86 *
Lagenaria sicerariaFruit40.0 900.0 -0.57 *
Lens culinarisSprout Seedling2570.0 8565.0 -0.42 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lens culinarisSeed7900.0 8900.0 0.74 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lentinus edodesFruit-- -- *
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- 4190.0 2.34 Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Linum usitatissimumSeed-- 0.108 -1.63 *
Lupinus albusSeed10300.0 11500.0 1.43 *
Lycium chinenseLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit30.0 2149.0 0.31 *
Lycopodium clavatumPollen Or Spore-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Macadamia sppSeed1680.0 1730.0 -1.17 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Malus domesticaFruit30.0 187.0 -1.07 *
Mangifera indicaFruit120.0 1200.0 -0.36 *
Manihot esculentaRoot450.0 1430.0 -0.35 *
Medicago sativaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Mentha spicataLeaf660.0 4565.0 -0.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mentha x piperitaLeaf750.0 3515.0 -0.93 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Momordica charantiaSeed-- 43.6 -1.62 Jim Duke's personal files.
Moringa oleiferaShoot1960.0 9185.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mucuna pruriensSeed3275.0 6945.0 0.22 *
Murraya spFruit640.0 1843.0 0.09 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit640.0 1843.0 0.09 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nasturtium officinaleHerb400.0 8000.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome380.0 1820.0 1.0 *
Nelumbo nuciferaSeed1150.0 3485.0 -0.7 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf-- 2870.0 -1.26 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Oenothera biennisSeed3700.0 3949.0 -0.58 *
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber370.0 3410.0 0.09 *
Panax ginsengRoot-- 20.0 -1.73 *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant320.0 1100.0 -1.3 *
Panax ginsengLeaf-- -- *
Papaver somniferumSeed5280.0 5664.0 -0.12 *
Papaver bracteatumSeed4350.0 4650.0 -0.39 *
Perideridia gairdneriRoot-- 1080.0 -0.69 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Persea americanaFruit230.0 1127.0 -0.41 *
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit340.0 3494.0 1.25 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisSprout Seedling1180.0 12688.0 1.38 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus lunatusSeed2320.0 7796.0 0.44 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisSeed6010.0 6754.0 0.17 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit10.0 390.0 -0.93 *
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit133.0 658.0 -0.74 *
Pinus pineaSeed5750.0 7475.0 0.36 *
Pinus edulisSeed2770.0 2945.0 -0.85 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pistacia veraSeed5360.0 5576.0 -0.15 *
Pisum sativumSeed1070.0 5061.0 -0.28 *
Pisum sativumFruit170.0 1682.0 -0.02 *
Portulaca oleraceaHerb220.0 5170.0 -1.0 *
Prunus domesticaFruit130.0 878.0 -0.59 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus persicaFruit130.0 1053.0 -0.46 *
Prunus armeniacaFruit270.0 1980.0 0.19 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus dulcisSeed5580.0 5837.0 -0.08 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psidium guajavaFruit70.0 504.0 -0.85 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psidium cattleianumFruit50.0 260.0 -1.02 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusLeaf7900.0 8618.0 1.63 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusTuber2410.0 5657.0 1.6 *
Psoralea esculentaRoot-- 1266.0 -0.51 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Pyrus communisFruit40.0 247.0 -1.03 *
Raphanus sativusRoot130.0 2520.0 0.71 *
Rehmannia glutinosaRoot1000.0 4000.0 2.15 *
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf660.0 2050.0 -1.67 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sambucus canadensisFruit150.0 742.0 -0.68 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Secale cerealeSeed3670.0 4120.0 -0.53 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sechium eduleFruit160.0 2285.0 0.4 *
Sesamum indicumSeed3050.0 7112.0 0.26 *
Sinapis albaSeed7620.0 8153.0 0.54 *
Solanum melongenaFruit240.0 3098.0 0.97 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber450.0 2140.0 -0.77 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Spinacia oleraceaPlant640.0 7601.0 1.14 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Stachys officinalisShoot-- -- *
Theobroma cacaoSeed-- 800.0 -1.42 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Trifolium pratensePlant-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed4850.0 7350.0 0.33 *
Triticum aestivumSeed1000.0 6000.0 -0.03 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit100.0 715.0 -0.7 *
Valerianella locustaPlant360.0 5000.0 0.16 *
Vicia fabaSeed1340.0 7050.0 0.25 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataSeed950.0 8290.0 0.58 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataFruit900.0 7407.0 3.99 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna angularisSeed5240.0 6054.0 -0.02 *
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling700.0 7353.0 -0.96 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna aconitifoliaSeed7710.0 8536.0 0.64 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed7550.0 8245.0 0.56 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSeed6950.0 7642.0 0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vitis viniferaFruit240.0 1235.0 -0.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zea maysSeed890.0 3702.0 -0.64 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zea maysEmbryo-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome300.0 1738.0 -1.0 *
Zingiber officinaleRoot300.0 1738.0 -0.05 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.