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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit2710.0 27100.0 1.08 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Acacia farnesianaLeaf10080.0 54070.0 0.87 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Allium sativum var. sativumLeaf-- -- *
Allium ampeloprasumPlant-- -- *
Allium cepaBulb-- -- Thomas, D. J., Parkin, K. L. 1994. Quantification of Alk(en)yl-L-Cysteine Sulfoxides and Related Amino Acids in Alliums by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. J. Agr. Food Chem., 42(8): 1632-1638.
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf5790.0 72400.0 1.86 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb5.0 19320.0 *
Aloe veraLeaf-- 43256.0 0.29 *
Alpinia galangaLeaf-- -- *
Amaranthus sp.Leaf2920.0 35128.0 -0.15 *
Anabasis aphyllaPlant-- -- *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed36240.0 36867.0 -0.2 *
Ananas comosusFruit90.0 3333.0 -0.77 *
Angelica sinensisRoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Apium graveolensPt860.0 18285.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Apium graveolensShoot-- -- *
Arachis hypogaeaSeed54650.0 65281.0 0.99 *
Arctium lappaRoot1570.0 7850.0 -0.63 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artemisia dracunculusLeaf-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusShoot-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusRoot-- -- *
Artocarpus altilisSeed10360.0 23690.0 -0.76 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Asimina trilobaFruit622.0 7332.0 -0.46 *
Asparagus officinalisShoot5010.0 64645.0 0.98 *
Astragalus membranaceusRoot-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Avena sativaPlant-- 19000.0 -0.18 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Avena sativaSeed29000.0 31000.0 -0.45 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Averrhoa carambolaFruit770.0 8480.0 -0.37 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Bacopa monnieriPlant-- -- Wealth of India.
Basella albaLeaf2830.0 41015.0 0.17 *
Bertholletia excelsaSeed31510.0 32600.0 -0.38 *
Beta vulgarisRoot3930.0 30994.0 1.34 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l.Leaf1310.0 21471.0 -0.89 *
Brassica napus var. napobrassicaRoot1420.0 13730.0 -0.13 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapaLeaf3600.0 76932.0 2.11 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapaRoot1300.0 15990.0 0.07 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf2700.0 36099.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica chinensisLeaf3600.0 76932.0 2.11 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower2650.0 34240.0 *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf3740.0 24065.0 -0.75 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf3750.0 40275.0 0.13 *
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf3750.0 40275.0 0.13 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cajanus cajanSeed40790.0 56270.0 0.61 *
Calathea allouiaRoot8825.0 9710.0 -0.47 *
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant-- -- *
Capsicum frutescensFruit2640.0 21542.0 0.65 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Capsicum annuumFruit1120.0 15277.0 0.16 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carica papayaFruit-- -- USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carum carviSeed31690.0 35175.0 -0.28 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Castanea mollisimaSeed5393.0 9600.0 -1.35 *
Castanea dentataSeed6204.0 11043.0 -1.29 *
Castanea sativaSeed2558.0 5628.0 -1.52 *
Centella asiaticaPlant-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Ceratonia siliquaSeed-- 131600.0 3.79 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Chenopodium albumLeaf5210.0 33188.0 -0.26 *
Chondrus crispusThallus-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cicer arietinumSeed33600.0 38150.0 -0.15 *
Cichorium endiviaLeaf1660.0 26731.0 -0.61 *
Citrullus lanatusSeed-- 53000.0 0.48 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrullus lanatusFruit-- 7420.0 -0.45 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrus sinensisFruit60.0 7097.0 -0.48 *
Citrus reticulataFruit160.0 5158.0 -0.63 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus paradisiFruit220.0 2800.0 -0.81 *
Citrus limonPlant-- -- *
Cnidoscolus chayamansaLeaf11780.0 58900.0 1.13 *
Coccinia grandisFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cocos nuciferaEndosperm-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cocos nuciferaSeed7610.0 14355.0 -1.15 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cocos nuciferaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Coffea arabicaSeed-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Colocasia esculentaRoot1740.0 5925.0 -0.79 *
Corchorus olitoriusLeaf4930.0 40130.0 0.12 *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- *
Crocus sativusBulb-- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonicaShoot-- -- *
Cucumis sativusFruit1540.0 38987.0 2.0 *
Cucurbita pepoFruit1840.0 35000.0 1.69 *
Cucurbita foetidissimaSeed52800.0 73530.0 1.34 *
Cucurbita sppFruit1260.0 19935.0 0.52 *
Cucurbita pepoSeed43150.0 101820.0 2.54 *
Daucus carotaRoot2020.0 16545.0 0.11 *
Dioscorea pentaphyllaRoot1590.0 8565.0 -0.56 *
Dryopteris marginalisPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Elaeagnus angustifoliaRoot-- 0.48 -1.29 Wheller, C. T., Bond, G. 1970. The Amino Acids of Non-Legume Root Nodules. Phytochemistry 9: 705-708. Dept. Botany Univ. Glasgow Glasgow, Scotland.
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed-- 23300.0 -0.78 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Ficus caricaFruit720.0 3447.0 -0.76 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Foeniculum vulgareSeed29560.0 32427.0 -0.39 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Foeniculum vulgareFruit29560.0 32427.0 1.49 *
Fragaria sppFruit900.0 10676.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ginkgo bilobaSeed8360.0 22840.0 -0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glechoma hederaceaPlant-- -- Oriental Materia Medica (three volumes by Dr. Hsu and collaborators)
Glycine maxSeed70680.0 77280.0 1.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glycine maxShoot-- -- *
Harpagophytum procumbensRoot-- -- *
Helianthus tuberosusTuber-- 26493.0 0.99 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Hordeum vulgareSeed32000.0 38000.0 -0.16 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Huperzia sppPlant-- -- *
Ipomoea aquaticaLeaf2520.0 33465.0 -0.24 *
Ipomoea batatasRoot1590.0 6360.0 -0.75 *
Juglans regiaSeed28090.0 29155.0 -0.53 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans cinereaSeed60840.0 62942.0 0.9 *
Juglans nigraSeed52130.0 54505.0 0.54 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lablab purpureusSeed1720.0 42815.0 0.05 *
Lactuca sativaLeaf1820.0 30333.0 -0.41 *
Larrea tridentataPlant-- 13600.0 -0.61 *
Lens culinarisSeed43500.0 49000.0 0.31 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lens culinarisSprout Seedling12580.0 41935.0 0.25 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lentinus edodesFruit-- -- *
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- 15650.0 0.04 Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Linum usitatissimumSeed-- 1.153 -1.76 *
Lupinus albusSeed21650.0 96985.0 2.33 *
Lycium barbarumFruit-- 6300.0 -0.54 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit90.0 54053.0 3.18 *
Macadamia sppSeed17820.0 18330.0 -0.99 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Malus domesticaFruit156.0 1244.0 -0.93 *
Mangifera indicaFruit600.0 6800.0 -0.5 *
Manihot esculentaRoot4700.0 14925.0 -0.03 *
Melia azedarachPlant-- -- *
Mentha spicataLeaf3580.0 24775.0 -0.71 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mentha x piperitaLeaf4090.0 19155.0 -1.01 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Momordica charantiaFruit-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Momordica charantiaSeed-- 212.0 -1.75 Jim Duke's personal files.
Moringa oleiferaShoot10350.0 48500.0 0.39 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Morus albaLeaf-- -- *
Mucuna pruriensSeed19075.0 40440.0 -0.05 *
Murraya spFruit1160.0 3341.0 -0.77 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit1160.0 3341.0 -0.77 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Myrica ceriferaRoot-- -- *
Nasturtium officinaleHerb1900.0 38000.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nelumbo nuciferaSeed9570.0 29000.0 -0.54 *
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome1390.0 6650.0 -1.0 *
Nigella sativaSeed28085.0 35900.0 -0.25 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf-- 15650.0 -1.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Oenothera biennisSeed26300.0 28068.0 -0.58 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaBud-- 16000.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Opuntia ficus-indicaSeed-- 37500.0 -0.18 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Oryza sativaHay-- -- *
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber820.0 7560.0 -1.6 *
Panax ginsengLeaf-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot-- -- *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant396.0 4450.0 -1.35 *
Papaver somniferumSeed45410.0 48713.0 0.3 *
Papaver bracteatumSeed37600.0 43200.0 0.06 *
Perideridia gairdneriRoot-- 12319.0 -0.25 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Persea americanaFruit1660.0 8045.0 -0.4 *
Phaseolus vulgarisSprout Seedling5120.0 55054.0 1.08 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus lunatusSeed8810.0 33820.0 -0.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisSeed32940.0 37019.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit1870.0 19219.0 0.47 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit400.0 6160.0 -0.55 *
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit1320.0 6535.0 -0.52 *
Pinellia ternataTuber-- -- *
Pinus edulisSeed19690.0 20925.0 -0.88 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pinus pineaSeed40840.0 59800.0 0.76 *
Pistacia veraSeed49160.0 51139.0 0.4 *
Pisum sativumSeed7400.0 35005.0 -0.28 *
Pisum sativumFruit4480.0 44313.0 2.42 *
Pisum sativumShoot-- 70.0 -1.37 *
Plantago ovataSeed-- -- *
Portulaca oleraceaHerb1500.0 33792.0 -1.0 *
Prunus dulcisSeed59340.0 62070.0 0.86 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus armeniacaFruit1570.0 11500.0 -0.14 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus domesticaFruit370.0 2500.0 -0.84 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus persicaFruit1060.0 8586.0 -0.36 *
Prunus cerasusFruit-- -- *
Psidium guajavaFruit1070.0 7704.0 -0.43 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psidium cattleianumFruit760.0 3930.0 -0.72 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusTuber8000.0 18779.0 -0.06 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusSeed40100.0 43749.0 0.09 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusLeaf3890.0 16803.0 -1.14 *
Psoralea esculentaRoot4093.0 12319.0 -0.25 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Pyrus communisFruit280.0 1729.0 -0.9 *
Raphanus sativusRoot1320.0 25580.0 0.88 *
Rehmannia glutinosaRoot2000.0 53000.0 3.2 *
Ribes nigrumFruit Juice-- 210.0 *
Ricinus communisSeed-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf3610.0 11200.0 -1.44 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sambucus canadensisFruit960.0 4752.0 -0.66 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Scutellaria baicalensisRoot-- -- *
Secale cerealeSeed36610.0 41110.0 -0.03 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sechium eduleFruit1370.0 19570.0 0.49 *
Sesamum indicumSeed24670.0 51927.0 0.43 *
Silybum marianumSeed-- -- *
Sinapis albaSeed49790.0 53275.0 0.49 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber3470.0 24150.0 0.67 *
Solanum melongenaFruit2010.0 24907.0 0.91 *
Spinacia oleraceaPlant3430.0 40735.0 1.57 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Stachys officinalisShoot-- -- *
Taraxacum officinaleLeaf-- -- Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Theobroma cacaoSeed-- 10200.0 -1.33 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tilia sp.Fruit-- -- *
Tribulus terrestrisFruit-- -- *
Trifolium pratensePlant-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed39880.0 43870.0 0.09 *
Triticum aestivumSeed39000.0 63000.0 0.9 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit830.0 5393.0 -0.61 *
Valeriana officinalisRoot-- -- *
Valerianella locustaPlant2030.0 28195.0 0.56 *
Vicia fabaSeed8550.0 45000.0 0.14 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataSeed-- 43190.0 0.06 *
Vigna angularisSeed30990.0 35802.0 -0.25 *
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling1610.0 16912.0 -1.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataSeed-- 43190.0 0.06 *
Vigna radiataSeed42640.0 46883.0 0.22 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vitis viniferaFruit1380.0 7099.0 -0.48 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zea maysSeed6360.0 26457.0 -0.64 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinaleRoot1620.0 9328.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinaleRhizome1620.0 9328.0 1.0 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.