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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Acacia farnesianaFlower-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- 36.0 -0.52 *
Aloysia citrodoraPlant15.0 126.0 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Apium graveolensLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Artemisia salsoloidesShoot-- 50.0 -0.42 V. Kaul, P. Weyerstahl, H. Wahlberg, H. Marschall, (1992); Volatile constituents of the essential oil and the absolute of Aremisia salsoloides Willd. from Ladakh,Flavour and Fragrance journal, Vol.7, 299-305.
Bursera delpechianaWood875.0 3000.0 *
Cananga odorataFlower-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumBark-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cinnamomum camphoraLeaf-- 600.0 2.21 *
Cistus ladaniferusLeaf6.0 420.0 1.23 *
Citrullus colocynthisPetiole-- -- *
Citrus medicaPericarp-- -- *
Citrus aurantiifoliaFruit30.0 310.0 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus sinensisFruit-- 0.1 -0.94 *
Citrus mitisFruit Juice-- 2.5 *
Citrus mitisJf-- 2.5 *
Citrus paradisiFruit-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Citrus limonEssential Oil12.0 310.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus aurantiumFruit-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Citrus paradisiPericarp-- 5.0 *
Citrus reticulataFruit0.7 1.0 -0.94 *
Citrus aurantiumLeaf-- 261.0 0.36 Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Citrus limonPetiole-- 12.0 *
Citrus paradisiLeaf-- 10.0 -1.02 *
Coriandrum sativumFruit52.0 988.0 0.72 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cymbopogon nardusPlant188.0 750.0 0.34 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cymbopogon martiniiPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cymbopogon winterianusPlant120.0 556.0 0.1 *
Cymbopogon citratusPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cymbopogon parkeriPlant214.0 1589.0 1.35 Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Daucus carotaShoot-- 265.0 0.04 *
Elettaria cardamomumFruit525.0 1500.0 1.59 Duke, J. A. and duCellier, J. L. 1993. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL 33431. 536 pp. US $312.50.
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- 23.0 -0.95 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia blandaShoot-- 930.0 1.47 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- 23.0 -0.95 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Ficus caricaLeaf-- -- Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Humulus lupulusEssential Oil-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Hypericum perforatumPlant24.0 432.0 -0.05 *
Juniperus communisFruit-- -- *
Laurus nobilisLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula x intermediaPlant21.0 72.0 -0.48 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula latifoliaPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lepechinia calycinaPlant-- 5.0 -0.56 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Litsea glaucescensShoot20.0 30.0 -0.46 Tucker, et al, EB46(1):21-24.1992
Magnolia denudataTwig-- -- *
Magnolia denudataBulb-- -- *
Magnolia denudataLeaf-- -- *
Magnolia denudataBark-- -- *
Magnolia denudataFlower-- -- *
Melia azedarachWood-- -- *
Melissa officinalisShoot0.3 155.0 -0.19 *
Mentha longifoliaShoot1.0 45.0 -0.43 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oils from Mentha longifolia Growing in Sinai and Israel. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 57.
Micromeria variaShoot-- 24.0 -0.47 *
Micromeria julianaLeaf-- 200.0 0.02 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria variaShoot-- -- -0.53 Pedro, L.G., et al. 1995. Composition of the Essential oil of Micromeria varia Benth. ssp. thymoides (Sol. ex Lowe) Perez var. thymoides, and endemic species of the Madeira Archipelago. flav. & Fragr. J. 10(3): 199-202.
Monarda didymaLeaf7.0 13.0 -1.0 *
Monarda didymaFlower-- 4.0 -1.0 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 80.
Myristica fragransSeed20.0 160.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Myrtus communisLeaf8.0 250.0 0.3 *
Myrtus communisPlant8.0 12.0 -0.55 *
Nepeta racemosaShoot-- 145.0 -0.21 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Nepeta racemosaShoot-- 145.0 -0.21 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Ocimum canumShoot-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Ocimum basilicumLeaf11.0 84.0 -0.61 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Origanum majoranaPlant12.0 120.0 -0.42 *
Origanum vulgarePlant1.0 96.0 -0.45 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum syriacumShoot-- 15.0 -0.49 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 7.0 -0.56 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 11.0 -0.55 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum syriacumShoot-- 15.0 -0.49 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 25.0 -0.54 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum syriacumShoot-- -- -0.53 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Pelargonium citrosumShoot-- 7.0 -0.51 Matsuda, B. M., et al. 1996. Essential Oil Analysis and Field Evaluation of the Citrosa Plant 'Pelargonium citrosum' as a Repellent Against Populations of Aedes Mosquitoes. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 12(1):69-74.
Pelargonium graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Pimenta racemosaLeaf80.0 270.0 0.41 *
Pimenta dioicaPlant-- -- *
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Plectranthus coleoidesShoot-- 65.0 -0.39 Buchbauer, G., Jorovetz, L., Wasicky, M. and Nikiforov, A. 1993. Volatile Constituents of the Headspace and Essential Oil of Plectranthus coleoides Marginatus (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 311-313.
Polianthes tuberosaFlower-- -- *
Psoralea corylifoliaSeed-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Pycnanthemum pycnanthemoidesShoot1053.0 1566.0 2.84 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Rosa damascenaEssential Oil-- -- *
Salvia dorisianaShoot2.6 2.8 -0.52 Tucker, A.O. & Maciarello, M.J. 1994. The Essential Oil of Salvia dorisiana Standley. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Salvia sclareaPlant20.0 1150.0 0.82 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 154.
Satureja montanaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Satureja hortensisPlant-- -- *
Sideritis pauliShoot-- 3.0 -0.52 Burzaco, A., Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1992. Essential Oil Analysis of Sideritis pauli Pau. FFJ7: 47-8. 1992.
Telosma cordataFlower-- 93.0 1.0 K. Furukawa, T. Arai, S. Hashimoto, (1993); Volatile components of Telosma cordata Merrill flowers, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol 8, 221-223.
Thymus mastichinaPlant-- 10.0 -0.56 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus x citriodorusPlant-- 100.0 -0.45 Stahl-Biskup, E. and Holthuijzen, J. 1995. Essential oil and glycosidally bound volatiles of lemon-scented thyme, Thymus x citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10: 225-229.
Thymus zygisShoot-- 28.0 -0.47 Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Thymus capitatusShoot-- -- -0.53 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 1315.0 2.3 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus vulgarisPlant-- 3380.0 3.51 *
Thymus funkiiShoot-- -- -0.53 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 1315.0 2.3 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus serpyllumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- -- -0.53 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- -- -0.53 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.