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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil-- -- *
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Thymus mastichinaPlant-- 10.0 -0.56 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus x citriodorusPlant-- 100.0 -0.45 Stahl-Biskup, E. and Holthuijzen, J. 1995. Essential oil and glycosidally bound volatiles of lemon-scented thyme, Thymus x citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10: 225-229.
Thymus zygisShoot-- 28.0 -0.47 Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 1315.0 2.3 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus capitatusShoot-- -- -0.53 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Thymus vulgarisPlant-- 3380.0 3.51 *
Thymus funkiiShoot-- -- -0.53 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 1315.0 2.3 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus serpyllumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- -- -0.53 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- -- -0.53 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Telosma cordataFlower-- 93.0 1.0 K. Furukawa, T. Arai, S. Hashimoto, (1993); Volatile components of Telosma cordata Merrill flowers, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol 8, 221-223.
Sideritis pauliShoot-- 3.0 -0.52 Burzaco, A., Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1992. Essential Oil Analysis of Sideritis pauli Pau. FFJ7: 47-8. 1992.
Satureja montanaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Satureja hortensisPlant-- -- *
Salvia sclareaPlant20.0 1150.0 0.82 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 154.
Salvia dorisianaShoot2.6 2.8 -0.52 Tucker, A.O. & Maciarello, M.J. 1994. The Essential Oil of Salvia dorisiana Standley. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Rosa damascenaEssential Oil-- -- *
Pycnanthemum pycnanthemoidesShoot1053.0 1566.0 2.84 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Psoralea corylifoliaSeed-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Polianthes tuberosaFlower-- -- *
Plectranthus coleoidesShoot-- 65.0 -0.39 Buchbauer, G., Jorovetz, L., Wasicky, M. and Nikiforov, A. 1993. Volatile Constituents of the Headspace and Essential Oil of Plectranthus coleoides Marginatus (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 311-313.
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pimenta racemosaLeaf80.0 270.0 0.41 *
Pimenta dioicaPlant-- -- *
Pelargonium citrosumShoot-- 7.0 -0.51 Matsuda, B. M., et al. 1996. Essential Oil Analysis and Field Evaluation of the Citrosa Plant 'Pelargonium citrosum' as a Repellent Against Populations of Aedes Mosquitoes. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 12(1):69-74.
Pelargonium graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 25.0 -0.54 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum syriacumShoot-- -- -0.53 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum vulgarePlant1.0 96.0 -0.45 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum majoranaPlant12.0 120.0 -0.42 *
Origanum syriacumShoot-- 15.0 -0.49 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 7.0 -0.56 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 11.0 -0.55 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum syriacumShoot-- 15.0 -0.49 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Ocimum canumShoot-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Ocimum basilicumLeaf11.0 84.0 -0.61 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Nepeta racemosaShoot-- 145.0 -0.21 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Nepeta racemosaShoot-- 145.0 -0.21 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Myrtus communisLeaf8.0 250.0 0.3 *
Myrtus communisPlant8.0 12.0 -0.55 *
Myristica fragransSeed20.0 160.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda didymaLeaf7.0 13.0 -1.0 *
Monarda didymaFlower-- 4.0 -1.0 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 80.
Micromeria variaShoot-- 24.0 -0.47 *
Micromeria julianaLeaf-- 200.0 0.02 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria variaShoot-- -- -0.53 Pedro, L.G., et al. 1995. Composition of the Essential oil of Micromeria varia Benth. ssp. thymoides (Sol. ex Lowe) Perez var. thymoides, and endemic species of the Madeira Archipelago. flav. & Fragr. J. 10(3): 199-202.
Mentha longifoliaShoot1.0 45.0 -0.43 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oils from Mentha longifolia Growing in Sinai and Israel. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 57.
Melissa officinalisShoot0.3 155.0 -0.19 *
Melia azedarachWood-- -- *
Magnolia denudataTwig-- -- *
Magnolia denudataBulb-- -- *
Magnolia denudataLeaf-- -- *
Magnolia denudataBark-- -- *
Magnolia denudataFlower-- -- *
Litsea glaucescensShoot20.0 30.0 -0.46 Tucker, et al, EB46(1):21-24.1992
Lepechinia calycinaPlant-- 5.0 -0.56 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula x intermediaPlant21.0 72.0 -0.48 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula latifoliaPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Laurus nobilisLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Juniperus communisFruit-- -- *
Hypericum perforatumPlant24.0 432.0 -0.05 *
Humulus lupulusEssential Oil-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ficus caricaLeaf-- -- Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- 23.0 -0.95 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- 23.0 -0.95 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia blandaShoot-- 930.0 1.47 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Elettaria cardamomumFruit525.0 1500.0 1.59 Duke, J. A. and duCellier, J. L. 1993. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL 33431. 536 pp. US $312.50.
Daucus carotaShoot-- 265.0 0.04 *
Cymbopogon citratusPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cymbopogon parkeriPlant214.0 1589.0 1.35 Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Cymbopogon nardusPlant188.0 750.0 0.34 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cymbopogon martiniiPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cymbopogon winterianusPlant120.0 556.0 0.1 *
Coriandrum sativumFruit52.0 988.0 0.72 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus reticulataFruit0.7 1.0 -0.94 *
Citrus aurantiumLeaf-- 261.0 0.36 Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Citrus sinensisFruit-- 0.1 -0.94 *
Citrus mitisFruit Juice-- 2.5 *
Citrus medicaPericarp-- -- *
Citrus mitisJf-- 2.5 *
Citrus aurantiifoliaFruit30.0 310.0 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus paradisiPericarp-- 5.0 *
Citrus aurantiumFruit-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Citrus paradisiFruit-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Citrus limonEssential Oil12.0 310.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus limonPetiole-- 12.0 *
Citrus paradisiLeaf-- 10.0 -1.02 *
Citrullus colocynthisPetiole-- -- *
Cistus ladaniferusLeaf6.0 420.0 1.23 *
Cinnamomum verumBark-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cinnamomum camphoraLeaf-- 600.0 2.21 *
Cananga odorataFlower-- -- *
Bursera delpechianaWood875.0 3000.0 *
Artemisia salsoloidesShoot-- 50.0 -0.42 V. Kaul, P. Weyerstahl, H. Wahlberg, H. Marschall, (1992); Volatile constituents of the essential oil and the absolute of Aremisia salsoloides Willd. from Ladakh,Flavour and Fragrance journal, Vol.7, 299-305.
Apium graveolensLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Aloysia citrodoraPlant15.0 126.0 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- 36.0 -0.52 *
Acacia farnesianaFlower-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.