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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Acacia farnesianaFlower-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- 36.0 -0.52 *
Aloysia citrodoraPlant15.0 126.0 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Apium graveolensLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Artemisia salsoloidesShoot-- 50.0 -0.42 V. Kaul, P. Weyerstahl, H. Wahlberg, H. Marschall, (1992); Volatile constituents of the essential oil and the absolute of Aremisia salsoloides Willd. from Ladakh,Flavour and Fragrance journal, Vol.7, 299-305.
Bursera delpechianaWood875.0 3000.0 *
Cananga odorataFlower-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumBark-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cinnamomum camphoraLeaf-- 600.0 2.21 *
Cistus ladaniferusLeaf6.0 420.0 1.23 *
Citrullus colocynthisPetiole-- -- *
Citrus reticulataFruit0.7 1.0 -0.94 *
Citrus aurantiumLeaf-- 261.0 0.36 Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Citrus limonPetiole-- 12.0 *
Citrus paradisiLeaf-- 10.0 -1.02 *
Citrus medicaPericarp-- -- *
Citrus aurantiifoliaFruit30.0 310.0 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus sinensisFruit-- 0.1 -0.94 *
Citrus mitisFruit Juice-- 2.5 *
Citrus mitisJf-- 2.5 *
Citrus paradisiFruit-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Citrus limonEssential Oil12.0 310.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus aurantiumFruit-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Citrus paradisiPericarp-- 5.0 *
Coriandrum sativumFruit52.0 988.0 0.72 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cymbopogon citratusPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cymbopogon parkeriPlant214.0 1589.0 1.35 Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Cymbopogon nardusPlant188.0 750.0 0.34 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cymbopogon martiniiPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cymbopogon winterianusPlant120.0 556.0 0.1 *
Daucus carotaShoot-- 265.0 0.04 *
Elettaria cardamomumFruit525.0 1500.0 1.59 Duke, J. A. and duCellier, J. L. 1993. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL 33431. 536 pp. US $312.50.
Elsholtzia blandaShoot-- 930.0 1.47 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- 23.0 -0.95 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- 23.0 -0.95 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Ficus caricaLeaf-- -- Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Humulus lupulusEssential Oil-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Hypericum perforatumPlant24.0 432.0 -0.05 *
Juniperus communisFruit-- -- *
Laurus nobilisLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula x intermediaPlant21.0 72.0 -0.48 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula latifoliaPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lepechinia calycinaPlant-- 5.0 -0.56 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Litsea glaucescensShoot20.0 30.0 -0.46 Tucker, et al, EB46(1):21-24.1992
Magnolia denudataFlower-- -- *
Magnolia denudataTwig-- -- *
Magnolia denudataBulb-- -- *
Magnolia denudataLeaf-- -- *
Magnolia denudataBark-- -- *
Melia azedarachWood-- -- *
Melissa officinalisShoot0.3 155.0 -0.19 *
Mentha longifoliaShoot1.0 45.0 -0.43 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oils from Mentha longifolia Growing in Sinai and Israel. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 57.
Micromeria julianaLeaf-- 200.0 0.02 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria variaShoot-- -- -0.53 Pedro, L.G., et al. 1995. Composition of the Essential oil of Micromeria varia Benth. ssp. thymoides (Sol. ex Lowe) Perez var. thymoides, and endemic species of the Madeira Archipelago. flav. & Fragr. J. 10(3): 199-202.
Micromeria variaShoot-- 24.0 -0.47 *
Monarda didymaFlower-- 4.0 -1.0 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 80.
Monarda didymaLeaf7.0 13.0 -1.0 *
Myristica fragransSeed20.0 160.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Myrtus communisLeaf8.0 250.0 0.3 *
Myrtus communisPlant8.0 12.0 -0.55 *
Nepeta racemosaShoot-- 145.0 -0.21 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Nepeta racemosaShoot-- 145.0 -0.21 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Ocimum canumShoot-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Ocimum basilicumLeaf11.0 84.0 -0.61 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 11.0 -0.55 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum syriacumShoot-- 15.0 -0.49 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 25.0 -0.54 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum syriacumShoot-- -- -0.53 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum majoranaPlant12.0 120.0 -0.42 *
Origanum vulgarePlant1.0 96.0 -0.45 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum syriacumShoot-- 15.0 -0.49 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 7.0 -0.56 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Pelargonium graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Pelargonium citrosumShoot-- 7.0 -0.51 Matsuda, B. M., et al. 1996. Essential Oil Analysis and Field Evaluation of the Citrosa Plant 'Pelargonium citrosum' as a Repellent Against Populations of Aedes Mosquitoes. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 12(1):69-74.
Pimenta racemosaLeaf80.0 270.0 0.41 *
Pimenta dioicaPlant-- -- *
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Plectranthus coleoidesShoot-- 65.0 -0.39 Buchbauer, G., Jorovetz, L., Wasicky, M. and Nikiforov, A. 1993. Volatile Constituents of the Headspace and Essential Oil of Plectranthus coleoides Marginatus (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 311-313.
Polianthes tuberosaFlower-- -- *
Psoralea corylifoliaSeed-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Pycnanthemum pycnanthemoidesShoot1053.0 1566.0 2.84 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Rosa damascenaEssential Oil-- -- *
Salvia dorisianaShoot2.6 2.8 -0.52 Tucker, A.O. & Maciarello, M.J. 1994. The Essential Oil of Salvia dorisiana Standley. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Salvia sclareaPlant20.0 1150.0 0.82 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 154.
Satureja montanaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Satureja hortensisPlant-- -- *
Sideritis pauliShoot-- 3.0 -0.52 Burzaco, A., Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1992. Essential Oil Analysis of Sideritis pauli Pau. FFJ7: 47-8. 1992.
Telosma cordataFlower-- 93.0 1.0 K. Furukawa, T. Arai, S. Hashimoto, (1993); Volatile components of Telosma cordata Merrill flowers, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol 8, 221-223.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 1315.0 2.3 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus serpyllumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- -- -0.53 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- -- -0.53 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus mastichinaPlant-- 10.0 -0.56 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus x citriodorusPlant-- 100.0 -0.45 Stahl-Biskup, E. and Holthuijzen, J. 1995. Essential oil and glycosidally bound volatiles of lemon-scented thyme, Thymus x citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10: 225-229.
Thymus zygisShoot-- 28.0 -0.47 Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Thymus capitatusShoot-- -- -0.53 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 1315.0 2.3 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus vulgarisPlant-- 3380.0 3.51 *
Thymus funkiiShoot-- -- -0.53 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.