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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Thymus vulgarisPlant-- 3380.0 3.51 *
Bursera delpechianaWood875.0 3000.0 *
Cymbopogon parkeriPlant214.0 1589.0 1.35 Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Pycnanthemum pycnanthemoidesShoot1053.0 1566.0 2.84 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Elettaria cardamomumFruit525.0 1500.0 1.59 Duke, J. A. and duCellier, J. L. 1993. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL 33431. 536 pp. US $312.50.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 1315.0 2.3 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 1315.0 2.3 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Salvia sclareaPlant20.0 1150.0 0.82 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 154.
Coriandrum sativumFruit52.0 988.0 0.72 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Elsholtzia blandaShoot-- 930.0 1.47 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Cymbopogon nardusPlant188.0 750.0 0.34 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cinnamomum camphoraLeaf-- 600.0 2.21 *
Cymbopogon winterianusPlant120.0 556.0 0.1 *
Hypericum perforatumPlant24.0 432.0 -0.05 *
Cistus ladaniferusLeaf6.0 420.0 1.23 *
Citrus limonEssential Oil12.0 310.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus aurantiifoliaFruit30.0 310.0 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pimenta racemosaLeaf80.0 270.0 0.41 *
Daucus carotaShoot-- 265.0 0.04 *
Citrus aurantiumLeaf-- 261.0 0.36 Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Myrtus communisLeaf8.0 250.0 0.3 *
Micromeria julianaLeaf-- 200.0 0.02 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Myristica fragransSeed20.0 160.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Melissa officinalisShoot0.3 155.0 -0.19 *
Nepeta racemosaShoot-- 145.0 -0.21 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Nepeta racemosaShoot-- 145.0 -0.21 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Aloysia citrodoraPlant15.0 126.0 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum majoranaPlant12.0 120.0 -0.42 *
Thymus x citriodorusPlant-- 100.0 -0.45 Stahl-Biskup, E. and Holthuijzen, J. 1995. Essential oil and glycosidally bound volatiles of lemon-scented thyme, Thymus x citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10: 225-229.
Origanum vulgarePlant1.0 96.0 -0.45 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Telosma cordataFlower-- 93.0 1.0 K. Furukawa, T. Arai, S. Hashimoto, (1993); Volatile components of Telosma cordata Merrill flowers, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol 8, 221-223.
Ocimum basilicumLeaf11.0 84.0 -0.61 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Lavandula x intermediaPlant21.0 72.0 -0.48 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Plectranthus coleoidesShoot-- 65.0 -0.39 Buchbauer, G., Jorovetz, L., Wasicky, M. and Nikiforov, A. 1993. Volatile Constituents of the Headspace and Essential Oil of Plectranthus coleoides Marginatus (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 311-313.
Artemisia salsoloidesShoot-- 50.0 -0.42 V. Kaul, P. Weyerstahl, H. Wahlberg, H. Marschall, (1992); Volatile constituents of the essential oil and the absolute of Aremisia salsoloides Willd. from Ladakh,Flavour and Fragrance journal, Vol.7, 299-305.
Mentha longifoliaShoot1.0 45.0 -0.43 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oils from Mentha longifolia Growing in Sinai and Israel. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 57.
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- 36.0 -0.52 *
Litsea glaucescensShoot20.0 30.0 -0.46 Tucker, et al, EB46(1):21-24.1992
Thymus zygisShoot-- 28.0 -0.47 Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 25.0 -0.54 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Micromeria variaShoot-- 24.0 -0.47 *
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- 23.0 -0.95 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- 23.0 -0.95 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Origanum syriacumShoot-- 15.0 -0.49 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum syriacumShoot-- 15.0 -0.49 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Monarda didymaLeaf7.0 13.0 -1.0 *
Citrus limonPetiole-- 12.0 *
Myrtus communisPlant8.0 12.0 -0.55 *
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 11.0 -0.55 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Citrus paradisiLeaf-- 10.0 -1.02 *
Thymus mastichinaPlant-- 10.0 -0.56 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 7.0 -0.56 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Pelargonium citrosumShoot-- 7.0 -0.51 Matsuda, B. M., et al. 1996. Essential Oil Analysis and Field Evaluation of the Citrosa Plant 'Pelargonium citrosum' as a Repellent Against Populations of Aedes Mosquitoes. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 12(1):69-74.
Lepechinia calycinaPlant-- 5.0 -0.56 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus paradisiPericarp-- 5.0 *
Monarda didymaFlower-- 4.0 -1.0 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 80.
Sideritis pauliShoot-- 3.0 -0.52 Burzaco, A., Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1992. Essential Oil Analysis of Sideritis pauli Pau. FFJ7: 47-8. 1992.
Salvia dorisianaShoot2.6 2.8 -0.52 Tucker, A.O. & Maciarello, M.J. 1994. The Essential Oil of Salvia dorisiana Standley. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Citrus mitisFruit Juice-- 2.5 *
Citrus mitisJf-- 2.5 *
Citrus reticulataFruit0.7 1.0 -0.94 *
Citrus sinensisFruit-- 0.1 -0.94 *
Origanum syriacumShoot-- -- -0.53 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- -- -0.53 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- -- -0.53 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus capitatusShoot-- -- -0.53 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Micromeria variaShoot-- -- -0.53 Pedro, L.G., et al. 1995. Composition of the Essential oil of Micromeria varia Benth. ssp. thymoides (Sol. ex Lowe) Perez var. thymoides, and endemic species of the Madeira Archipelago. flav. & Fragr. J. 10(3): 199-202.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- -- -0.53 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- -- *
Citrullus colocynthisPetiole-- -- *
Satureja montanaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Melia azedarachWood-- -- *
Thymus serpyllumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Citrus aurantiumFruit-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Polianthes tuberosaFlower-- -- *
Citrus medicaPericarp-- -- *
Magnolia denudataBark-- -- *
Magnolia denudataBulb-- -- *
Magnolia denudataFlower-- -- *
Magnolia denudataLeaf-- -- *
Magnolia denudataTwig-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumBark-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Psoralea corylifoliaSeed-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Juniperus communisFruit-- -- *
Ocimum canumShoot-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Humulus lupulusEssential Oil-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pelargonium graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Acacia farnesianaFlower-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Citrus paradisiFruit-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Cananga odorataFlower-- -- *
Cymbopogon citratusPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pimenta dioicaPlant-- -- *
Lavandula latifoliaPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil-- -- *
Cymbopogon martiniiPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ficus caricaLeaf-- -- Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Satureja hortensisPlant-- -- *
Apium graveolensLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Laurus nobilisLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Rosa damascenaEssential Oil-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.