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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Achillea millefoliumLeaf1.0 50.0 -0.4 *
Acinos suaveolensShoot-- 50.0 -0.49 Tumen, G. 1991. The Volatile Constituents of Acinos suaveolens (Sibt. et Smith). G. Don fil. Growing in Turkey. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3:191-2.
Aloysia citrodoraPlant150.0 1820.0 0.35 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Carum carviSeed-- -- *
Cinnamomum camphoraLeaf-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticumPlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumBark-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cinnamomum verumStem Bark-- -- *
Cistus ladaniferusLeaf27.0 1090.0 -0.22 *
Citrullus lanatusFruit Juice-- -- *
Citrullus lanatusFruit-- -- *
Citrus limonEssential Oil42.0 236.0 1.0 *
Citrus aurantiifoliaFruit10.0 680.0 0.97 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus paradisiLeaf-- 31.0 -0.4 *
Citrus sinensisFruit6.0 7.0 -1.0 *
Citrus limonLeaf Essent. Oil3000.0 233000.0 1.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus limonPetiole-- 60.0 *
Citrus paradisiPericarp4.0 700.0 *
Citrus reticulataFruit5.0 6.0 -1.0 *
Citrus aurantiumLeaf-- 1.0 -0.41 *
Citrus limonPericarp Essent. Oil-- 17600.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus aurantiumPlant-- -- *
Citrus paradisiFruit420.0 700.0 1.03 *
Coriandrum sativumSeed Essent. Oil-- 1300.0 *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cymbopogon parkeriPlant17.0 1290.0 0.0 Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Elsholtzia blandaShoot-- 5.0 -0.61 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- 15.0 -0.4 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia eriostachyaShoot-- 525.0 0.75 Pant, A.K., Dev, V., Parihar, R., Mathela,C.S., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky, O. and Bestmann, H.J. 1992. The Essential Oil from Elsholtzia eriostachya var. pusilla. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 547-549.
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- 15.0 -0.4 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Eugenia unifloraLeaf-- -- Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Hedeoma drummondiiPlant3065.0 5150.0 2.55 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hypericum perforatumPlant0.35 6.3 -0.84 *
Lavandula angustifoliaFlower-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Melissa officinalisShoot10.0 1425.0 3.11 *
Mentha x piperitaLeaf0.005 0.05 -0.41 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Micromeria variaShoot-- 475.0 0.62 *
Micromeria variaShoot-- 475.0 0.62 Pedro, L.G., et al. 1995. Composition of the Essential oil of Micromeria varia Benth. ssp. thymoides (Sol. ex Lowe) Perez var. thymoides, and endemic species of the Madeira Archipelago. flav. & Fragr. J. 10(3): 199-202.
Monarda fistulosaPlant15.0 837.0 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda russelianaPlant-- 470.0 -0.54 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Myrtus communisShoot-- 1.5 -0.62 *
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 5.0 -0.85 Die Nahrung. Pino, J., Rosado, A., Goire, I., Roncal, E., and Garcia, I. 1993. Analysis of the Essential Oil from Cuban Basil. Die Nahrung 37:(5): 501-504.
Ocimum basilicumLeaf Essent. Oil-- 2000.0 -1.0 *
Ocimum tenuiflorumPlant350.0 3150.0 1.23 *
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 5.0 -0.85 Die Nahrung. Pino, J., Rosado, A., Goire, I., Roncal, E., and Garcia, I. 1993. Analysis of the Essential Oil from Cuban Basil. Die Nahrung 37:(5): 501-504.
Ocimum basilicumShoot Essent. Oil-- 2100.0 *
Pelargonium citrosumShoot-- 7.0 -0.61 Matsuda, B. M., et al. 1996. Essential Oil Analysis and Field Evaluation of the Citrosa Plant 'Pelargonium citrosum' as a Repellent Against Populations of Aedes Mosquitoes. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 12(1):69-74.
Pelargonium roseumShoot-- 252.0 0.04 *
Pelargonium graveolensEssential Oil2.0 12.0 -1.0 *
Perilla frutescensLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- Honda, G., Yuba, A., Nishizawa, A., Tabata, M. 1994. Genetic Control of Geranial Formation in Perilla frutescens. Biochem. Genet, 32(5/6): 155-160.
Pimenta racemosaLeaf-- 18090.0 2.64 *
Prunus armeniacaEssential Oil-- -- *
Rosa damascenaEssential Oil-- -- *
Salvia sclareaPlant0.8 580.0 -0.47 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 154.
Syzygium aromaticumFruit-- -- *
Tamarindus indicaEssential Oil-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 8.0 -0.6 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- -- -0.62 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 8.0 -0.6 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 52.0 -0.49 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus capitatusPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus x citriodorusPlant-- 820.0 -0.31 Stahl-Biskup, E. and Holthuijzen, J. 1995. Essential oil and glycosidally bound volatiles of lemon-scented thyme, Thymus x citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10: 225-229.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 52.0 -0.49 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Zea maysHull Husk-- -- *
Zea maysHusk Essent. Oil-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil159000.0 400000.0 *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- 980.0 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.