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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Actaea dahuricaRhizome-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Actaea cimicifugaRhizome-- -- *
Agrimonia eupatoriaPlant-- -- *
Ajuga ivaShoot-- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Ajuga ivaPlant-- 1000.0 0.84 Jim Duke's personal files.
Allium cepaLeaf-- -- Das, V. S. R., Rao, J. V. S. 1964. Phenolic Acids of Onion Plant. Curr. Sci., 33(15): 471-472.
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf-- 0.5 -1.08 *
Allium ampeloprasumPlant-- -- *
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb7.0 27.0 1.0 *
Allium cepaRoot-- -- Das, V. S. R., Rao, J. V. S. 1964. Phenolic Acids of Onion Plant. Curr. Sci., 33(15): 471-472.
Allium cepaBulb-- 0.5 -1.0 *
Althaea officinalisFlower-- -- *
Althaea officinalisRoot-- -- *
Althaea officinalisPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Althaea officinalisLeaf-- -- *
Ananas comosusPlant200.0 760.0 0.3 *
Anethum graveolensSeed-- -- *
Anethum graveolensFruit-- -- *
Angelica sinensisPlant-- 940.0 0.7 Jim Duke's personal files.
Angelica sinensisRoot-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Apium graveolensRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Arachis hypogaeaSeed-- 45.0 -0.37 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiLeaf-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusLeaf-- 38.0 2.44 *
Aspalathus linearisShoot-- 0.66 *
Astragalus membranaceusRoot-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Avena sativaSeed-- -- *
Ballota nigraPlant-- -- *
Basella albaPlant-- -- *
Beta vulgarisLeaf-- -- *
Brassica pekinensisLeaf-- 6.0 -0.57 *
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf-- 13.0 0.09 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf4.0 20.0 0.75 *
Brassica nigraSeed-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaLeaf-- 10.0 -0.19 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf-- 13.0 0.09 *
Capsicum frutescensFruit-- -- *
Catalpa ovataWood-- -- *
Celosia cristataFlower-- -- *
Centaurea cyanusFlower-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Centaurium erythraeaPlant-- -- *
Ceratonia siliquaFruit-- -- Wealth of India.
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Chenopodium albumFruit-- -- *
Chenopodium ambrosioidesFruit-- -- *
Cichorium intybusPlant-- -- *
Cichorium intybusLeaf-- 0.5 -1.08 *
Cimicifuga dahuricaRhizome-- -- *
Citrullus colocynthisFruit-- -- *
Citrus reticulataPericarp-- -- *
Citrus sinensisFruit10.0 30.0 -0.76 *
Citrus sinensisFruit Juice-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus sinensisPericarp20.0 180.0 1.0 *
Citrus limonFruit14.0 40.0 -0.38 *
Citrus paradisiPericarp25.0 160.0 -1.0 *
Citrus paradisiFruit25.0 35.0 -0.57 *
Cnicus benedictusPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cnicus benedictusShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cocos nuciferaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Coix lacryma-jobiPericarp-- -- *
Commiphora wightiiResin, Exudate, Sap-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Convallaria majalisPlant-- -- *
Coptis sppRhizome-- -- *
Coptis japonicaRhizome-- -- *
Coptis chinensisRhizome-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumPlant-- 11.0 -1.38 *
Cucumis sativusFruit-- -- *
Cucumis meloPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Cucurbita pepoPlant-- -- *
Cydonia oblongaFruit-- -- *
Cynara cardunculusPlant-- -- *
Datura stramoniumPlant-- -- *
Daucus carotaRoot-- -- *
Digitalis purpureaLeaf-- -- *
Dioscorea alataPlant-- -- *
Dipteryx odorataLeaf-- -- Grenand, P., Moretti, C., and Jacquemin, H. 1987. Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. l'ORSTROM, Paris. 569 pp.
Echinacea sppPlant-- -- *
Elaeagnus angustifoliaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Eleutherococcus senticosusRoot-- -- *
Equisetum hyemalePlant-- -- *
Equisetum arvensePlant-- -- *
Eucalyptus globulusLeaf-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf-- -- *
Euphorbia lathyrisLeaf-- -- *
Euphorbia hirtaLeaf-- -- *
Euphrasia officinalisPlant-- -- Tyler, V.E.. 1982. The Honest Herbal. George F. Stickley Co., Philadelphia PA. 263 pp.
Ferula assa-foetidaEssential Oil-- -- *
Ferula assa-foetidaGum-- -- *
Ferula assa-foetidaResin, Exudate, Sap-- 13000.0 *
Ficus caricaPlant-- -- *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed-- 0.5 -0.43 *
Foeniculum vulgareFruit-- -- *
Gaultheria procumbensLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Glechoma hederaceaPlant-- -- *
Glycine maxPlant1.0 4.0 -1.39 *
Glycine maxShoot-- -- *
Glycine maxSeed1.0 4.0 -0.43 *
Glycyrrhiza glabraPlant-- -- *
Helianthus annuusPollen Or Spore2.0 3.0 *
Hierochloe odorataPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Hordeum vulgareSeed-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Huperzia sppPlant-- -- *
Hura crepitansLeaf-- -- *
Hypericum perforatumPlant-- -- *
Hyssopus officinalisPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Juglans regiaTesta10.0 65.0 *
Juglans nigraSeed-- -- *
Juglans regiaSeed0.4 1.0 -0.43 *
Juniperus communisLeaf-- -- *
Kalanchoe pinnataPlant-- -- *
Lactuca sativaPlant-- -- *
Lens culinarisPlant-- -- J.S. Glasby Dict.Pls Containing 2ndary Metabolite. 1991.
Levisticum officinaleFruit-- -- Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Ligustrum japonicumFlower-- -- *
Linum usitatissimumSeed-- -- *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- -- *
Lycopodium selagoPlant-- -- *
Lycopodium clavatumPlant-- -- *
Lycopus europeusPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Malus domesticaFruit4.0 95.0 1.72 *
Medicago sativaTissue Culture-- -- *
Medicago sativaLeaf-- -- *
Melia azedarachPlant-- -- *
Melilotus officinalisShoot-- -- *
Melilotus officinalisPlant-- -- Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.
Mentha x rotundifoliaShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Menyanthes trifoliataLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- -- *
Nicotiana tabacumFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Oenothera biennisPlant-- -- *
Ononis spinosaRoot-- -- Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Opopanax chironiumResin, Exudate, Sap-- -- *
Oryza sativaPlant-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot-- -- *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant-- -- *
Papaver somniferumPericarp-- -- *
Phaseolus vulgarisPlant-- -- *
Pinus sylvestrisBark-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pisum sativumSeed-- -- *
Plantago majorPlant-- -- *
Polygala senegaRoot-- -- *
Portulaca oleraceaPlant-- -- *
Prunus spinosaPlant-- -- *
Prunus domesticaFruit-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Prunus cerasusPlant-- -- *
Prunus persicaPlant-- -- *
Prunus dulcisPlant-- -- *
Pteridium aquilinumPlant-- -- *
Punica granatumFruit-- -- Seeram, N. P., Schulman, R. N., and Heber, D., eds. 2006. Pomegranates - Ancient Roots to Modern Medicine. Taylor & Francis. Boca Raton, FL. 244 pp.
Raphanus sativusRoot-- 16.0 *
Rheum rhabarbarumRoot-- -- *
Rheum rhabarbarumPt-- 8.0 *
Rheum officinaleRoot-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Ribes uva-crispaFruit-- -- *
Ribes nigrumFruit-- -- *
Ricinus communisLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rosa caninaTissue Culture-- -- *
Rosa caninaStem-- -- *
Rubus idaeusFruit-- -- *
Rubus fruticosusFruit-- -- *
Rubus idaeusPlant-- -- *
Salvia officinalisPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Salvia sp.Seed-- 2136.0 2.45 Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 67.
Sambucus nigraPlant-- -- *
Serenoa repensFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Sesamum indicumLeaf-- -- *
Sesamum indicumFruit-- -- *
Solanum tuberosumTuber13.0 225.0 *
Solanum melongenaRoot-- -- *
Solidago giganteaPlant-- 1040.0 0.93 *
Sophora japonicaPlant-- -- *
Spinacia oleraceaLeaf-- 16.0 0.37 *
Spinacia oleraceaInflorescence-- -- *
Stellaria mediaShoot-- -- *
Taraxacum officinaleFlower-- -- *
Taxus baccataLeaf0.1 3.5 -0.8 *
Tecoma stansPlant-- -- *
Theobroma cacaoSeed-- -- *
Thymus vulgarisPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Triticum aestivumSeed15.0 32.0 -0.39 *
Urtica dioicaPlant-- -- *
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit-- -- *
Vaccinium myrtillusLeaf-- -- *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit-- -- *
Vaccinium corymbosumPlant-- -- *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit Juice-- -- *
Vanilla planifoliaRoot-- -- *
Vicia fabaPlant-- -- *
Viola odorataPlant-- -- *
Vitis viniferaFruit-- -- *
Zea maysSprout Seedling-- -- *
Zea maysSeed6.0 27.0 -0.4 *
Zea maysLeaf-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Zingiber officinalePlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.