Data Views

Paginate
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Ocimum gratissimumShoot-- 4045.0 2.78 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Syzygium aromaticumFlower108655.0 180000.0 2.65 *
Ocimum gratissimumPlant-- 5340.0 2.29 *
Syzygium aromaticumLeaf7920.0 26400.0 2.29 *
Ocimum kilimandscharicumShoot-- 3000.0 1.93 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum suaveShoot110.0 2860.0 1.82 J. Nat. Prod. 44: 308.
Pimenta racemosaLeaf16.0 21840.0 1.75 *
Ocimum basilicumEssential Oil300.0 857500.0 1.71 *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf Essent. Oil701000.0 945000.0 1.56 *
Pimenta dioicaFruit3500.0 36000.0 1.41 *
Alpinia galangaRhizome100.0 12000.0 1.41 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cinnamomum verumBark140.0 16800.0 1.41 *
Daucus carotaSeed-- 7000.0 1.39 *
Piper betelLeaf535.0 17850.0 1.28 *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf1400.0 16800.0 1.16 Wealth of India.
Pimenta dioicaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 792400.0 1.14 *
Syzygium aromaticumEssential Oil61000.0 627000.0 1.06 *
Syzygium aromaticumStem36000.0 57000.0 1.0 *
Pimenta dioicaLeaf8348.0 12000.0 0.59 *
Origanum majoranaPlant200.0 2000.0 0.47 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf14.0 8575.0 0.19 *
Ageratum conyzoidesShoot-- 800.0 0.15 R. Vera, (1993); Chemical composition of the essential oil Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) from Reunion, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol.8, 257-260.
Ocimum tenuiflorumLeaf45.0 5580.0 -0.16 *
Ocimum sanctumLeaf4200.0 4970.0 -0.23 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Ocimum basilicumLeaf Essent. Oil51200.0 270000.0 -0.31 *
Origanum majoranaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 255000.0 -0.35 *
Dianthus caryophyllusFlower0.6 870.0 -0.37 *
Hyssopus officinalisFlower62.0 624.0 -0.37 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 72.
Viola odorataFlower147.0 357.0 -0.38 *
Ocimum kilimandscharicumFlower-- 35.0 -0.38 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Jasminum officinaleFlower3.0 10.0 -0.38 *
Hyacinthus orientalisFlower0.32 4.6 -0.38 *
Rosa gallicaFlower2.0 4.0 -0.38 *
Origanum minutiflorumShoot55.0 125.0 -0.39 Baser, K.H.C., Tumen, G., Sezik, E. 1991. The Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 445-446.
Pycnanthemum setosumShoot60.0 93.0 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha pulegiumPlant160.0 320.0 -0.44 *
Ocimum gratissimumSeed-- 1670.0 -0.46 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Thymus capitatusShoot-- 21.0 -0.48 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Myrtus communisShoot1.0 15.0 -0.48 *
Calamintha nepetaShoot-- 8.0 -0.49 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 5.0 -0.49 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Ephedra sinicaShoot-- 4.0 -0.49 *
Cymbopogon winterianusPlant66.0 233.0 -0.49 *
Elsholtzia blandaShoot-- 0.9 -0.49 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot-- 0.5 -0.49 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Thymus cilicicusShoot-- 0.1 -0.49 Tumen, G., Koyuncu, M., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil of Thymus cilicicus Boiss. & Bal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- -- -0.49 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- -- -0.49 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria myrtifoliaShoot-- -- -0.49 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Origanum onitesShoot-- -- -0.49 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Umbellularia californicaPlant10.0 40.0 -0.6 *
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 14.0 -0.61 *
Lavandula latifoliaPlant-- 9.0 -0.61 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Laurus nobilisLeaf18.0 1335.0 -0.66 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha pulegiumEssential Oil-- 16000.0 -0.67 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark1.8 375.0 -0.69 *
Cistus ladaniferusLeaf15.0 1050.0 -0.69 *
Alpinia officinarumRhizome90.0 400.0 -0.7 *
Myristica fragransEssential Oil2000.0 3000.0 -0.7 *
Commiphora myrrhaEssential Oil-- 2300.0 -0.7 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Curcuma longaEssential Oil-- 2100.0 -0.71 *
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit-- 0.02 -0.71 *
Morinda citrifoliaFruit-- 0.01 -0.71 *
Acorus calamusRhizome30.0 300.0 -0.72 *
Ravensara aromaticaBark-- 110.0 -0.72 *
Anethum graveolensLeaf280.0 750.0 -0.73 *
Hyssopus officinalisLeaf2.0 443.0 -0.76 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumLeaf2.8 400.0 -0.77 *
Ravensara aromaticaLeaf-- 60.0 -0.81 *
Juglans regiaLeaf10.0 30.0 -0.81 *
Micromeria congestaLeaf5.0 15.0 -0.81 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Eucalyptus brassianaLeaf-- -- -0.82 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Myristica fragransSeed40.0 320.0 -0.93 *
Ocimum tenuiflorumStem20.0 100.0 -1.0 *
Aspalathus linearisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 13600.0 -1.01 *
Laurus nobilisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 10200.0 -1.02 *
Artemisia capillarisEssential Oil-- -- *
Pogostemon cablinPlant-- -- *
Myristica fragransSeed Essent. Oil1000.0 38000.0 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumPlant-- -- *
Laurus nobilisEssential Oil-- -- *
Vanilla planifoliaFruit-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Melia azedarachWood-- -- *
Nicotiana tabacumLeaf-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Agathosma betulinaLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Ocimum tenuiflorumInflorescence-- -- *
Hyssopus officinalisEssential Oil-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumFruit-- -- *
Polianthes tuberosaFlower-- -- *
Lantana camaraLeaf-- -- *
Mentha longifoliaShoot-- -- *
Piper auritumLeaf-- -- Tramil
Zea maysSeed-- -- *
Ligustrum japonicumFlower-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Capsicum annuumFruit-- -- *
Psidium guajavaEssential Oil-- -- *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascensEssential Oil-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cuminum cyminumFruit-- -- *
Camellia sinensisFruit-- -- *
Pueraria montanaFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumPlant-- -- *
Thymus funkiiShoot-- -- Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Stevia rebaudianaFlower-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Ocimum basilicumShoot Essent. Oil5700.0 26700.0 *
Coffea arabicaSeed-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Humulus lupulusEssential Oil-- -- *
Prunus cerasusPlant-- -- *
Tanacetum partheniumFruit Essent. Oil-- 1000.0 *
Tanacetum partheniumEssential Oil-- -- *
Ptychopetalum olacoidesRoot-- -- Ito, Y., Hirayama, F., Aikawa, Y., Kondo, H., Sagara, K., Shoji, J. 1995. Constituents from Muira-Puama (The Roots of Ptychopetalum olacoides). Nat. Med. 49, 4: 487.
Prunus dulcisFlower-- -- *
Oenanthe javanicaShoot-- -- *
Pelargonium graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Ocimum canumShoot-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Cinnamomum verumEssential Oil-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumBark Essent. Oil61000.0 420000.0 *
Cinnamomum verumStem Bark-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumRoot Bark-- -- *
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- -- *
Sassafras albidumRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Syzygium aromaticumBulb-- -- *
Pimenta dioicaFlower Essent. Oil-- 543000.0 *
Viola odorataLeaf-- -- *
Melaleuca bracteataLeaf-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Scutellaria baicalensisRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Curcuma longaTuber-- -- *
Melaleuca viridifloraLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Acacia farnesianaFlower-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Croton eluteriaBark-- -- *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit Juice-- 0.01 *
Cananga odorataFlower-- -- *
Thymus vulgarisPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit-- -- *
Cynara cardunculusEssential Oil-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Artemisia dracunculusEssential Oil-- -- *
Melissa officinalisShoot-- -- *
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Aloysia citrodoraPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Agastache rugosaShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Magnolia kobusFlower-- -- *
Drimys winteriBark-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusShoot-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil-- -- *
Hibiscus sabdariffaCalyx-- -- *
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- *
Cuminum cyminumSeed-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Apium graveolensSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Cinnamomum camphoraPlant-- -- *
Piper nigrumLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Ocimum spPlant-- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumEssential Oil-- -- *
Mentha spicataLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha x piperitaEssential Oil-- -- *
Origanum vulgareShoot-- -- *
Ficus caricaFruit-- -- *
Helichrysum angustifoliumPlant-- -- *
Curcuma longaRhizome Essent. Oil-- 2100.0 *
Commiphora myrrhaResin, Exudate, Sap-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Artemisia dracunculusShoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Narcissus tazettaFlower-- -- *
Rosa centifoliaEssential Oil-- -- *
Camellia sinensisFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Ficus caricaFlower-- -- *
Helianthus annuusFlower-- -- *
Mentha spicataShoot-- -- *
Mentha spicataEssential Oil-- -- *
Apium graveolensPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Croton lechleriPlant-- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Boronia megastigmaFlower-- -- *
Trifolium pratenseFlower-- -- *
Anethum graveolensPlant-- -- *
Morus albaPlant-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumSeed-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Santalum albumWood-- -- *
Foeniculum vulgareRoot Essent. Oil-- 2000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Peumus boldusLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Foeniculum vulgareSprout Seedling-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Lonicera japonicaFlower-- -- Schlotzhauer, W.S., S.D. Pair, and R.J. Horvat. 1996. Volatile constituents from the flowers of Japanese Honeysuckle. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:206-209.
Eucalyptus citriodoraEssential Oil-- -- *
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot-- 1.0 *
Levisticum officinaleRoot-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Iris x germanicaRhizome-- -- *
Anethum graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Lavandula x intermediaPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Rosa damascenaEssential Oil-- -- *
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Syzygium aromaticumBark-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.