Data Views

Paginate rows. Click on column headings to sort table by that column
Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Artemisia capillarisEssential Oil-- -- *
Pogostemon cablinPlant-- -- *
Myristica fragransSeed Essent. Oil1000.0 38000.0 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumPlant-- -- *
Laurus nobilisEssential Oil-- -- *
Vanilla planifoliaFruit-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Melia azedarachWood-- -- *
Nicotiana tabacumLeaf-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Agathosma betulinaLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Ocimum tenuiflorumInflorescence-- -- *
Hyssopus officinalisEssential Oil-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumFruit-- -- *
Polianthes tuberosaFlower-- -- *
Lantana camaraLeaf-- -- *
Mentha longifoliaShoot-- -- *
Piper auritumLeaf-- -- Tramil
Zea maysSeed-- -- *
Ligustrum japonicumFlower-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Capsicum annuumFruit-- -- *
Psidium guajavaEssential Oil-- -- *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascensEssential Oil-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cuminum cyminumFruit-- -- *
Camellia sinensisFruit-- -- *
Pueraria montanaFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumPlant-- -- *
Thymus funkiiShoot-- -- Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Stevia rebaudianaFlower-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Ocimum basilicumShoot Essent. Oil5700.0 26700.0 *
Coffea arabicaSeed-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Humulus lupulusEssential Oil-- -- *
Prunus cerasusPlant-- -- *
Tanacetum partheniumFruit Essent. Oil-- 1000.0 *
Tanacetum partheniumEssential Oil-- -- *
Ptychopetalum olacoidesRoot-- -- Ito, Y., Hirayama, F., Aikawa, Y., Kondo, H., Sagara, K., Shoji, J. 1995. Constituents from Muira-Puama (The Roots of Ptychopetalum olacoides). Nat. Med. 49, 4: 487.
Prunus dulcisFlower-- -- *
Oenanthe javanicaShoot-- -- *
Pelargonium graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Ocimum canumShoot-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Cinnamomum verumEssential Oil-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumBark Essent. Oil61000.0 420000.0 *
Cinnamomum verumStem Bark-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumRoot Bark-- -- *
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- -- *
Sassafras albidumRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Syzygium aromaticumBulb-- -- *
Pimenta dioicaFlower Essent. Oil-- 543000.0 *
Viola odorataLeaf-- -- *
Melaleuca bracteataLeaf-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Scutellaria baicalensisRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Curcuma longaTuber-- -- *
Melaleuca viridifloraLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Acacia farnesianaFlower-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Croton eluteriaBark-- -- *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit Juice-- 0.01 *
Cananga odorataFlower-- -- *
Thymus vulgarisPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit-- -- *
Cynara cardunculusEssential Oil-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Artemisia dracunculusEssential Oil-- -- *
Melissa officinalisShoot-- -- *
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Aloysia citrodoraPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Agastache rugosaShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Magnolia kobusFlower-- -- *
Drimys winteriBark-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusShoot-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil-- -- *
Hibiscus sabdariffaCalyx-- -- *
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- *
Cuminum cyminumSeed-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Apium graveolensSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Cinnamomum camphoraPlant-- -- *
Piper nigrumLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Ocimum spPlant-- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumEssential Oil-- -- *
Mentha spicataLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha x piperitaEssential Oil-- -- *
Origanum vulgareShoot-- -- *
Ficus caricaFruit-- -- *
Helichrysum angustifoliumPlant-- -- *
Curcuma longaRhizome Essent. Oil-- 2100.0 *
Commiphora myrrhaResin, Exudate, Sap-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Artemisia dracunculusShoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Narcissus tazettaFlower-- -- *
Rosa centifoliaEssential Oil-- -- *
Camellia sinensisFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Ficus caricaFlower-- -- *
Helianthus annuusFlower-- -- *
Mentha spicataShoot-- -- *
Mentha spicataEssential Oil-- -- *
Apium graveolensPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Croton lechleriPlant-- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Boronia megastigmaFlower-- -- *
Trifolium pratenseFlower-- -- *
Anethum graveolensPlant-- -- *
Morus albaPlant-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumSeed-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Santalum albumWood-- -- *
Foeniculum vulgareRoot Essent. Oil-- 2000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Peumus boldusLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Foeniculum vulgareSprout Seedling-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Lonicera japonicaFlower-- -- Schlotzhauer, W.S., S.D. Pair, and R.J. Horvat. 1996. Volatile constituents from the flowers of Japanese Honeysuckle. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:206-209.
Eucalyptus citriodoraEssential Oil-- -- *
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot-- 1.0 *
Levisticum officinaleRoot-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Iris x germanicaRhizome-- -- *
Anethum graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Lavandula x intermediaPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Rosa damascenaEssential Oil-- -- *
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Syzygium aromaticumBark-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Laurus nobilisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 10200.0 -1.02 *
Aspalathus linearisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 13600.0 -1.01 *
Ocimum tenuiflorumStem20.0 100.0 -1.0 *
Myristica fragransSeed40.0 320.0 -0.93 *
Eucalyptus brassianaLeaf-- -- -0.82 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Micromeria congestaLeaf5.0 15.0 -0.81 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Juglans regiaLeaf10.0 30.0 -0.81 *
Ravensara aromaticaLeaf-- 60.0 -0.81 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumLeaf2.8 400.0 -0.77 *
Hyssopus officinalisLeaf2.0 443.0 -0.76 *
Anethum graveolensLeaf280.0 750.0 -0.73 *
Ravensara aromaticaBark-- 110.0 -0.72 *
Acorus calamusRhizome30.0 300.0 -0.72 *
Morinda citrifoliaFruit-- 0.01 -0.71 *
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit-- 0.02 -0.71 *
Curcuma longaEssential Oil-- 2100.0 -0.71 *
Commiphora myrrhaEssential Oil-- 2300.0 -0.7 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Myristica fragransEssential Oil2000.0 3000.0 -0.7 *
Alpinia officinarumRhizome90.0 400.0 -0.7 *
Cistus ladaniferusLeaf15.0 1050.0 -0.69 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark1.8 375.0 -0.69 *
Mentha pulegiumEssential Oil-- 16000.0 -0.67 *
Laurus nobilisLeaf18.0 1335.0 -0.66 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula latifoliaPlant-- 9.0 -0.61 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 14.0 -0.61 *
Umbellularia californicaPlant10.0 40.0 -0.6 *
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- -- -0.49 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- -- -0.49 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria myrtifoliaShoot-- -- -0.49 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Origanum onitesShoot-- -- -0.49 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Thymus cilicicusShoot-- 0.1 -0.49 Tumen, G., Koyuncu, M., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil of Thymus cilicicus Boiss. & Bal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot-- 0.5 -0.49 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Elsholtzia blandaShoot-- 0.9 -0.49 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Cymbopogon winterianusPlant66.0 233.0 -0.49 *
Ephedra sinicaShoot-- 4.0 -0.49 *
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 5.0 -0.49 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Calamintha nepetaShoot-- 8.0 -0.49 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Myrtus communisShoot1.0 15.0 -0.48 *
Thymus capitatusShoot-- 21.0 -0.48 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Ocimum gratissimumSeed-- 1670.0 -0.46 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Mentha pulegiumPlant160.0 320.0 -0.44 *
Pycnanthemum setosumShoot60.0 93.0 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum minutiflorumShoot55.0 125.0 -0.39 Baser, K.H.C., Tumen, G., Sezik, E. 1991. The Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 445-446.
Rosa gallicaFlower2.0 4.0 -0.38 *
Hyacinthus orientalisFlower0.32 4.6 -0.38 *
Jasminum officinaleFlower3.0 10.0 -0.38 *
Ocimum kilimandscharicumFlower-- 35.0 -0.38 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Viola odorataFlower147.0 357.0 -0.38 *
Hyssopus officinalisFlower62.0 624.0 -0.37 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 72.
Dianthus caryophyllusFlower0.6 870.0 -0.37 *
Origanum majoranaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 255000.0 -0.35 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf Essent. Oil51200.0 270000.0 -0.31 *
Ocimum sanctumLeaf4200.0 4970.0 -0.23 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Ocimum tenuiflorumLeaf45.0 5580.0 -0.16 *
Ageratum conyzoidesShoot-- 800.0 0.15 R. Vera, (1993); Chemical composition of the essential oil Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) from Reunion, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol.8, 257-260.
Ocimum basilicumLeaf14.0 8575.0 0.19 *
Origanum majoranaPlant200.0 2000.0 0.47 *
Pimenta dioicaLeaf8348.0 12000.0 0.59 *
Syzygium aromaticumStem36000.0 57000.0 1.0 *
Syzygium aromaticumEssential Oil61000.0 627000.0 1.06 *
Pimenta dioicaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 792400.0 1.14 *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf1400.0 16800.0 1.16 Wealth of India.
Piper betelLeaf535.0 17850.0 1.28 *
Daucus carotaSeed-- 7000.0 1.39 *
Cinnamomum verumBark140.0 16800.0 1.41 *
Alpinia galangaRhizome100.0 12000.0 1.41 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pimenta dioicaFruit3500.0 36000.0 1.41 *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf Essent. Oil701000.0 945000.0 1.56 *
Ocimum basilicumEssential Oil300.0 857500.0 1.71 *
Pimenta racemosaLeaf16.0 21840.0 1.75 *
Ocimum suaveShoot110.0 2860.0 1.82 J. Nat. Prod. 44: 308.
Ocimum kilimandscharicumShoot-- 3000.0 1.93 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Syzygium aromaticumLeaf7920.0 26400.0 2.29 *
Ocimum gratissimumPlant-- 5340.0 2.29 *
Syzygium aromaticumFlower108655.0 180000.0 2.65 *
Ocimum gratissimumShoot-- 4045.0 2.78 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.