Data Views

Paginate rows. Click on column headings to sort table by that column
Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil-- -- *
Zea maysSeed-- -- *
Viola odorataLeaf-- -- *
Viola odorataFlower147.0 357.0 -0.38 *
Vanilla planifoliaFruit-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit Juice-- 0.01 *
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit-- 0.02 -0.71 *
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit-- -- *
Umbellularia californicaPlant10.0 40.0 -0.6 *
Trifolium pratenseFlower-- -- *
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Thymus capitatusShoot-- 21.0 -0.48 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- -- Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus vulgarisPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 5.0 -0.49 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus cilicicusShoot-- 0.1 -0.49 Tumen, G., Koyuncu, M., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil of Thymus cilicicus Boiss. & Bal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Tanacetum partheniumEssential Oil-- -- *
Tanacetum partheniumFruit Essent. Oil-- 1000.0 *
Syzygium aromaticumFlower108655.0 180000.0 2.65 *
Syzygium aromaticumEssential Oil61000.0 627000.0 1.06 *
Syzygium aromaticumLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumStem36000.0 57000.0 1.0 *
Syzygium aromaticumFruit-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumBark-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumLeaf7920.0 26400.0 2.29 *
Syzygium aromaticumBulb-- -- *
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stevia rebaudianaFlower-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Scutellaria baicalensisRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Sassafras albidumRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Santalum albumWood-- -- *
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot-- 0.5 -0.49 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Rosa gallicaFlower2.0 4.0 -0.38 *
Rosa damascenaEssential Oil-- -- *
Rosa centifoliaEssential Oil-- -- *
Ravensara aromaticaBark-- 110.0 -0.72 *
Ravensara aromaticaLeaf-- 60.0 -0.81 *
Pycnanthemum setosumShoot60.0 93.0 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pueraria montanaFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Ptychopetalum olacoidesRoot-- -- Ito, Y., Hirayama, F., Aikawa, Y., Kondo, H., Sagara, K., Shoji, J. 1995. Constituents from Muira-Puama (The Roots of Ptychopetalum olacoides). Nat. Med. 49, 4: 487.
Psidium guajavaEssential Oil-- -- *
Prunus dulcisFlower-- -- *
Prunus cerasusPlant-- -- *
Polianthes tuberosaFlower-- -- *
Pogostemon cablinPlant-- -- *
Piper betelLeaf535.0 17850.0 1.28 *
Piper nigrumLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Piper auritumLeaf-- -- Tramil
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumPlant-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumSeed-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pimpinella anisumEssential Oil-- -- *
Pimenta dioicaLeaf8348.0 12000.0 0.59 *
Pimenta dioicaFlower Essent. Oil-- 543000.0 *
Pimenta dioicaFruit3500.0 36000.0 1.41 *
Pimenta racemosaLeaf16.0 21840.0 1.75 *
Pimenta dioicaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 792400.0 1.14 *
Peumus boldusLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pelargonium graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Origanum minutiflorumShoot55.0 125.0 -0.39 Baser, K.H.C., Tumen, G., Sezik, E. 1991. The Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 445-446.
Origanum majoranaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 255000.0 -0.35 *
Origanum onitesShoot-- -- -0.49 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Origanum majoranaPlant200.0 2000.0 0.47 *
Origanum vulgareShoot-- -- *
Oenanthe javanicaShoot-- -- *
Ocimum basilicumEssential Oil300.0 857500.0 1.71 *
Ocimum sanctumLeaf4200.0 4970.0 -0.23 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Ocimum canumShoot-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Ocimum tenuiflorumLeaf45.0 5580.0 -0.16 *
Ocimum gratissimumSeed-- 1670.0 -0.46 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ocimum basilicumLeaf Essent. Oil51200.0 270000.0 -0.31 *
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 14.0 -0.61 *
Ocimum suaveShoot110.0 2860.0 1.82 J. Nat. Prod. 44: 308.
Ocimum kilimandscharicumShoot-- 3000.0 1.93 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum tenuiflorumInflorescence-- -- *
Ocimum gratissimumPlant-- 5340.0 2.29 *
Ocimum basilicumShoot Essent. Oil5700.0 26700.0 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf14.0 8575.0 0.19 *
Ocimum spPlant-- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Ocimum kilimandscharicumFlower-- 35.0 -0.38 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum tenuiflorumStem20.0 100.0 -1.0 *
Ocimum gratissimumShoot-- 4045.0 2.78 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Nicotiana tabacumLeaf-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Narcissus tazettaFlower-- -- *
Myrtus communisShoot1.0 15.0 -0.48 *
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- -- *
Myristica fragransEssential Oil2000.0 3000.0 -0.7 *
Myristica fragransSeed40.0 320.0 -0.93 *
Myristica fragransSeed Essent. Oil1000.0 38000.0 *
Morus albaPlant-- -- *
Morinda citrifoliaFruit-- 0.01 -0.71 *
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- -- -0.49 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria congestaLeaf5.0 15.0 -0.81 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- -- -0.49 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria myrtifoliaShoot-- -- -0.49 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Mentha spicataLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha pulegiumEssential Oil-- 16000.0 -0.67 *
Mentha longifoliaShoot-- -- *
Mentha pulegiumPlant160.0 320.0 -0.44 *
Mentha spicataEssential Oil-- -- *
Mentha x piperitaEssential Oil-- -- *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascensEssential Oil-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Mentha spicataShoot-- -- *
Melissa officinalisShoot-- -- *
Melia azedarachWood-- -- *
Melaleuca viridifloraLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Melaleuca bracteataLeaf-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Magnolia kobusFlower-- -- *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- -- *
Lonicera japonicaFlower-- -- Schlotzhauer, W.S., S.D. Pair, and R.J. Horvat. 1996. Volatile constituents from the flowers of Japanese Honeysuckle. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:206-209.
Ligustrum japonicumFlower-- -- *
Levisticum officinaleRoot-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Lavandula latifoliaPlant-- 9.0 -0.61 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula x intermediaPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Laurus nobilisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 10200.0 -1.02 *
Laurus nobilisEssential Oil-- -- *
Laurus nobilisLeaf18.0 1335.0 -0.66 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lantana camaraLeaf-- -- *
Juglans regiaLeaf10.0 30.0 -0.81 *
Jasminum officinaleFlower3.0 10.0 -0.38 *
Iris x germanicaRhizome-- -- *
Hyssopus officinalisLeaf2.0 443.0 -0.76 *
Hyssopus officinalisFlower62.0 624.0 -0.37 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 72.
Hyssopus officinalisEssential Oil-- -- *
Hyacinthus orientalisFlower0.32 4.6 -0.38 *
Humulus lupulusEssential Oil-- -- *
Hibiscus sabdariffaCalyx-- -- *
Helichrysum angustifoliumPlant-- -- *
Helianthus annuusFlower-- -- *
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot-- 1.0 *
Foeniculum vulgareSprout Seedling-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Foeniculum vulgareRoot Essent. Oil-- 2000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Ficus caricaFlower-- -- *
Ficus caricaFruit-- -- *
Eucalyptus brassianaLeaf-- -- -0.82 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Eucalyptus citriodoraEssential Oil-- -- *
Ephedra sinicaShoot-- 4.0 -0.49 *
Elsholtzia blandaShoot-- 0.9 -0.49 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Drimys winteriBark-- -- *
Dianthus caryophyllusFlower0.6 870.0 -0.37 *
Daucus carotaSeed-- 7000.0 1.39 *
Cynara cardunculusEssential Oil-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Cymbopogon winterianusPlant66.0 233.0 -0.49 *
Curcuma longaTuber-- -- *
Curcuma longaEssential Oil-- 2100.0 -0.71 *
Curcuma longaRhizome Essent. Oil-- 2100.0 *
Cuminum cyminumFruit-- -- *
Cuminum cyminumSeed-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Croton eluteriaBark-- -- *
Croton lechleriPlant-- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Commiphora myrrhaResin, Exudate, Sap-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Commiphora myrrhaEssential Oil-- 2300.0 -0.7 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Coffea arabicaSeed-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cistus ladaniferusLeaf15.0 1050.0 -0.69 *
Cinnamomum verumBark Essent. Oil61000.0 420000.0 *
Cinnamomum verumBark140.0 16800.0 1.41 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark1.8 375.0 -0.69 *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf Essent. Oil701000.0 945000.0 1.56 *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf1400.0 16800.0 1.16 Wealth of India.
Cinnamomum verumRoot Bark-- -- *
Cinnamomum camphoraPlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticumLeaf2.8 400.0 -0.77 *
Cinnamomum verumEssential Oil-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumStem Bark-- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticumPlant-- -- *
Capsicum annuumFruit-- -- *
Cananga odorataFlower-- -- *
Camellia sinensisFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Camellia sinensisFruit-- -- *
Calamintha nepetaShoot-- 8.0 -0.49 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Boronia megastigmaFlower-- -- *
Aspalathus linearisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 13600.0 -1.01 *
Artemisia dracunculusEssential Oil-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusShoot-- -- *
Artemisia capillarisEssential Oil-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusShoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Apium graveolensSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Apium graveolensPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Anethum graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Anethum graveolensLeaf280.0 750.0 -0.73 *
Anethum graveolensPlant-- -- *
Alpinia galangaRhizome100.0 12000.0 1.41 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Alpinia officinarumRhizome90.0 400.0 -0.7 *
Aloysia citrodoraPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Ageratum conyzoidesShoot-- 800.0 0.15 R. Vera, (1993); Chemical composition of the essential oil Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) from Reunion, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol.8, 257-260.
Agathosma betulinaLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Agastache rugosaShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Acorus calamusRhizome30.0 300.0 -0.72 *
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Acacia farnesianaFlower-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.