Data Views

Paginate
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Acacia farnesianaFlower-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Acorus calamusRhizome30.0 300.0 -0.72 *
Agastache rugosaShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Agathosma betulinaLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Ageratum conyzoidesShoot-- 800.0 0.15 R. Vera, (1993); Chemical composition of the essential oil Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) from Reunion, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol.8, 257-260.
Aloysia citrodoraPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Alpinia galangaRhizome100.0 12000.0 1.41 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Alpinia officinarumRhizome90.0 400.0 -0.7 *
Anethum graveolensPlant-- -- *
Anethum graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Anethum graveolensLeaf280.0 750.0 -0.73 *
Apium graveolensSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Apium graveolensPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Artemisia dracunculusShoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusShoot-- -- *
Artemisia capillarisEssential Oil-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusEssential Oil-- -- *
Aspalathus linearisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 13600.0 -1.01 *
Boronia megastigmaFlower-- -- *
Calamintha nepetaShoot-- 8.0 -0.49 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Camellia sinensisFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Camellia sinensisFruit-- -- *
Cananga odorataFlower-- -- *
Capsicum annuumFruit-- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticumLeaf2.8 400.0 -0.77 *
Cinnamomum verumStem Bark-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumBark Essent. Oil61000.0 420000.0 *
Cinnamomum camphoraPlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark1.8 375.0 -0.69 *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf1400.0 16800.0 1.16 Wealth of India.
Cinnamomum verumLeaf Essent. Oil701000.0 945000.0 1.56 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumPlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumRoot Bark-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumBark140.0 16800.0 1.41 *
Cinnamomum verumEssential Oil-- -- *
Cistus ladaniferusLeaf15.0 1050.0 -0.69 *
Coffea arabicaSeed-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Commiphora myrrhaResin, Exudate, Sap-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Commiphora myrrhaEssential Oil-- 2300.0 -0.7 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Croton lechleriPlant-- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Croton eluteriaBark-- -- *
Cuminum cyminumSeed-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cuminum cyminumFruit-- -- *
Curcuma longaEssential Oil-- 2100.0 -0.71 *
Curcuma longaTuber-- -- *
Curcuma longaRhizome Essent. Oil-- 2100.0 *
Cymbopogon winterianusPlant66.0 233.0 -0.49 *
Cynara cardunculusEssential Oil-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Daucus carotaSeed-- 7000.0 1.39 *
Dianthus caryophyllusFlower0.6 870.0 -0.37 *
Drimys winteriBark-- -- *
Elsholtzia blandaShoot-- 0.9 -0.49 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Ephedra sinicaShoot-- 4.0 -0.49 *
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Eucalyptus brassianaLeaf-- -- -0.82 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Eucalyptus citriodoraEssential Oil-- -- *
Ficus caricaFruit-- -- *
Ficus caricaFlower-- -- *
Foeniculum vulgareRoot Essent. Oil-- 2000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Foeniculum vulgareSprout Seedling-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot-- 1.0 *
Helianthus annuusFlower-- -- *
Helichrysum angustifoliumPlant-- -- *
Hibiscus sabdariffaCalyx-- -- *
Humulus lupulusEssential Oil-- -- *
Hyacinthus orientalisFlower0.32 4.6 -0.38 *
Hyssopus officinalisFlower62.0 624.0 -0.37 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 72.
Hyssopus officinalisLeaf2.0 443.0 -0.76 *
Hyssopus officinalisEssential Oil-- -- *
Iris x germanicaRhizome-- -- *
Jasminum officinaleFlower3.0 10.0 -0.38 *
Juglans regiaLeaf10.0 30.0 -0.81 *
Lantana camaraLeaf-- -- *
Laurus nobilisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 10200.0 -1.02 *
Laurus nobilisLeaf18.0 1335.0 -0.66 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Laurus nobilisEssential Oil-- -- *
Lavandula latifoliaPlant-- 9.0 -0.61 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula x intermediaPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Levisticum officinaleRoot-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Ligustrum japonicumFlower-- -- *
Lonicera japonicaFlower-- -- Schlotzhauer, W.S., S.D. Pair, and R.J. Horvat. 1996. Volatile constituents from the flowers of Japanese Honeysuckle. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:206-209.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- -- *
Magnolia kobusFlower-- -- *
Melaleuca viridifloraLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Melaleuca bracteataLeaf-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Melia azedarachWood-- -- *
Melissa officinalisShoot-- -- *
Mentha pulegiumEssential Oil-- 16000.0 -0.67 *
Mentha pulegiumPlant160.0 320.0 -0.44 *
Mentha x piperitaEssential Oil-- -- *
Mentha spicataEssential Oil-- -- *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascensEssential Oil-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Mentha longifoliaShoot-- -- *
Mentha spicataLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha spicataShoot-- -- *
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- -- -0.49 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria congestaLeaf5.0 15.0 -0.81 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- -- -0.49 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria myrtifoliaShoot-- -- -0.49 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Morinda citrifoliaFruit-- 0.01 -0.71 *
Morus albaPlant-- -- *
Myristica fragransEssential Oil2000.0 3000.0 -0.7 *
Myristica fragransSeed40.0 320.0 -0.93 *
Myristica fragransSeed Essent. Oil1000.0 38000.0 *
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- -- *
Myrtus communisShoot1.0 15.0 -0.48 *
Narcissus tazettaFlower-- -- *
Nicotiana tabacumLeaf-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ocimum sanctumLeaf4200.0 4970.0 -0.23 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Ocimum canumShoot-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Ocimum tenuiflorumStem20.0 100.0 -1.0 *
Ocimum gratissimumSeed-- 1670.0 -0.46 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ocimum basilicumEssential Oil300.0 857500.0 1.71 *
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 14.0 -0.61 *
Ocimum suaveShoot110.0 2860.0 1.82 J. Nat. Prod. 44: 308.
Ocimum kilimandscharicumShoot-- 3000.0 1.93 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum tenuiflorumLeaf45.0 5580.0 -0.16 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf Essent. Oil51200.0 270000.0 -0.31 *
Ocimum gratissimumPlant-- 5340.0 2.29 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf14.0 8575.0 0.19 *
Ocimum spPlant-- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Ocimum kilimandscharicumFlower-- 35.0 -0.38 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum tenuiflorumInflorescence-- -- *
Ocimum gratissimumShoot-- 4045.0 2.78 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Ocimum basilicumShoot Essent. Oil5700.0 26700.0 *
Oenanthe javanicaShoot-- -- *
Origanum minutiflorumShoot55.0 125.0 -0.39 Baser, K.H.C., Tumen, G., Sezik, E. 1991. The Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 445-446.
Origanum onitesShoot-- -- -0.49 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Origanum majoranaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 255000.0 -0.35 *
Origanum majoranaPlant200.0 2000.0 0.47 *
Origanum vulgareShoot-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pelargonium graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Peumus boldusLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pimenta dioicaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 792400.0 1.14 *
Pimenta dioicaFruit3500.0 36000.0 1.41 *
Pimenta racemosaLeaf16.0 21840.0 1.75 *
Pimenta dioicaFlower Essent. Oil-- 543000.0 *
Pimenta dioicaLeaf8348.0 12000.0 0.59 *
Pimpinella anisumSeed-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pimpinella anisumPlant-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumEssential Oil-- -- *
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- *
Piper nigrumLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Piper auritumLeaf-- -- Tramil
Piper betelLeaf535.0 17850.0 1.28 *
Pogostemon cablinPlant-- -- *
Polianthes tuberosaFlower-- -- *
Prunus dulcisFlower-- -- *
Prunus cerasusPlant-- -- *
Psidium guajavaEssential Oil-- -- *
Ptychopetalum olacoidesRoot-- -- Ito, Y., Hirayama, F., Aikawa, Y., Kondo, H., Sagara, K., Shoji, J. 1995. Constituents from Muira-Puama (The Roots of Ptychopetalum olacoides). Nat. Med. 49, 4: 487.
Pueraria montanaFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pycnanthemum setosumShoot60.0 93.0 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Ravensara aromaticaBark-- 110.0 -0.72 *
Ravensara aromaticaLeaf-- 60.0 -0.81 *
Rosa gallicaFlower2.0 4.0 -0.38 *
Rosa damascenaEssential Oil-- -- *
Rosa centifoliaEssential Oil-- -- *
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot-- 0.5 -0.49 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Santalum albumWood-- -- *
Sassafras albidumRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Scutellaria baicalensisRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stevia rebaudianaFlower-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Syzygium aromaticumEssential Oil61000.0 627000.0 1.06 *
Syzygium aromaticumStem36000.0 57000.0 1.0 *
Syzygium aromaticumLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumFruit-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumLeaf7920.0 26400.0 2.29 *
Syzygium aromaticumBark-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumBulb-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumFlower108655.0 180000.0 2.65 *
Tanacetum partheniumEssential Oil-- -- *
Tanacetum partheniumFruit Essent. Oil-- 1000.0 *
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 5.0 -0.49 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus cilicicusShoot-- 0.1 -0.49 Tumen, G., Koyuncu, M., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil of Thymus cilicicus Boiss. & Bal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Thymus vulgarisPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- -- Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus capitatusShoot-- 21.0 -0.48 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Trifolium pratenseFlower-- -- *
Umbellularia californicaPlant10.0 40.0 -0.6 *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit Juice-- 0.01 *
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit-- 0.02 -0.71 *
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit-- -- *
Vanilla planifoliaFruit-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Viola odorataLeaf-- -- *
Viola odorataFlower147.0 357.0 -0.38 *
Zea maysSeed-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.