Data Views

Paginate rows. Click on column headings to sort table by that column
Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Acacia farnesianaFlower-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Acorus calamusRhizome30.0 300.0 -0.72 *
Agastache rugosaShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Agathosma betulinaLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Ageratum conyzoidesShoot-- 800.0 0.15 R. Vera, (1993); Chemical composition of the essential oil Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) from Reunion, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol.8, 257-260.
Aloysia citrodoraPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Alpinia officinarumRhizome90.0 400.0 -0.7 *
Alpinia galangaRhizome100.0 12000.0 1.41 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Anethum graveolensLeaf280.0 750.0 -0.73 *
Anethum graveolensPlant-- -- *
Anethum graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Apium graveolensSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Apium graveolensPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Artemisia dracunculusEssential Oil-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusShoot-- -- *
Artemisia capillarisEssential Oil-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusShoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Aspalathus linearisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 13600.0 -1.01 *
Boronia megastigmaFlower-- -- *
Calamintha nepetaShoot-- 8.0 -0.49 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Camellia sinensisFruit-- -- *
Camellia sinensisFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Cananga odorataFlower-- -- *
Capsicum annuumFruit-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf1400.0 16800.0 1.16 Wealth of India.
Cinnamomum verumRoot Bark-- -- *
Cinnamomum camphoraPlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticumLeaf2.8 400.0 -0.77 *
Cinnamomum verumEssential Oil-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumStem Bark-- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticumPlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumBark Essent. Oil61000.0 420000.0 *
Cinnamomum verumBark140.0 16800.0 1.41 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark1.8 375.0 -0.69 *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf Essent. Oil701000.0 945000.0 1.56 *
Cistus ladaniferusLeaf15.0 1050.0 -0.69 *
Coffea arabicaSeed-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Commiphora myrrhaEssential Oil-- 2300.0 -0.7 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Commiphora myrrhaResin, Exudate, Sap-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Croton eluteriaBark-- -- *
Croton lechleriPlant-- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Cuminum cyminumFruit-- -- *
Cuminum cyminumSeed-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Curcuma longaRhizome Essent. Oil-- 2100.0 *
Curcuma longaTuber-- -- *
Curcuma longaEssential Oil-- 2100.0 -0.71 *
Cymbopogon winterianusPlant66.0 233.0 -0.49 *
Cynara cardunculusEssential Oil-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Daucus carotaSeed-- 7000.0 1.39 *
Dianthus caryophyllusFlower0.6 870.0 -0.37 *
Drimys winteriBark-- -- *
Elsholtzia blandaShoot-- 0.9 -0.49 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Ephedra sinicaShoot-- 4.0 -0.49 *
Eucalyptus brassianaLeaf-- -- -0.82 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Eucalyptus citriodoraEssential Oil-- -- *
Ficus caricaFlower-- -- *
Ficus caricaFruit-- -- *
Foeniculum vulgareSprout Seedling-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Foeniculum vulgareRoot Essent. Oil-- 2000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot-- 1.0 *
Helianthus annuusFlower-- -- *
Helichrysum angustifoliumPlant-- -- *
Hibiscus sabdariffaCalyx-- -- *
Humulus lupulusEssential Oil-- -- *
Hyacinthus orientalisFlower0.32 4.6 -0.38 *
Hyssopus officinalisFlower62.0 624.0 -0.37 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 72.
Hyssopus officinalisEssential Oil-- -- *
Hyssopus officinalisLeaf2.0 443.0 -0.76 *
Iris x germanicaRhizome-- -- *
Jasminum officinaleFlower3.0 10.0 -0.38 *
Juglans regiaLeaf10.0 30.0 -0.81 *
Lantana camaraLeaf-- -- *
Laurus nobilisEssential Oil-- -- *
Laurus nobilisLeaf18.0 1335.0 -0.66 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Laurus nobilisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 10200.0 -1.02 *
Lavandula x intermediaPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula latifoliaPlant-- 9.0 -0.61 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Levisticum officinaleRoot-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Ligustrum japonicumFlower-- -- *
Lonicera japonicaFlower-- -- Schlotzhauer, W.S., S.D. Pair, and R.J. Horvat. 1996. Volatile constituents from the flowers of Japanese Honeysuckle. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:206-209.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- -- *
Magnolia kobusFlower-- -- *
Melaleuca viridifloraLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Melaleuca bracteataLeaf-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Melia azedarachWood-- -- *
Melissa officinalisShoot-- -- *
Mentha pulegiumPlant160.0 320.0 -0.44 *
Mentha spicataEssential Oil-- -- *
Mentha x piperitaEssential Oil-- -- *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascensEssential Oil-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Mentha spicataShoot-- -- *
Mentha spicataLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha pulegiumEssential Oil-- 16000.0 -0.67 *
Mentha longifoliaShoot-- -- *
Micromeria congestaLeaf5.0 15.0 -0.81 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- -- -0.49 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria myrtifoliaShoot-- -- -0.49 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- -- -0.49 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Morinda citrifoliaFruit-- 0.01 -0.71 *
Morus albaPlant-- -- *
Myristica fragransSeed Essent. Oil1000.0 38000.0 *
Myristica fragransEssential Oil2000.0 3000.0 -0.7 *
Myristica fragransSeed40.0 320.0 -0.93 *
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- -- *
Myrtus communisShoot1.0 15.0 -0.48 *
Narcissus tazettaFlower-- -- *
Nicotiana tabacumLeaf-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ocimum basilicumLeaf Essent. Oil51200.0 270000.0 -0.31 *
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 14.0 -0.61 *
Ocimum suaveShoot110.0 2860.0 1.82 J. Nat. Prod. 44: 308.
Ocimum kilimandscharicumShoot-- 3000.0 1.93 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum tenuiflorumInflorescence-- -- *
Ocimum gratissimumPlant-- 5340.0 2.29 *
Ocimum basilicumShoot Essent. Oil5700.0 26700.0 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf14.0 8575.0 0.19 *
Ocimum spPlant-- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Ocimum kilimandscharicumFlower-- 35.0 -0.38 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum tenuiflorumStem20.0 100.0 -1.0 *
Ocimum gratissimumShoot-- 4045.0 2.78 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Ocimum basilicumEssential Oil300.0 857500.0 1.71 *
Ocimum sanctumLeaf4200.0 4970.0 -0.23 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Ocimum canumShoot-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Ocimum tenuiflorumLeaf45.0 5580.0 -0.16 *
Ocimum gratissimumSeed-- 1670.0 -0.46 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Oenanthe javanicaShoot-- -- *
Origanum onitesShoot-- -- -0.49 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Origanum majoranaPlant200.0 2000.0 0.47 *
Origanum vulgareShoot-- -- *
Origanum minutiflorumShoot55.0 125.0 -0.39 Baser, K.H.C., Tumen, G., Sezik, E. 1991. The Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 445-446.
Origanum majoranaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 255000.0 -0.35 *
Panax ginsengRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pelargonium graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Peumus boldusLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pimenta dioicaFlower Essent. Oil-- 543000.0 *
Pimenta dioicaFruit3500.0 36000.0 1.41 *
Pimenta racemosaLeaf16.0 21840.0 1.75 *
Pimenta dioicaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 792400.0 1.14 *
Pimenta dioicaLeaf8348.0 12000.0 0.59 *
Pimpinella anisumPlant-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumSeed-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pimpinella anisumEssential Oil-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- *
Piper betelLeaf535.0 17850.0 1.28 *
Piper nigrumLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Piper auritumLeaf-- -- Tramil
Pogostemon cablinPlant-- -- *
Polianthes tuberosaFlower-- -- *
Prunus cerasusPlant-- -- *
Prunus dulcisFlower-- -- *
Psidium guajavaEssential Oil-- -- *
Ptychopetalum olacoidesRoot-- -- Ito, Y., Hirayama, F., Aikawa, Y., Kondo, H., Sagara, K., Shoji, J. 1995. Constituents from Muira-Puama (The Roots of Ptychopetalum olacoides). Nat. Med. 49, 4: 487.
Pueraria montanaFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pycnanthemum setosumShoot60.0 93.0 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Ravensara aromaticaLeaf-- 60.0 -0.81 *
Ravensara aromaticaBark-- 110.0 -0.72 *
Rosa damascenaEssential Oil-- -- *
Rosa centifoliaEssential Oil-- -- *
Rosa gallicaFlower2.0 4.0 -0.38 *
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot-- 0.5 -0.49 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Santalum albumWood-- -- *
Sassafras albidumRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Scutellaria baicalensisRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Stevia rebaudianaFlower-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Syzygium aromaticumFruit-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumBark-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumLeaf7920.0 26400.0 2.29 *
Syzygium aromaticumBulb-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumFlower108655.0 180000.0 2.65 *
Syzygium aromaticumEssential Oil61000.0 627000.0 1.06 *
Syzygium aromaticumLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumStem36000.0 57000.0 1.0 *
Tanacetum partheniumFruit Essent. Oil-- 1000.0 *
Tanacetum partheniumEssential Oil-- -- *
Thymus funkiiShoot-- -- Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus vulgarisPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 5.0 -0.49 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus cilicicusShoot-- 0.1 -0.49 Tumen, G., Koyuncu, M., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil of Thymus cilicicus Boiss. & Bal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Thymus capitatusShoot-- 21.0 -0.48 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Trifolium pratenseFlower-- -- *
Umbellularia californicaPlant10.0 40.0 -0.6 *
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit-- -- *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit Juice-- 0.01 *
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit-- 0.02 -0.71 *
Vanilla planifoliaFruit-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Viola odorataLeaf-- -- *
Viola odorataFlower147.0 357.0 -0.38 *
Zea maysSeed-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.