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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Cinnamomum verumLeaf Essent. Oil701000.0 945000.0 1.56 *
Ocimum basilicumEssential Oil300.0 857500.0 1.71 *
Pimenta dioicaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 792400.0 1.14 *
Syzygium aromaticumEssential Oil61000.0 627000.0 1.06 *
Pimenta dioicaFlower Essent. Oil-- 543000.0 *
Cinnamomum verumBark Essent. Oil61000.0 420000.0 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf Essent. Oil51200.0 270000.0 -0.31 *
Origanum majoranaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 255000.0 -0.35 *
Syzygium aromaticumFlower108655.0 180000.0 2.65 *
Syzygium aromaticumStem36000.0 57000.0 1.0 *
Myristica fragransSeed Essent. Oil1000.0 38000.0 *
Pimenta dioicaFruit3500.0 36000.0 1.41 *
Ocimum basilicumShoot Essent. Oil5700.0 26700.0 *
Syzygium aromaticumLeaf7920.0 26400.0 2.29 *
Pimenta racemosaLeaf16.0 21840.0 1.75 *
Piper betelLeaf535.0 17850.0 1.28 *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf1400.0 16800.0 1.16 Wealth of India.
Cinnamomum verumBark140.0 16800.0 1.41 *
Mentha pulegiumEssential Oil-- 16000.0 -0.67 *
Aspalathus linearisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 13600.0 -1.01 *
Pimenta dioicaLeaf8348.0 12000.0 0.59 *
Alpinia galangaRhizome100.0 12000.0 1.41 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Laurus nobilisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 10200.0 -1.02 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf14.0 8575.0 0.19 *
Daucus carotaSeed-- 7000.0 1.39 *
Ocimum tenuiflorumLeaf45.0 5580.0 -0.16 *
Ocimum gratissimumPlant-- 5340.0 2.29 *
Ocimum sanctumLeaf4200.0 4970.0 -0.23 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Ocimum gratissimumShoot-- 4045.0 2.78 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Myristica fragransEssential Oil2000.0 3000.0 -0.7 *
Ocimum kilimandscharicumShoot-- 3000.0 1.93 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum suaveShoot110.0 2860.0 1.82 J. Nat. Prod. 44: 308.
Commiphora myrrhaEssential Oil-- 2300.0 -0.7 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Curcuma longaEssential Oil-- 2100.0 -0.71 *
Curcuma longaRhizome Essent. Oil-- 2100.0 *
Origanum majoranaPlant200.0 2000.0 0.47 *
Foeniculum vulgareRoot Essent. Oil-- 2000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Ocimum gratissimumSeed-- 1670.0 -0.46 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Laurus nobilisLeaf18.0 1335.0 -0.66 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cistus ladaniferusLeaf15.0 1050.0 -0.69 *
Tanacetum partheniumFruit Essent. Oil-- 1000.0 *
Dianthus caryophyllusFlower0.6 870.0 -0.37 *
Ageratum conyzoidesShoot-- 800.0 0.15 R. Vera, (1993); Chemical composition of the essential oil Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) from Reunion, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol.8, 257-260.
Anethum graveolensLeaf280.0 750.0 -0.73 *
Hyssopus officinalisFlower62.0 624.0 -0.37 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 72.
Hyssopus officinalisLeaf2.0 443.0 -0.76 *
Alpinia officinarumRhizome90.0 400.0 -0.7 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumLeaf2.8 400.0 -0.77 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark1.8 375.0 -0.69 *
Viola odorataFlower147.0 357.0 -0.38 *
Mentha pulegiumPlant160.0 320.0 -0.44 *
Myristica fragransSeed40.0 320.0 -0.93 *
Acorus calamusRhizome30.0 300.0 -0.72 *
Cymbopogon winterianusPlant66.0 233.0 -0.49 *
Origanum minutiflorumShoot55.0 125.0 -0.39 Baser, K.H.C., Tumen, G., Sezik, E. 1991. The Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 445-446.
Ravensara aromaticaBark-- 110.0 -0.72 *
Ocimum tenuiflorumStem20.0 100.0 -1.0 *
Pycnanthemum setosumShoot60.0 93.0 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Ravensara aromaticaLeaf-- 60.0 -0.81 *
Umbellularia californicaPlant10.0 40.0 -0.6 *
Ocimum kilimandscharicumFlower-- 35.0 -0.38 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Juglans regiaLeaf10.0 30.0 -0.81 *
Thymus capitatusShoot-- 21.0 -0.48 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Myrtus communisShoot1.0 15.0 -0.48 *
Micromeria congestaLeaf5.0 15.0 -0.81 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 14.0 -0.61 *
Jasminum officinaleFlower3.0 10.0 -0.38 *
Lavandula latifoliaPlant-- 9.0 -0.61 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Calamintha nepetaShoot-- 8.0 -0.49 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 5.0 -0.49 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Hyacinthus orientalisFlower0.32 4.6 -0.38 *
Rosa gallicaFlower2.0 4.0 -0.38 *
Ephedra sinicaShoot-- 4.0 -0.49 *
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot-- 1.0 *
Elsholtzia blandaShoot-- 0.9 -0.49 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot-- 0.5 -0.49 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Thymus cilicicusShoot-- 0.1 -0.49 Tumen, G., Koyuncu, M., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil of Thymus cilicicus Boiss. & Bal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit-- 0.02 -0.71 *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit Juice-- 0.01 *
Morinda citrifoliaFruit-- 0.01 -0.71 *
Ocimum tenuiflorumInflorescence-- -- *
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- -- -0.49 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- -- -0.49 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria myrtifoliaShoot-- -- -0.49 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Origanum onitesShoot-- -- -0.49 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Eucalyptus brassianaLeaf-- -- -0.82 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Artemisia capillarisEssential Oil-- -- *
Pogostemon cablinPlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticumPlant-- -- *
Laurus nobilisEssential Oil-- -- *
Vanilla planifoliaFruit-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Melia azedarachWood-- -- *
Nicotiana tabacumLeaf-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Agathosma betulinaLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Hyssopus officinalisEssential Oil-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumFruit-- -- *
Polianthes tuberosaFlower-- -- *
Lantana camaraLeaf-- -- *
Mentha longifoliaShoot-- -- *
Piper auritumLeaf-- -- Tramil
Zea maysSeed-- -- *
Ligustrum japonicumFlower-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Capsicum annuumFruit-- -- *
Psidium guajavaEssential Oil-- -- *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascensEssential Oil-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cuminum cyminumFruit-- -- *
Camellia sinensisFruit-- -- *
Pueraria montanaFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumPlant-- -- *
Thymus funkiiShoot-- -- Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Stevia rebaudianaFlower-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Coffea arabicaSeed-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Humulus lupulusEssential Oil-- -- *
Prunus cerasusPlant-- -- *
Tanacetum partheniumEssential Oil-- -- *
Ptychopetalum olacoidesRoot-- -- Ito, Y., Hirayama, F., Aikawa, Y., Kondo, H., Sagara, K., Shoji, J. 1995. Constituents from Muira-Puama (The Roots of Ptychopetalum olacoides). Nat. Med. 49, 4: 487.
Prunus dulcisFlower-- -- *
Oenanthe javanicaShoot-- -- *
Pelargonium graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Ocimum canumShoot-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Cinnamomum verumEssential Oil-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumStem Bark-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumRoot Bark-- -- *
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- -- *
Sassafras albidumRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Syzygium aromaticumBulb-- -- *
Viola odorataLeaf-- -- *
Melaleuca bracteataLeaf-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Scutellaria baicalensisRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Curcuma longaTuber-- -- *
Melaleuca viridifloraLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Acacia farnesianaFlower-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Croton eluteriaBark-- -- *
Cananga odorataFlower-- -- *
Thymus vulgarisPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit-- -- *
Cynara cardunculusEssential Oil-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Artemisia dracunculusEssential Oil-- -- *
Melissa officinalisShoot-- -- *
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Aloysia citrodoraPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Agastache rugosaShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Magnolia kobusFlower-- -- *
Drimys winteriBark-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusShoot-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil-- -- *
Hibiscus sabdariffaCalyx-- -- *
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- *
Cuminum cyminumSeed-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Apium graveolensSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Cinnamomum camphoraPlant-- -- *
Piper nigrumLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Ocimum spPlant-- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumEssential Oil-- -- *
Mentha spicataLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha x piperitaEssential Oil-- -- *
Origanum vulgareShoot-- -- *
Ficus caricaFruit-- -- *
Helichrysum angustifoliumPlant-- -- *
Commiphora myrrhaResin, Exudate, Sap-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Artemisia dracunculusShoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Narcissus tazettaFlower-- -- *
Rosa centifoliaEssential Oil-- -- *
Camellia sinensisFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Ficus caricaFlower-- -- *
Helianthus annuusFlower-- -- *
Mentha spicataShoot-- -- *
Mentha spicataEssential Oil-- -- *
Apium graveolensPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Croton lechleriPlant-- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Boronia megastigmaFlower-- -- *
Trifolium pratenseFlower-- -- *
Anethum graveolensPlant-- -- *
Morus albaPlant-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumSeed-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Santalum albumWood-- -- *
Peumus boldusLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Foeniculum vulgareSprout Seedling-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Lonicera japonicaFlower-- -- Schlotzhauer, W.S., S.D. Pair, and R.J. Horvat. 1996. Volatile constituents from the flowers of Japanese Honeysuckle. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:206-209.
Eucalyptus citriodoraEssential Oil-- -- *
Levisticum officinaleRoot-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Iris x germanicaRhizome-- -- *
Anethum graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Lavandula x intermediaPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Rosa damascenaEssential Oil-- -- *
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Syzygium aromaticumBark-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.