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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Cinnamomum verumLeaf Essent. Oil701000.0 945000.0 1.56 *
Syzygium aromaticumFlower108655.0 180000.0 2.65 *
Syzygium aromaticumEssential Oil61000.0 627000.0 1.06 *
Cinnamomum verumBark Essent. Oil61000.0 420000.0 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf Essent. Oil51200.0 270000.0 -0.31 *
Syzygium aromaticumStem36000.0 57000.0 1.0 *
Pimenta dioicaLeaf8348.0 12000.0 0.59 *
Syzygium aromaticumLeaf7920.0 26400.0 2.29 *
Ocimum basilicumShoot Essent. Oil5700.0 26700.0 *
Ocimum sanctumLeaf4200.0 4970.0 -0.23 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Pimenta dioicaFruit3500.0 36000.0 1.41 *
Myristica fragransEssential Oil2000.0 3000.0 -0.7 *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf1400.0 16800.0 1.16 Wealth of India.
Myristica fragransSeed Essent. Oil1000.0 38000.0 *
Piper betelLeaf535.0 17850.0 1.28 *
Ocimum basilicumEssential Oil300.0 857500.0 1.71 *
Anethum graveolensLeaf280.0 750.0 -0.73 *
Origanum majoranaPlant200.0 2000.0 0.47 *
Mentha pulegiumPlant160.0 320.0 -0.44 *
Viola odorataFlower147.0 357.0 -0.38 *
Cinnamomum verumBark140.0 16800.0 1.41 *
Ocimum suaveShoot110.0 2860.0 1.82 J. Nat. Prod. 44: 308.
Alpinia galangaRhizome100.0 12000.0 1.41 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Alpinia officinarumRhizome90.0 400.0 -0.7 *
Cymbopogon winterianusPlant66.0 233.0 -0.49 *
Hyssopus officinalisFlower62.0 624.0 -0.37 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 72.
Pycnanthemum setosumShoot60.0 93.0 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum minutiflorumShoot55.0 125.0 -0.39 Baser, K.H.C., Tumen, G., Sezik, E. 1991. The Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 445-446.
Ocimum tenuiflorumLeaf45.0 5580.0 -0.16 *
Myristica fragransSeed40.0 320.0 -0.93 *
Acorus calamusRhizome30.0 300.0 -0.72 *
Ocimum tenuiflorumStem20.0 100.0 -1.0 *
Laurus nobilisLeaf18.0 1335.0 -0.66 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pimenta racemosaLeaf16.0 21840.0 1.75 *
Cistus ladaniferusLeaf15.0 1050.0 -0.69 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf14.0 8575.0 0.19 *
Juglans regiaLeaf10.0 30.0 -0.81 *
Umbellularia californicaPlant10.0 40.0 -0.6 *
Micromeria congestaLeaf5.0 15.0 -0.81 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Jasminum officinaleFlower3.0 10.0 -0.38 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumLeaf2.8 400.0 -0.77 *
Rosa gallicaFlower2.0 4.0 -0.38 *
Hyssopus officinalisLeaf2.0 443.0 -0.76 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark1.8 375.0 -0.69 *
Myrtus communisShoot1.0 15.0 -0.48 *
Dianthus caryophyllusFlower0.6 870.0 -0.37 *
Hyacinthus orientalisFlower0.32 4.6 -0.38 *
Ocimum gratissimumPlant-- 5340.0 2.29 *
Ocimum kilimandscharicumFlower-- 35.0 -0.38 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum kilimandscharicumShoot-- 3000.0 1.93 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Lavandula latifoliaPlant-- 9.0 -0.61 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Daucus carotaSeed-- 7000.0 1.39 *
Artemisia capillarisEssential Oil-- -- *
Pogostemon cablinPlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticumPlant-- -- *
Laurus nobilisEssential Oil-- -- *
Laurus nobilisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 10200.0 -1.02 *
Vanilla planifoliaFruit-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Melia azedarachWood-- -- *
Nicotiana tabacumLeaf-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Calamintha nepetaShoot-- 8.0 -0.49 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Agathosma betulinaLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Ocimum tenuiflorumInflorescence-- -- *
Hyssopus officinalisEssential Oil-- -- *
Ravensara aromaticaBark-- 110.0 -0.72 *
Syzygium aromaticumFruit-- -- *
Polianthes tuberosaFlower-- -- *
Ravensara aromaticaLeaf-- 60.0 -0.81 *
Lantana camaraLeaf-- -- *
Mentha longifoliaShoot-- -- *
Piper auritumLeaf-- -- Tramil
Zea maysSeed-- -- *
Ligustrum japonicumFlower-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Capsicum annuumFruit-- -- *
Psidium guajavaEssential Oil-- -- *
Aspalathus linearisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 13600.0 -1.01 *
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- -- -0.49 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Mentha arvensis var. piperascensEssential Oil-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- -- -0.49 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Cuminum cyminumFruit-- -- *
Camellia sinensisFruit-- -- *
Pueraria montanaFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumPlant-- -- *
Elsholtzia blandaShoot-- 0.9 -0.49 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 5.0 -0.49 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- -- Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Stevia rebaudianaFlower-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Coffea arabicaSeed-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Humulus lupulusEssential Oil-- -- *
Prunus cerasusPlant-- -- *
Tanacetum partheniumFruit Essent. Oil-- 1000.0 *
Tanacetum partheniumEssential Oil-- -- *
Ptychopetalum olacoidesRoot-- -- Ito, Y., Hirayama, F., Aikawa, Y., Kondo, H., Sagara, K., Shoji, J. 1995. Constituents from Muira-Puama (The Roots of Ptychopetalum olacoides). Nat. Med. 49, 4: 487.
Prunus dulcisFlower-- -- *
Oenanthe javanicaShoot-- -- *
Pelargonium graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Ocimum canumShoot-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Cinnamomum verumEssential Oil-- -- *
Ocimum gratissimumSeed-- 1670.0 -0.46 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ocimum gratissimumShoot-- 4045.0 2.78 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Cinnamomum verumStem Bark-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumRoot Bark-- -- *
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- -- *
Sassafras albidumRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Syzygium aromaticumBulb-- -- *
Pimenta dioicaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 792400.0 1.14 *
Pimenta dioicaFlower Essent. Oil-- 543000.0 *
Viola odorataLeaf-- -- *
Melaleuca bracteataLeaf-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Ageratum conyzoidesShoot-- 800.0 0.15 R. Vera, (1993); Chemical composition of the essential oil Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) from Reunion, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol.8, 257-260.
Scutellaria baicalensisRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Curcuma longaTuber-- -- *
Melaleuca viridifloraLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Micromeria myrtifoliaShoot-- -- -0.49 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Acacia farnesianaFlower-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Croton eluteriaBark-- -- *
Commiphora myrrhaEssential Oil-- 2300.0 -0.7 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Thymus cilicicusShoot-- 0.1 -0.49 Tumen, G., Koyuncu, M., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil of Thymus cilicicus Boiss. & Bal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit Juice-- 0.01 *
Cananga odorataFlower-- -- *
Thymus vulgarisPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit-- -- *
Cynara cardunculusEssential Oil-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot-- 0.5 -0.49 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Origanum majoranaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 255000.0 -0.35 *
Artemisia dracunculusEssential Oil-- -- *
Melissa officinalisShoot-- -- *
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Aloysia citrodoraPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Agastache rugosaShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Magnolia kobusFlower-- -- *
Drimys winteriBark-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusShoot-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil-- -- *
Hibiscus sabdariffaCalyx-- -- *
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- *
Origanum onitesShoot-- -- -0.49 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Thymus capitatusShoot-- 21.0 -0.48 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Cuminum cyminumSeed-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Apium graveolensSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Cinnamomum camphoraPlant-- -- *
Curcuma longaEssential Oil-- 2100.0 -0.71 *
Piper nigrumLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Ocimum spPlant-- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- -- *
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 14.0 -0.61 *
Pimpinella anisumSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumEssential Oil-- -- *
Mentha spicataLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha x piperitaEssential Oil-- -- *
Origanum vulgareShoot-- -- *
Ficus caricaFruit-- -- *
Helichrysum angustifoliumPlant-- -- *
Curcuma longaRhizome Essent. Oil-- 2100.0 *
Commiphora myrrhaResin, Exudate, Sap-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Artemisia dracunculusShoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Ephedra sinicaShoot-- 4.0 -0.49 *
Narcissus tazettaFlower-- -- *
Rosa centifoliaEssential Oil-- -- *
Camellia sinensisFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Ficus caricaFlower-- -- *
Helianthus annuusFlower-- -- *
Mentha spicataShoot-- -- *
Mentha spicataEssential Oil-- -- *
Apium graveolensPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Morinda citrifoliaFruit-- 0.01 -0.71 *
Croton lechleriPlant-- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Boronia megastigmaFlower-- -- *
Trifolium pratenseFlower-- -- *
Anethum graveolensPlant-- -- *
Eucalyptus brassianaLeaf-- -- -0.82 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Morus albaPlant-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumSeed-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Santalum albumWood-- -- *
Foeniculum vulgareRoot Essent. Oil-- 2000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Peumus boldusLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Foeniculum vulgareSprout Seedling-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Lonicera japonicaFlower-- -- Schlotzhauer, W.S., S.D. Pair, and R.J. Horvat. 1996. Volatile constituents from the flowers of Japanese Honeysuckle. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:206-209.
Eucalyptus citriodoraEssential Oil-- -- *
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot-- 1.0 *
Levisticum officinaleRoot-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Iris x germanicaRhizome-- -- *
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit-- 0.02 -0.71 *
Anethum graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Lavandula x intermediaPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Rosa damascenaEssential Oil-- -- *
Mentha pulegiumEssential Oil-- 16000.0 -0.67 *
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Syzygium aromaticumBark-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.