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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Anethum graveolensLeaf150.0 400.0 0.92 *
Anethum graveolensPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Apium graveolensLeaf-- -- *
Apium graveolensSeed Essent. Oil-- 1000.0 *
Apium graveolensFruit Essent. Oil-- 2000.0 1.0 *
Apium graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Carum carviSeed200.0 780.0 *
Carum carviEssential Oil-- -- *
Carum carviPlant-- 950.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Carum carviFruit360.0 720.0 *
Cleonia lusitanicaLeaf1.0 8.0 -1.39 Perez-Alonso, M., Velasco-Negueruela, A., and Lopez-Saez, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Cleonia lusitanica. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 441-442.
Ephedra sinicaEssential Oil-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Mentha spicataShoot-- -- *
Mentha longifoliaShoot1.0 3150.0 1.41 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha spicataEssential Oil-- 29000.0 *
Mentha spicataLeaf13.0 325.0 0.47 *
Origanum onitesShoot-- -- -0.71 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Piper nigrumFruit Essent. Oil-- 100.0 -1.0 *
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- *
Piper nigrumEssential Oil-- -- *
Thymus capitatusShoot-- -- -0.71 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.