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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Agathosma betulinaLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Aloysia citrodoraPlant10.0 70.0 -0.58 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Aniba rosaeodoraWood Essent. Oil-- -- *
Asimina trilobaFruit-- 0.024 -0.57 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- -- *
Carum carviSeed-- 0.1 *
Cinnamomum camphoraPlant-- -- *
Citrullus colocynthisPlant-- -- *
Citrus paradisiLeaf-- 70.0 -0.43 *
Citrus limonPericarp-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus limonLeaf Essent. Oil3700.0 14000.0 -0.97 Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus aurantiumPlant-- -- *
Citrus sinensisFruit0.7 1.0 -0.51 *
Citrus limonPericarp Essent. Oil-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus reticulataFruit0.4 0.8 -0.52 *
Cnicus benedictusShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- 8.0 -0.02 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Coriandrum sativumEssential Oil-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumSeed Essent. Oil6150.0 14620.0 *
Cymbopogon citratusPlant-- -- *
Cymbopogon winterianusPlant440.0 770.0 1.13 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cymbopogon nardusPlant252.0 1008.0 1.71 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Elettaria cardamomumFruit14.0 40.0 2.19 *
Elettaria cardamomumFruit Essent. Oil-- 5000.0 1.0 *
Ephedra sinicaShoot-- 6.0 -0.18 *
Eucalyptus punctataShoot-- 110.0 -0.17 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus oviformisShoot-- 0.1 -0.18 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus melliodoraShoot-- 0.1 -0.18 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus brassianaLeaf-- 70.0 -0.43 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Eucalyptus globulusShoot-- 0.1 -0.18 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus cladocalyxShoot-- 10.0 -0.18 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus astringensShoot-- 105.0 -0.17 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf Essent. Oil56000.0 517000.0 1.38 *
Eucalyptus siderophloiaShoot-- 0.1 -0.18 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus polyanthemosShoot-- 0.1 -0.18 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus occidentalisShoot-- 0.1 -0.18 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maideniShoot-- 0.1 -0.18 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus diversicolorShoot-- 0.1 -0.18 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus botryoidesShoot-- 3.0 -0.18 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus citriodoraShoot-- 78000.0 5.99 *
Eucalyptus bosistoanaShoot-- 0.1 -0.18 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus tereticornisShoot-- 0.1 -0.18 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus salignaShoot-- 0.1 -0.18 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus paniculataShoot-- 9.0 -0.18 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus moluccanaShoot-- 70.0 -0.17 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus camaldulensisShoot-- 0.1 -0.18 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maculataShoot-- 0.1 -0.18 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus dealbataShoot-- 0.1 -0.18 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus blakelyiShoot-- 80.0 -0.17 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus albensShoot-- 0.1 -0.18 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf230.0 4000.0 2.24 *
Eucalyptus globulusLeaf Essent. Oil-- 136000.0 -0.4 *
Eucalyptus sideroxylonShoot-- 0.1 -0.18 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Foeniculum vulgareEssential Oil-- 2800.0 -0.77 Jim Duke's personal files.
Juniperus virginianaLeaf-- -- *
Juniperus communisLeaf-- -- *
Lavandula latifoliaPlant1.0 41.0 -0.65 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula angustifoliaFlower-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Melissa officinalisShoot-- 80.0 -0.17 *
Mentha pulegiumPlant90.0 180.0 -0.31 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Mentha pulegiumEssential Oil-- 9000.0 -0.7 *
Mentha x piperitaEssential Oil-- -- *
Myristica fragransEssential Oil-- -- *
Myristica fragransSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Nepeta catariaEssential Oil-- 126000.0 0.52 *
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 0.2 -0.75 Die Nahrung. Pino, J., Rosado, A., Goire, I., Roncal, E., and Garcia, I. 1993. Analysis of the Essential Oil from Cuban Basil. Die Nahrung 37:(5): 501-504.
Ocimum basilicumEssential Oil80000.0 241900.0 1.74 *
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 0.2 -0.75 Die Nahrung. Pino, J., Rosado, A., Goire, I., Roncal, E., and Garcia, I. 1993. Analysis of the Essential Oil from Cuban Basil. Die Nahrung 37:(5): 501-504.
Origanum syriacumShoot-- -- -0.18 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum syriacumShoot-- 0.1 -0.18 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum syriacumShoot-- -- Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Pelargonium citrosumShoot-- 220.0 -0.16 Matsuda, B. M., et al. 1996. Essential Oil Analysis and Field Evaluation of the Citrosa Plant 'Pelargonium citrosum' as a Repellent Against Populations of Aedes Mosquitoes. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 12(1):69-74.
Pelargonium graveolensPlant21.0 1176.0 2.12 *
Pelargonium roseumShoot-- 4050.0 0.14 *
Piper nigrumEssential Oil-- -- *
Piper nigrumFruit Essent. Oil-- 200.0 -1.0 *
Plumeria acutifoliaFlower-- -- *
Ravensara aromaticaLeaf-- 60.0 -0.43 *
Ravensara aromaticaBark-- 22.0 *
Ribes nigrumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rosa gallicaFlower-- -- *
Rosa damascenaEssential Oil-- -- *
Rosa centifoliaEssential Oil-- 1200.0 -0.79 *
Salvia dorisianaShoot-- -- -0.18 Tucker, A.O. & Maciarello, M.J. 1994. The Essential Oil of Salvia dorisiana Standley. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Salvia sclareaPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Santalum albumWood-- -- *
Satureja cuneifoliaShoot-- 40.0 -0.17 Tumen, G. 1991. The Volatile Constituents of Satureja cuneifolia. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 365-366.
Satureja montanaPlant1.0 325.0 0.04 Stanic, G., Petricic, J., and Blazevic, N. 1991. Gas Chromatographic Investigations of Essential Oils of Satureja montana and Satureja subspicata from Yugoslavia. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 153-158.
Satureja obovataShoot-- 1.0 -0.18 Fitoterapia No.60: 277.
Satureja obovataLeaf-- -- Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja parvifoliaShoot-- 150.0 -0.17 Zygadlo, J.A., Merino. E.F., Maestri, D.M., Guzman, C.A. and Espinar, L.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Satureja odora and Satureja parvifolia from Argentina. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 549-51.
Satureja obovataLeaf-- -- Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja obovataLeaf-- 0.01 -0.47 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja odoraShoot-- -- -0.18 Zygadlo, J.A., Merino. E.F., Maestri, D.M., Guzman, C.A. and Espinar, L.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Satureja odora and Satureja parvifolia from Argentina. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 549-51.
Satureja obovataLeaf-- -- Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja subspicataPlant-- 40.0 -0.65 Stanic, G., Petricic, J., and Blazevic, N. 1991. Gas Chromatographic Investigations of Essential Oils of Satureja montana and Satureja subspicata from Yugoslavia. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 153-158.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 16.0 -0.18 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 16.0 -0.18 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus serpyllumPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Thymus x citriodorusPlant-- 30.0 -0.68 Stahl-Biskup, E. and Holthuijzen, J. 1995. Essential oil and glycosidally bound volatiles of lemon-scented thyme, Thymus x citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10: 225-229.
Umbellularia californicaPlant10.0 40.0 -0.65 *
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit0.01 0.03 -0.57 *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit Juice-- 0.001 *
Vitex agnus-castusLeaf-- 0.5 -0.47 Ekundayo, O., Laakso, I., Holopainen, M., Hiltunen, R., Oguntimein, B., and Kauppinen, V. 1990. The Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaf Oil of Vitex agnus-castus L. J. Essential Oil Research, 2: 115-119.
Vitis viniferaLeaf-- -- *
Zea maysLeaf-- -- Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil3000.0 130000.0 *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome2.0 6500.0 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.