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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Hibiscus sabdariffaFruit37400.0 170000.0 2.13 *
Citrus mitisFruit Juice36000.0 55200.0 1.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Citrus mitisFruit28100.0 281000.0 3.95 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Passiflora edulisFruit20000.0 45600.0 0.09 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Citrus paradisiFruit11900.0 21000.0 -0.31 *
Citrus reticulataFruit8600.0 12200.0 -0.45 *
Punica granatumFruit Juice8100.0 12300.0 -1.0 *
Physalis ixocarpaFruit8010.0 11690.0 -0.46 *
Solanum sessiliflorumFruit8000.0 80000.0 0.66 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Glycine maxSeed8000.0 13000.0 1.22 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Hibiscus sabdariffaFlower6233.0 56667.0 *
Citrus sinensisFruit5600.0 9800.0 -0.49 *
Schisandra chinensisFruit5000.0 33333.0 -0.11 *
Theobroma cacaoSeed4500.0 7500.0 0.01 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Garcinia mangostanaFruit4200.0 27815.0 -0.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Zizyphus jujubaFruit4000.0 12000.0 -0.46 *
Fragaria sppFruit3500.0 8000.0 -0.52 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ananas comosusFruit3200.0 86000.0 0.76 *
Ficus caricaFruit1000.0 4400.0 -0.58 *
Sambucus nigraFruit500.0 7340.0 -0.53 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaFruit475.0 4560.0 -0.58 *
Catalpa ovataFruit-- -- *
Vanilla planifoliaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Annona muricataPlant-- -- *
Convallaria majalisPlant-- -- *
Rheum rhabarbarumPt-- -- *
Averrhoa carambolaFruit-- 13200.0 -0.44 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Euonymus atropurpureusPlant-- -- *
Capsicum frutescensFruit-- -- *
Capsicum annuumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf-- -- *
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFruit-- -- *
Chelidonium majusPlant-- -- *
Sclerocarya caffraFruit-- -- *
Citrus limonFruit Juice-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Datura stramoniumPlant-- 750.0 -0.6 *
Capparis spinosaPlant-- -- *
Ribes rubrumFruit-- 20200.0 -0.32 *
Stevia rebaudianaPlant-- 5350.0 -0.44 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Lactuca sativaLeaf-- 500.0 -0.62 *
Coffea arabicaSeed-- -- *
Allium cepaLeaf-- -- Soldatenkov, S. V., Mazurova, T. A., Ranteleev, A. N. 1960. Organic Acids of Onion and Spinach. Trudy Petergof Biol. Inst., Leningrad Gosudarst Univ Im AA Zhdanova, 18: 55-61.
Filipendula ulmariaFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Prunus cerasusFruit-- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Plant-- -- *
Malus domesticaPlant-- -- *
Cichorium intybusPlant-- -- *
Leonurus cardiacaPlant-- -- *
Solanum nigrumLeaf-- 50000.0 1.98 *
Pyrus communisFruit-- -- *
Polypodium vulgareRoot-- -- *
Psidium guajavaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Physalis peruvianaFruit-- 22000.0 -0.29 *
Medicago sativaPlant-- -- *
Hippophae rhamnoidesFruit-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Rosa laevigataFruit-- -- *
Equisetum arvensePlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf-- -- *
Viburnum opulusBark-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Juniperus communisLeaf-- -- *
Tamarindus indicaFruit-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit-- -- *
Ginkgo bilobaPollen Or Spore-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Papaver somniferumLatex Exudate-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Citrus limonFruit-- 59500.0 0.32 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ledum palustrePlant-- -- *
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant-- -- *
Allium cepaBulb-- -- Soldatenkov, S. V., Mazurova, T. A., Ranteleev, A. N. 1960. Organic Acids of Onion and Spinach. Trudy Petergof Biol. Inst., Leningrad Gosudarst Univ Im AA Zhdanova, 18: 55-61.
Kalanchoe pinnataLeaf-- -- *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant-- 3000.0 -0.52 *
Chaenomeles lagenariaFruit-- -- *
Beta vulgarisRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ribes uva-crispaFruit-- 8800.0 -0.51 *
Sophora pachycarpaPlant-- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower-- -- *
Galium odoratumPlant-- -- *
Viburnum prunifoliumRoot Bark-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Apium graveolensRoot-- -- *
Rosa caninaFruit-- 15000.0 -0.41 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Myrtus communisFruit-- -- *
Foeniculum vulgareFruit-- -- *
Rosa sppFruit-- -- *
Rubus chingiiFruit-- -- *
Brassica oleraceaStem-- -- *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- -- *
Vitis viniferaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Myrciaria dubiaFruit-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Lactuca scariolaLatex Exudate-- -- *
Vitis viniferaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Annona squamosaPlant-- -- *
Avena sativaHull Husk-- -- *
Ribes nigrumFruit-- 35000.0 -0.08 *
Rosa caninaSeed-- -- *
Lupinus albusSeed-- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. italicaPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Aconitum napellusPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Panax ginsengRoot-- -- *
Juglans regiaFruit-- -- *
Citrus aurantiifoliaFruit-- 800.0 -0.64 *
Lactuca virosaPlant-- -- *
Prunus armeniacaFruit-- -- *
Rhododendron ferrugineumLeaf-- -- *
Schisandra chinensisPlant-- -- *
Mammea americanaFruit-- 6000.0 -0.55 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Adonis vernalisPlant-- -- *
Cocos nuciferaSeed-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Vaccinium myrtillusLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cryptostegia grandifoliaLatex Exudate-- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaLeaf-- -- *
Euphorbia tirucalliPlant-- 74000.0 2.0 *
Crataegus laevigataFruit-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Crataegus rhipidophyllaFruit-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Helianthus annuusSeed-- 1900.0 -1.23 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Anabasis aphyllaPlant-- -- *
Urtica dioicaPlant-- -- *
Vicia fabaFruit-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Apium graveolensPt-- -- *
Alocasia macrorrhizaPlant-- -- *
Pisum sativumSeed-- -- *
Prunus domesticaFruit-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Avena sativaPetiole-- -- *
Rubus idaeusFruit-- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Mangifera indicaFruit-- -- *
Sorbus aucubariaFruit-- -- *
Carica papayaFruit-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Musa x paradisiacaFruit-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Daucus carotaRoot-- -- *
Morus albaPlant-- -- *
Berberis vulgarisPlant-- -- *
Aesculus hippocastanumBark-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Spinacia oleraceaLeaf-- 2300.0 -0.52 Soldatenkov, S. V., Mazurova, T. A., Ranteleev, A. N. 1960. Organic Acids of Onion and Spinach. Trudy Petergof Biol. Inst., Leningrad Gosudarst Univ Im AA Zhdanova, 18: 55-61.
Solanum tuberosumTuber-- 2000.0 *
Eriobotrya japonicaLeaf-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Plantago majorPlant-- -- *
Cephaelis ipecacuanhaPlant-- -- *
Digitalis purpureaLeaf-- -- *
Ginkgo bilobaSeed-- -- Kameoka, H. and Nakai, K. 1987. Components of essential oil from the root of Glycyrrhiza-glabra. Nippon Gogeikagaku Kaishi 61(9): 1119-1122.
Foeniculum vulgareSeed-- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Prunus persicaFruit-- -- *
Quisqualis indicaFruit-- -- *
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Piscidia piscipulaPlant-- -- *
Opuntia ficus-indicaLeaf-- 310.0 -0.63 *
Portulaca oleraceaPlant-- 5100.0 -0.44 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Citrus aurantiumFruit-- -- Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.
Citrus aurantiumPlant-- -- *
Cucumis meloLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Nicotiana tabacumLeaf-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Fagopyrum esculentumLeaf-- 8200.0 -0.21 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Petroselinum crispumRoot-- -- *
Paris quadrifoliaPlant-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.