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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentusLeaf-- -- Wealth of India.
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit-- -- Wealth of India.
Aegle marmelosLeaf-- -- Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Aloysia citrodoraPlant180.0 2730.0 -0.48 *
Aniba rosaeodoraEssential Oil-- 1500.0 -0.78 *
Anisomeles malabaricaPlant-- -- Wealth of India.
Artemisia dracunculusPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Citrullus colocynthisPetiole-- -- *
Citrus medicaPericarp-- -- *
Citrus aurantiumPlant-- -- *
Citrus limonPericarp-- -- *
Citrus limonEssential Oil250.0 300.0 -0.79 *
Citrus aurantiifoliaFruit-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrus limonFruit Essent. Oil-- 6000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus paradisiFruit-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Cnicus benedictusEssential Oil-- -- Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.
Cnicus benedictusShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Conyza canadensisPlant-- -- *
Cymbopogon winterianusPlant8.0 14.0 -0.76 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Cymbopogon flexuosusLeaf250.0 4250.0 -1.0 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Cymbopogon citratusPlant1080.0 25500.0 1.93 *
Daucus carotaSeed-- 200.0 *
Elsholtzia nipponicaPlant-- -- Hegnauer, R. 1962-1997. Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen, Bde 1-11. Birkhauser Verlag Basel, Boston, Berlin.
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Eucalyptus globulusFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed Essent. Oil-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Fragaria sppLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Helianthus annuusFlower-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Humulus lupulusEssential Oil-- -- *
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Lantana camaraLeaf-- -- *
Laurus nobilisFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Laurus nobilisLeaf-- -- *
Lippia albaPlant-- -- Grenand, P., Moretti, C., and Jacquemin, H. 1987. Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. l'ORSTROM, Paris. 569 pp.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- -- *
Magnolia kobusLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Magnolia fargesiiFlower-- -- *
Melaleuca viridifloraLeaf-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Melissa officinalisShoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Mentha x rotundifoliaShoot9.0 150.0 1.0 *
Monarda citriodoraPlant-- -- *
Nepeta catariaPlant-- -- *
Ocimum basilicumEssential Oil-- 700000.0 1.66 *
Ocimum basilicumPlant560.0 7000.0 -0.02 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Ocimum tenuiflorumPlant-- -- *
Ocimum canumShoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ocimum gratissimumPlant-- -- Tramil
Origanum majoranaPlant-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot-- -- Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.
Panax ginsengRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pelargonium graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Perilla frutescensEssential Oil-- 200000.0 -0.09 *
Perilla frutescensPlant-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Pimenta racemosaLeaf8000.0 31200.0 1.0 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Pinus sylvestrisLeaf-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Psidium guajavaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rosa gallicaFlower-- -- *
Rosa centifoliaEssential Oil-- -- *
Salvia officinalisPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Salvia sclareaPlant75.0 920.0 -0.67 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 154.
Sassafras albidumLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Satureja obovataShoot60.0 110.0 -1.0 Fitoterapia No.60: 277.
Schisandra chinensisEssential Oil-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Skimmia arborescensLeaf-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Stachytarpheta cayennensisPlant-- -- *
Tagetes filifoliaEssential Oil-- -- Fester, G. A., Gargallo, M. A., Martinuzzi, E. A. 1947. Some Volatile Essential Oils From San Luis y Cordoba. An Soc Cient Argent 144: 457-471. Fac Quim Ind + Agr Santa Fe Argentina
Tagetes minutaPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tagetes minutaEssential Oil-- -- *
Thymus serpyllumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Thymus vulgarisPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Urtica dioicaPlant-- -- Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Verbena officinalisPlant-- -- *
Zanthoxylum alatumFruit-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- 13500.0 *
Zingiber officinaleRoot-- 13500.0 *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil-- 130000.0 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.