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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abrus precatoriusSeed-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Acorus calamusRoot-- 2600.0 -0.11 *
Acorus calamusRhizome-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Adonis vernalisPlant-- -- *
Aesculus hippocastanumFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Alisma plantago-aquaticaRhizome-- -- *
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb-- -- *
Allium cepaBulb-- 830.0 Dakshinamurti, K. 1955. Choline Content of South Indian Foods. Curr. Sci., 24: 194-195.
Aloe veraPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Althaea officinalisPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Amorphophallus konjacRoot-- -- *
Anastatica hierochunticaPlant-- -- *
Angelica sinensisRoot-- 2470.0 -0.12 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Apium graveolensRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Arachis hypogaeaSeed-- -- *
Areca catechuSeed-- -- *
Arnica montanaFlower-- -- *
Artemisia vulgarisLeaf-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Artemisia cinaFlower-- -- *
Artemisia abrotanumPlant-- -- *
Asparagus officinalisRhizome-- -- *
Astragalus membranaceusRoot-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Atropa bella-donnaRoot-- -- *
Avena sativaShoot-- 0.3 -0.77 *
Avena sativaSeed134.0 1712.0 0.04 *
Avena sativaRoot-- 0.2 -0.41 *
Ballota nigraPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Borago officinalisLeaf-- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf-- 1200.0 -0.42 Wealth of India.
Canavalia ensiformisSeed-- -- *
Capparis spinosaFruit-- 370.0 -0.53 *
Capparis spinosaPlant-- -- *
Capparis spinosaLeaf-- 100.0 -0.48 *
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant2000.0 10000.0 -0.09 *
Capsicum annuumSeed-- 360.0 -1.24 *
Capsicum annuumPericarp-- 297.0 -1.0 *
Carica papayaLeaf-- 200.0 -0.48 Jim Duke's personal files.
Catharanthus roseusPlant-- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Centaurea calcitrapaPlant-- -- *
Cephaelis ipecacuanhaPlant-- -- *
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Chelidonium majusFruit-- -- *
Chrysanthemum cinerariifoliumPlant-- -- *
Chrysanthemum x morifoliumFlower-- -- *
Cichorium intybusRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Citrus sinensisFruit70.0 160.0 -0.57 *
Coffea arabicaSeed-- 300.0 -1.29 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Convallaria majalisPlant-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumSeed-- 1387.0 -0.27 *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Crataegus laevigataPlant-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Crataegus laevigataLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Crataegus rhipidophyllaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Crataegus laevigataFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Crataegus monogynaPlant-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Crataegus sp.Plant-- -- *
Cuminum cyminumSeed-- 3003.0 1.25 *
Daucus carotaShoot-- 73.0 -0.67 *
Daucus carotaRoot-- 36.0 -0.41 *
Dictamnus albusRoot-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Digitalis purpureaLeaf-- -- *
Digitalis lanataLeaf-- 1000.0 -0.43 *
Elettaria cardamomumSeed-- 4195.0 2.37 *
Elettaria cardamomumPericarp-- 2663.0 1.0 *
Euphorbia hirtaPlant-- -- *
Euphrasia officinalisPlant-- -- Tyler, V.E.. 1982. The Honest Herbal. George F. Stickley Co., Philadelphia PA. 263 pp.
Foeniculum vulgareSeed-- -- *
Ganoderma lucidumFruit-- -- *
Ginkgo bilobaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Glechoma hederaceaPlant-- -- *
Gloriosa superbaBulb-- -- *
Glycine maxSeed-- 2.49 -1.57 *
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Gossypium spSeed-- -- *
Gymnema sylvestreLeaf-- -- Willaman, J. J., Li, H. L. 1970. Alkaloid-Bearing Plants and their Contained Alkaloids. 1957-1968. Lloydia 33S: 1-286.
Hamamelis virginianaLeaf-- 2000.0 -0.37 *
Helianthus annuusSeed-- 1200.0 -0.44 *
Helianthus tuberosusTuber-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hordeum vulgareSeed928.0 1617.0 -0.05 *
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hyoscyamus nigerPlant-- -- *
Hypericum perforatumLeaf-- -- *
Hypericum perforatumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Hypericum perforatumShoot34.0 1000.0 0.57 *
Hyssopus officinalisPlant-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Ilex paraguariensisLeaf-- -- *
Lactuca sativaLeaf-- -- *
Lagenaria sicerariaFruit640.0 16020.0 2.73 *
Lens culinarisSeed-- 2230.0 0.52 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Leonurus cardiacaPlant-- -- *
Linum usitatissimumSeed910.0 1180.0 -0.46 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Lippia javanicaPlant-- -- Neidlein, R., Staehle, R. 1974. Constituents of Lippia javanica. III. Deutsche Apot. Ziit., 114: 1588.
Luffa aegyptiacaFruit104.0 2090.0 -0.17 *
Lycium chinenseLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lycium chilenseRoot-- -- *
Lycium barbarumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lycopersicon esculentumShoot-- 48.0 -0.7 *
Lycopersicon esculentumRoot-- 36.0 -0.41 *
Malva neglectaPlant-- -- *
Marrubium vulgareLeaf-- 2000.0 -0.37 *
Marrubium vulgareFlower-- 2000.0 -1.38 *
Marrubium vulgarePlant2000.0 20000.0 1.27 *
Marrubium vulgareShoot-- 2000.0 1.91 *
Matricaria recutitaFlower3400.0 3800.0 0.95 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Medicago sativaShoot-- 1710.0 1.52 *
Medicago sativaTissue Culture-- -- *
Medicago sativaPlant-- -- *
Mentha x piperitaPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Menyanthes trifoliataLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Moringa oleiferaFruit-- 4230.0 0.27 *
Moringa oleiferaLeaf-- 4230.0 -0.23 *
Morus albaLeaf-- -- *
Mucuna pruriensSeed-- -- *
Nerium oleanderPlant-- -- *
Olea europaeaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Oryza sativaSeed-- 880.0 -0.75 *
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber-- -- *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant1000.0 2000.0 -1.18 *
Panax ginsengRoot1000.0 2000.0 -0.18 *
Papaver somniferumPlant-- -- *
Paullinia cupanaSeed-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Petasites hybridusRhizome-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Peumus boldusLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pimpinella anisumSeed-- 3950.0 2.14 *
Pimpinella anisumPlant-- -- *
Pinellia ternataStem-- -- *
Pinus sylvestrisFlower-- 3400.0 0.43 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Piper nigrumSeed-- 1642.0 -0.03 *
Pistacia lentiscusSeed-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pisum sativumSeed1970.0 2800.0 1.06 *
Pisum sativumRoot-- 61.0 -0.41 *
Pisum sativumShoot-- 121.0 -0.61 *
Pisum sativumFruit-- 2060.0 -0.18 *
Plantago majorSeed-- -- *
Plantago asiaticaPlant-- -- *
Prunus serotinaLeaf-- 356.0 -0.47 *
Pueraria montanaRoot-- -- *
Rhizophora mangleLeaf-- -- *
Sambucus nigraFlower-- -- *
Sambucus nigraBark-- -- *
Sambucus nigraLeaf-- -- *
Satureja montanaShoot-- -- *
Sesamum indicumSeed-- 1320.0 -0.33 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Sinapis albaSeed-- -- *
Solanum tuberosumTuber330.0 1000.0 *
Solanum melongenaFruit-- 520.0 -0.5 *
Stachys officinalisPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Strophanthus hispidusSeed-- -- *
Strophanthus gratusSeed-- -- *
Strychnos nux-vomicaSeed-- -- *
Symphytum officinaleRoot-- -- *
Syzygium cuminiFruit70.0 430.0 -0.52 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Taraxacum officinaleRoot390.0 1120.0 -0.28 *
Taraxacum mongolicumPlant-- -- *
Teucrium montanumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium botrysPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium chamaedrysPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium scordiumPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Trifolium pratensePlant-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumLeaf-- 13500.0 0.34 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed-- 500.0 -1.1 *
Triticum aestivumSeed530.0 1800.0 0.12 *
Triticum aestivumRoot-- 48.0 -0.41 *
Triticum aestivumShoot-- 121.0 -0.61 *
Tussilago farfaraLeaf-- -- *
Tussilago farfaraFlower-- -- *
Urtica dioicaInflorescence-- 4800.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Urtica dioicaLeaf-- 4900.0 -0.19 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Valeriana officinalisLeaf52000.0 58000.0 3.08 *
Valeriana officinalisRoot3540.0 30000.0 3.14 *
Valeriana officinalisStem-- 30000.0 *
Vicia fabaFruit50.0 340.0 -0.54 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Vigna radiataSeed1670.0 1856.0 0.17 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Vigna unguiculataSeed-- 2020.0 0.33 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Vigna unguiculataSeed-- 2020.0 0.33 *
Vigna mungoSeed-- 2060.0 0.36 *
Withania somniferaRoot-- -- *
Zea maysShoot-- 85.0 -0.65 *
Zea maysSeed-- 430.0 -1.17 *
Zea maysRoot-- 36.0 -0.41 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.