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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abrus precatoriusSeed-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Acorus calamusRhizome-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Acorus calamusRoot-- 2600.0 -0.11 *
Adonis vernalisPlant-- -- *
Aesculus hippocastanumFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Alisma plantago-aquaticaRhizome-- -- *
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb-- -- *
Allium cepaBulb-- 830.0 Dakshinamurti, K. 1955. Choline Content of South Indian Foods. Curr. Sci., 24: 194-195.
Aloe veraPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Althaea officinalisPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Amorphophallus konjacRoot-- -- *
Anastatica hierochunticaPlant-- -- *
Angelica sinensisRoot-- 2470.0 -0.12 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Apium graveolensRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Arachis hypogaeaSeed-- -- *
Areca catechuSeed-- -- *
Arnica montanaFlower-- -- *
Artemisia abrotanumPlant-- -- *
Artemisia vulgarisLeaf-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Artemisia cinaFlower-- -- *
Asparagus officinalisRhizome-- -- *
Astragalus membranaceusRoot-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Atropa bella-donnaRoot-- -- *
Avena sativaRoot-- 0.2 -0.41 *
Avena sativaShoot-- 0.3 -0.77 *
Avena sativaSeed134.0 1712.0 0.04 *
Ballota nigraPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Borago officinalisLeaf-- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf-- 1200.0 -0.42 Wealth of India.
Canavalia ensiformisSeed-- -- *
Capparis spinosaLeaf-- 100.0 -0.48 *
Capparis spinosaFruit-- 370.0 -0.53 *
Capparis spinosaPlant-- -- *
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant2000.0 10000.0 -0.09 *
Capsicum annuumPericarp-- 297.0 -1.0 *
Capsicum annuumSeed-- 360.0 -1.24 *
Carica papayaLeaf-- 200.0 -0.48 Jim Duke's personal files.
Catharanthus roseusPlant-- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Centaurea calcitrapaPlant-- -- *
Cephaelis ipecacuanhaPlant-- -- *
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Chelidonium majusFruit-- -- *
Chrysanthemum cinerariifoliumPlant-- -- *
Chrysanthemum x morifoliumFlower-- -- *
Cichorium intybusRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Citrus sinensisFruit70.0 160.0 -0.57 *
Coffea arabicaSeed-- 300.0 -1.29 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Convallaria majalisPlant-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumSeed-- 1387.0 -0.27 *
Crataegus laevigataFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Crataegus monogynaPlant-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Crataegus sp.Plant-- -- *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Crataegus laevigataPlant-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Crataegus laevigataLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Crataegus rhipidophyllaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cuminum cyminumSeed-- 3003.0 1.25 *
Daucus carotaShoot-- 73.0 -0.67 *
Daucus carotaRoot-- 36.0 -0.41 *
Dictamnus albusRoot-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Digitalis purpureaLeaf-- -- *
Digitalis lanataLeaf-- 1000.0 -0.43 *
Elettaria cardamomumPericarp-- 2663.0 1.0 *
Elettaria cardamomumSeed-- 4195.0 2.37 *
Euphorbia hirtaPlant-- -- *
Euphrasia officinalisPlant-- -- Tyler, V.E.. 1982. The Honest Herbal. George F. Stickley Co., Philadelphia PA. 263 pp.
Foeniculum vulgareSeed-- -- *
Ganoderma lucidumFruit-- -- *
Ginkgo bilobaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Glechoma hederaceaPlant-- -- *
Gloriosa superbaBulb-- -- *
Glycine maxSeed-- 2.49 -1.57 *
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Gossypium spSeed-- -- *
Gymnema sylvestreLeaf-- -- Willaman, J. J., Li, H. L. 1970. Alkaloid-Bearing Plants and their Contained Alkaloids. 1957-1968. Lloydia 33S: 1-286.
Hamamelis virginianaLeaf-- 2000.0 -0.37 *
Helianthus tuberosusTuber-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Helianthus annuusSeed-- 1200.0 -0.44 *
Hordeum vulgareSeed928.0 1617.0 -0.05 *
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hyoscyamus nigerPlant-- -- *
Hypericum perforatumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Hypericum perforatumShoot34.0 1000.0 0.57 *
Hypericum perforatumLeaf-- -- *
Hyssopus officinalisPlant-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Ilex paraguariensisLeaf-- -- *
Lactuca sativaLeaf-- -- *
Lagenaria sicerariaFruit640.0 16020.0 2.73 *
Lens culinarisSeed-- 2230.0 0.52 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Leonurus cardiacaPlant-- -- *
Linum usitatissimumSeed910.0 1180.0 -0.46 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Lippia javanicaPlant-- -- Neidlein, R., Staehle, R. 1974. Constituents of Lippia javanica. III. Deutsche Apot. Ziit., 114: 1588.
Luffa aegyptiacaFruit104.0 2090.0 -0.17 *
Lycium chilenseRoot-- -- *
Lycium barbarumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lycium chinenseLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lycopersicon esculentumRoot-- 36.0 -0.41 *
Lycopersicon esculentumShoot-- 48.0 -0.7 *
Malva neglectaPlant-- -- *
Marrubium vulgarePlant2000.0 20000.0 1.27 *
Marrubium vulgareShoot-- 2000.0 1.91 *
Marrubium vulgareLeaf-- 2000.0 -0.37 *
Marrubium vulgareFlower-- 2000.0 -1.38 *
Matricaria recutitaFlower3400.0 3800.0 0.95 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Medicago sativaTissue Culture-- -- *
Medicago sativaPlant-- -- *
Medicago sativaShoot-- 1710.0 1.52 *
Mentha x piperitaPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Menyanthes trifoliataLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Moringa oleiferaLeaf-- 4230.0 -0.23 *
Moringa oleiferaFruit-- 4230.0 0.27 *
Morus albaLeaf-- -- *
Mucuna pruriensSeed-- -- *
Nerium oleanderPlant-- -- *
Olea europaeaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Oryza sativaSeed-- 880.0 -0.75 *
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot1000.0 2000.0 -0.18 *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant1000.0 2000.0 -1.18 *
Papaver somniferumPlant-- -- *
Paullinia cupanaSeed-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Petasites hybridusRhizome-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Peumus boldusLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pimpinella anisumSeed-- 3950.0 2.14 *
Pimpinella anisumPlant-- -- *
Pinellia ternataStem-- -- *
Pinus sylvestrisFlower-- 3400.0 0.43 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Piper nigrumSeed-- 1642.0 -0.03 *
Pistacia lentiscusSeed-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pisum sativumShoot-- 121.0 -0.61 *
Pisum sativumFruit-- 2060.0 -0.18 *
Pisum sativumSeed1970.0 2800.0 1.06 *
Pisum sativumRoot-- 61.0 -0.41 *
Plantago majorSeed-- -- *
Plantago asiaticaPlant-- -- *
Prunus serotinaLeaf-- 356.0 -0.47 *
Pueraria montanaRoot-- -- *
Rhizophora mangleLeaf-- -- *
Sambucus nigraLeaf-- -- *
Sambucus nigraFlower-- -- *
Sambucus nigraBark-- -- *
Satureja montanaShoot-- -- *
Sesamum indicumSeed-- 1320.0 -0.33 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Sinapis albaSeed-- -- *
Solanum melongenaFruit-- 520.0 -0.5 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber330.0 1000.0 *
Stachys officinalisPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Strophanthus gratusSeed-- -- *
Strophanthus hispidusSeed-- -- *
Strychnos nux-vomicaSeed-- -- *
Symphytum officinaleRoot-- -- *
Syzygium cuminiFruit70.0 430.0 -0.52 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Taraxacum officinaleRoot390.0 1120.0 -0.28 *
Taraxacum mongolicumPlant-- -- *
Teucrium botrysPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium chamaedrysPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium scordiumPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Teucrium montanumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Trifolium pratensePlant-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed-- 500.0 -1.1 *
Trigonella foenum-graecumLeaf-- 13500.0 0.34 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Triticum aestivumShoot-- 121.0 -0.61 *
Triticum aestivumSeed530.0 1800.0 0.12 *
Triticum aestivumRoot-- 48.0 -0.41 *
Tussilago farfaraLeaf-- -- *
Tussilago farfaraFlower-- -- *
Urtica dioicaLeaf-- 4900.0 -0.19 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Urtica dioicaInflorescence-- 4800.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Valeriana officinalisStem-- 30000.0 *
Valeriana officinalisLeaf52000.0 58000.0 3.08 *
Valeriana officinalisRoot3540.0 30000.0 3.14 *
Vicia fabaFruit50.0 340.0 -0.54 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Vigna unguiculataSeed-- 2020.0 0.33 *
Vigna mungoSeed-- 2060.0 0.36 *
Vigna radiataSeed1670.0 1856.0 0.17 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Vigna unguiculataSeed-- 2020.0 0.33 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Withania somniferaRoot-- -- *
Zea maysRoot-- 36.0 -0.41 *
Zea maysShoot-- 85.0 -0.65 *
Zea maysSeed-- 430.0 -1.17 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.