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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Valeriana officinalisLeaf52000.0 58000.0 3.08 *
Valeriana officinalisRoot3540.0 30000.0 3.14 *
Valeriana officinalisStem-- 30000.0 *
Marrubium vulgarePlant2000.0 20000.0 1.27 *
Lagenaria sicerariaFruit640.0 16020.0 2.73 *
Trigonella foenum-graecumLeaf-- 13500.0 0.34 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant2000.0 10000.0 -0.09 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf-- 4900.0 -0.19 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Urtica dioicaInflorescence-- 4800.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Moringa oleiferaFruit-- 4230.0 0.27 *
Moringa oleiferaLeaf-- 4230.0 -0.23 *
Elettaria cardamomumSeed-- 4195.0 2.37 *
Pimpinella anisumSeed-- 3950.0 2.14 *
Matricaria recutitaFlower3400.0 3800.0 0.95 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pinus sylvestrisFlower-- 3400.0 0.43 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cuminum cyminumSeed-- 3003.0 1.25 *
Pisum sativumSeed1970.0 2800.0 1.06 *
Elettaria cardamomumPericarp-- 2663.0 1.0 *
Acorus calamusRoot-- 2600.0 -0.11 *
Angelica sinensisRoot-- 2470.0 -0.12 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Lens culinarisSeed-- 2230.0 0.52 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Luffa aegyptiacaFruit104.0 2090.0 -0.17 *
Vigna mungoSeed-- 2060.0 0.36 *
Pisum sativumFruit-- 2060.0 -0.18 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed-- 2020.0 0.33 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed-- 2020.0 0.33 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Panax quinquefoliusPlant1000.0 2000.0 -1.18 *
Marrubium vulgareFlower-- 2000.0 -1.38 *
Marrubium vulgareShoot-- 2000.0 1.91 *
Hamamelis virginianaLeaf-- 2000.0 -0.37 *
Panax ginsengRoot1000.0 2000.0 -0.18 *
Marrubium vulgareLeaf-- 2000.0 -0.37 *
Vigna radiataSeed1670.0 1856.0 0.17 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Triticum aestivumSeed530.0 1800.0 0.12 *
Avena sativaSeed134.0 1712.0 0.04 *
Medicago sativaShoot-- 1710.0 1.52 *
Piper nigrumSeed-- 1642.0 -0.03 *
Hordeum vulgareSeed928.0 1617.0 -0.05 *
Coriandrum sativumSeed-- 1387.0 -0.27 *
Sesamum indicumSeed-- 1320.0 -0.33 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf-- 1200.0 -0.42 Wealth of India.
Helianthus annuusSeed-- 1200.0 -0.44 *
Linum usitatissimumSeed910.0 1180.0 -0.46 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Taraxacum officinaleRoot390.0 1120.0 -0.28 *
Digitalis lanataLeaf-- 1000.0 -0.43 *
Hypericum perforatumShoot34.0 1000.0 0.57 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber330.0 1000.0 *
Oryza sativaSeed-- 880.0 -0.75 *
Allium cepaBulb-- 830.0 Dakshinamurti, K. 1955. Choline Content of South Indian Foods. Curr. Sci., 24: 194-195.
Solanum melongenaFruit-- 520.0 -0.5 *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed-- 500.0 -1.1 *
Syzygium cuminiFruit70.0 430.0 -0.52 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Zea maysSeed-- 430.0 -1.17 *
Capparis spinosaFruit-- 370.0 -0.53 *
Capsicum annuumSeed-- 360.0 -1.24 *
Prunus serotinaLeaf-- 356.0 -0.47 *
Vicia fabaFruit50.0 340.0 -0.54 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Coffea arabicaSeed-- 300.0 -1.29 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Capsicum annuumPericarp-- 297.0 -1.0 *
Carica papayaLeaf-- 200.0 -0.48 Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus sinensisFruit70.0 160.0 -0.57 *
Triticum aestivumShoot-- 121.0 -0.61 *
Pisum sativumShoot-- 121.0 -0.61 *
Capparis spinosaLeaf-- 100.0 -0.48 *
Zea maysShoot-- 85.0 -0.65 *
Daucus carotaShoot-- 73.0 -0.67 *
Pisum sativumRoot-- 61.0 -0.41 *
Triticum aestivumRoot-- 48.0 -0.41 *
Lycopersicon esculentumShoot-- 48.0 -0.7 *
Lycopersicon esculentumRoot-- 36.0 -0.41 *
Daucus carotaRoot-- 36.0 -0.41 *
Zea maysRoot-- 36.0 -0.41 *
Glycine maxSeed-- 2.49 -1.57 *
Avena sativaShoot-- 0.3 -0.77 *
Avena sativaRoot-- 0.2 -0.41 *
Chrysanthemum cinerariifoliumPlant-- -- *
Areca catechuSeed-- -- *
Hyoscyamus nigerPlant-- -- *
Pistacia lentiscusSeed-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cichorium intybusRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Convallaria majalisPlant-- -- *
Lycium chinenseLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Gossypium spSeed-- -- *
Aloe veraPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Astragalus membranaceusRoot-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Ballota nigraPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Strophanthus gratusSeed-- -- *
Chelidonium majusFruit-- -- *
Dictamnus albusRoot-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Sambucus nigraBark-- -- *
Sambucus nigraFlower-- -- *
Crataegus sp.Plant-- -- *
Sambucus nigraLeaf-- -- *
Althaea officinalisPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Capparis spinosaPlant-- -- *
Pueraria montanaRoot-- -- *
Alisma plantago-aquaticaRhizome-- -- *
Artemisia cinaFlower-- -- *
Lactuca sativaLeaf-- -- *
Strophanthus hispidusSeed-- -- *
Anastatica hierochunticaPlant-- -- *
Centaurea calcitrapaPlant-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumPlant-- -- *
Hypericum perforatumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Leonurus cardiacaPlant-- -- *
Artemisia abrotanumPlant-- -- *
Stachys officinalisPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Teucrium scordiumPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Euphorbia hirtaPlant-- -- *
Gloriosa superbaBulb-- -- *
Arachis hypogaeaSeed-- -- *
Ganoderma lucidumFruit-- -- *
Medicago sativaPlant-- -- *
Nerium oleanderPlant-- -- *
Atropa bella-donnaRoot-- -- *
Ginkgo bilobaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Catharanthus roseusPlant-- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Malva neglectaPlant-- -- *
Lycium barbarumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Menyanthes trifoliataLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Mucuna pruriensSeed-- -- *
Tussilago farfaraFlower-- -- *
Hyssopus officinalisPlant-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Rhizophora mangleLeaf-- -- *
Tussilago farfaraLeaf-- -- *
Lycium chilenseRoot-- -- *
Strychnos nux-vomicaSeed-- -- *
Papaver somniferumPlant-- -- *
Pinellia ternataStem-- -- *
Asparagus officinalisRhizome-- -- *
Crataegus monogynaPlant-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Helianthus tuberosusTuber-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb-- -- *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed-- -- *
Crataegus laevigataPlant-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Amorphophallus konjacRoot-- -- *
Glechoma hederaceaPlant-- -- *
Artemisia vulgarisLeaf-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Ilex paraguariensisLeaf-- -- *
Mentha x piperitaPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Teucrium botrysPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Chrysanthemum x morifoliumFlower-- -- *
Apium graveolensRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Plantago asiaticaPlant-- -- *
Adonis vernalisPlant-- -- *
Teucrium montanumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Crataegus laevigataFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Borago officinalisLeaf-- -- *
Gymnema sylvestreLeaf-- -- Willaman, J. J., Li, H. L. 1970. Alkaloid-Bearing Plants and their Contained Alkaloids. 1957-1968. Lloydia 33S: 1-286.
Crataegus laevigataLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Crataegus rhipidophyllaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Petasites hybridusRhizome-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Crataegus rhipidophyllaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Hypericum perforatumLeaf-- -- *
Withania somniferaRoot-- -- *
Abrus precatoriusSeed-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Lippia javanicaPlant-- -- Neidlein, R., Staehle, R. 1974. Constituents of Lippia javanica. III. Deutsche Apot. Ziit., 114: 1588.
Canavalia ensiformisSeed-- -- *
Medicago sativaTissue Culture-- -- *
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Morus albaLeaf-- -- *
Olea europaeaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Euphrasia officinalisPlant-- -- Tyler, V.E.. 1982. The Honest Herbal. George F. Stickley Co., Philadelphia PA. 263 pp.
Trifolium pratensePlant-- -- *
Aesculus hippocastanumFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Paullinia cupanaSeed-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber-- -- *
Plantago majorSeed-- -- *
Peumus boldusLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cephaelis ipecacuanhaPlant-- -- *
Digitalis purpureaLeaf-- -- *
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium chamaedrysPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Acorus calamusRhizome-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Arnica montanaFlower-- -- *
Symphytum officinaleRoot-- -- *
Satureja montanaShoot-- -- *
Sinapis albaSeed-- -- *
Taraxacum mongolicumPlant-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.