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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Ipomoea purgaTuber30000.0 40000.0 1.0 *
Helianthus annuusSeed1600.0 1800.0 0.95 *
Origanum vulgareLeaf106.0 1060.0 -0.57 *
Malus domesticaFruit85.0 1270.0 -0.1 *
Pyrus communisFruit43.0 19700.0 3.31 *
Citrus paradisiFruit40.0 51.0 -0.33 *
Citrus limonFruit21.0 35.0 -0.33 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber18.0 1400.0 -1.0 *
Fragaria sppFruit15.0 34.0 -0.33 Jim Duke's personal files.
Juglans regiaTesta15.0 115.0 *
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb10.0 20.0 *
Triticum aestivumSeed3.0 4.0 -0.77 *
Citrus sinensisFruit2.0 50.0 -0.33 *
Juglans regiaSeed1.0 6.0 -0.77 *
Glycine maxSeed1.0 4.0 -0.77 *
Taxus baccataLeaf0.9 4.7 -0.72 *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed0.5 225.0 -0.56 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf0.5 77.0 -0.71 *
Juglans nigraSeed-- -- *
Cichorium intybusLeaf-- 767.0 -0.61 *
Echinacea sppPlant-- -- *
Annona muricataPlant-- -- *
Convallaria majalisPlant-- -- *
Capsicum frutescensFruit-- 32.0 -0.33 *
Carica papayaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Crataegus rhipidophyllaInflorescence-- -- *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaFlower-- -- *
Teucrium scorodoniaLeaf-- 20000.0 2.06 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Crataegus rhipidophyllaLeaf-- -- *
Euphrasia officinalisShoot-- 6000.0 1.71 Jim Duke's personal files.
Crataegus rhipidophyllaShoot-- -- *
Spartium junceumPlant-- -- *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaBud-- -- *
Lycopus virginicusPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Thymus serpyllumPlant-- 6200.0 -0.11 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Stachys officinalisShoot-- -- *
Santolina chamaecyparissusPlant-- -- *
Clematis vitalbaPlant-- -- *
Rubus idaeusPlant-- -- *
Humulus lupulusPlant-- -- *
Sambucus nigraPlant-- -- *
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaLeaf-- -- *
Corylus americanaSeed-- -- Senter, S. D., Horvat, R. J., Forbus, W. R. 1983. Comparative GLC-MS Analysis of Phenolic Acids of Selected Tree Nuts. J. Food Science, 48(3): 798-799.
Ballota nigraLeaf-- 2000.0 -0.44 *
Taraxacum officinalePlant-- -- *
Althaea officinalisLeaf-- -- *
Datura stramoniumPlant-- -- *
Coffea arabicaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ligustrum japonicumFlower-- -- *
Raphanus sativusRoot-- 91.0 -0.86 *
Albizia lebbeckLeaf-- -- Wealth of India.
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- 770.0 -0.2 *
Coriandrum sativumLeaf-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumBark-- 6.0 *
Ocimum basilicumTissue Culture-- -- *
Lactuca sativaPlant-- -- *
Tagetes patulaPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Allium cepaLeaf-- -- Das, V. S. R., Rao, J. V. S. 1964. Phenolic Acids of Onion Plant. Curr. Sci., 33(15): 471-472.
Catalpa bignonioidesLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Allium cepaRoot-- -- Das, V. S. R., Rao, J. V. S. 1964. Phenolic Acids of Onion Plant. Curr. Sci., 33(15): 471-472.
Cichorium intybusShoot-- -- *
Anethum graveolensSeed-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumPlant-- -- *
Prunus cerasusPlant-- -- *
Hordeum vulgareFruit-- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf-- 8.0 -0.71 *
Cucurbita pepoLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Conyza canadensisPlant-- -- *
Mentha x rotundifoliaShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Artemisia abrotanumPlant-- -- *
Prunus dulcisPlant-- -- *
Stachys officinalisPlant-- 5000.0 -0.3 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Arachis hypogaeaSeed-- 11.0 -0.76 *
Apium graveolensSeed-- -- Wealth of India.
Coffea arabicaFruit-- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Taraxacum officinaleFlower-- -- *
Polypodium vulgareRhizome-- -- *
Scopolia carniolicaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Euphorbia hirtaPlant-- -- Grenand, P., Moretti, C., and Jacquemin, H. 1987. Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. l'ORSTROM, Paris. 569 pp.
Crataegus laevigataPlant-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Viburnum opulusBranches-- -- *
Sophora japonicaPlant-- -- *
Vitis viniferaLeaf-- -- *
Equisetum arvenseShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Juniperus communisLeaf-- -- *
Vitis viniferaRoot-- -- *
Juniperus communisFruit-- -- *
Citrullus lanatusSeed-- -- *
Gentiana luteaRoot-- -- *
Cnicus benedictusPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Arctium lappaRoot-- 2500.0 0.17 *
Hypericum perforatumPlant-- 1000.0 -0.93 *
Punica granatumPlant-- -- *
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf-- 0.5 -0.72 *
Dipsacus fullonumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rosmarinus officinalisPlant-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Cimicifuga dahuricaRhizome-- -- *
Senna obtusifoliaSeed-- -- *
Dodonaea viscosaPlant-- -- *
Aspalathus linearisShoot-- 0.66 -0.7 *
Thymus vulgarisLeaf-- 16900.0 1.63 *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit-- -- *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit Juice-- -- *
Allium cepaBulb-- -- *
Salvia sp.Seed-- 306.0 -0.48 Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 67.
Ipomoea batatasRoot-- -- *
Centaurium erythraeaPlant-- -- *
Astragalus membranaceusRoot-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Trifolium pratenseLeaf-- -- *
Ananas comosusFruit-- -- Wealth of India.
Origanum majoranaShoot-- -- *
Origanum majoranaLeaf-- 14100.0 1.24 *
Solanum torvumPlant-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusShoot-- -- *
Stellaria mediaShoot-- -- *
Cynara cardunculusFlower-- -- *
Menyanthes trifoliataLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Salvia officinalisInflorescence-- -- *
Apium graveolensRoot-- -- *
Theobroma cacaoSeed-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Valeriana officinalisPlant-- -- *
Hyssopus officinalisPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Beta vulgarisLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Oenothera biennisLeaf-- -- *
Kalanchoe pinnataPlant-- -- *
Papaver somniferumLeaf-- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Piper nigrumFruit-- 6.0 -0.34 *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- 6.0 -0.34 *
Cinnamomum camphoraPlant-- -- *
Equisetum arvensePlant-- 8000.0 0.18 *
Origanum vulgareShoot-- -- *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiPlant-- -- *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiLeaf-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusLeaf-- 7640.0 0.34 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf-- 19100.0 1.93 *
Crataegus monogynaPlant-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Magnolia kobusPlant-- -- *
Citrus sinensisFruit Juice-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Actaea dahuricaRhizome-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Foeniculum vulgareFruit-- -- *
Vitis viniferaFruit-- -- *
Cucumis sativusFruit-- -- *
Curcuma longaRhizome-- 5.0 *
Pteridium aquilinumPlant-- -- *
Urtica dioicaPlant-- -- *
Angelica archangelicaPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Sanguisorba minorPlant-- -- *
Punica granatumFruit Juice-- -- *
Populus balsamiferaEssential Oil-- -- *
Solanum tuberosumTuber Epidermis-- -- *
Punica granatumLeaf-- -- *
Elaeagnus angustifoliaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Solanum tuberosumRoot Bark-- -- *
Solanum tuberosumFlower-- -- *
Agrimonia eupatoriaPlant-- -- *
Levisticum officinaleRoot-- -- Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Glechoma hederaceaPlant-- -- *
Ribes nigrumFruit-- -- *
Armoracia rusticanaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Pimpinella anisumSeed-- 2060.0 1.2 *
Euphorbia pulcherrimaPlant-- -- *
Zea maysSprout Seedling-- -- *
Rosa caninaStem-- -- *
Rosa caninaTissue Culture-- -- *
Mentha x piperitaShoot-- -- *
Coccinia grandisLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Elaeagnus angustifoliaFruit-- -- Kusova, R. D., Kazakov, A. L., Luk'yanchikov, M. S. 1988. Phenolic Compounds From Fruit of Elaeagnus angustifolia. Chem. Nat. Comp. 24 3: 392-393. Pyatigorsk Farm Inst Pyatigorsk USSR.
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf-- 8.0 -0.71 *
Actaea cimicifugaRhizome-- -- *
Ceiba pentandraLeaf-- -- *
Apium graveolensLeaf-- -- *
Papaver somniferumPericarp-- -- *
Elettaria cardamomumFruit-- 2.0 -0.34 *
Marrubium vulgarePlant-- -- *
Prunus serotinaPlant-- -- *
Eucalyptus globulusLeaf-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Cinchona sppBark-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Malus domesticaFruit Juice-- -- *
Prunus armeniacaPlant-- -- *
Allium ampeloprasumPlant-- -- *
Rheum officinaleRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Aconitum napellusPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Helianthus annuusPollen Or Spore-- 4.0 *
Juglans regiaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Magnolia officinalisPlant-- -- *
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 6000.0 -0.14 *
Prunus laurocerasusPlant-- -- *
Phaseolus vulgarisShoot-- -- *
Phaseolus vulgarisLeaf-- -- *
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit-- -- *
Castanea sativaLeaf-- -- *
Perilla frutescensPlant-- -- J.S. Glasby Dict.Pls Containing 2ndary Metabolite. 1991.
Peucedanum ostruthiumRoot-- -- *
Moringa oleiferaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Vaccinium myrtillusLeaf-- 40.0 -0.71 *
Adonis vernalisPlant-- -- *
Cyamopsis tetragonolobaSeed-- -- Kaushal, G. P., Bhatia, I. S. 1982. A Study of Polyphenols in the Seeds and Leaves of Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub). J Sci Food Agr, 33: 461-470.
Melissa officinalisPlant-- 2100.0 -0.75 *
Pisum sativumPlant-- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaLeaf-- 34.0 -0.71 *
Avena sativaPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Cichorium endiviaLeaf-- -- *
Crataegus laevigataLeaf-- -- *
Erythroxylum cocaLeaf-- -- *
Urtica dioicaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Hypericum perforatumShoot-- 1000.0 -0.3 *
Vicia fabaPlant-- -- *
Daucus carotaRoot-- -- *
Berberis vulgarisFruit-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Medicago sativaTissue Culture-- -- *
Centaurea cyanusFlower-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Equisetum hyemalePlant-- -- *
Helichrysum angustifoliumPlant-- -- *
Rhododendron ponticumPlant-- -- *
Centaurea cyanusShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Prunus domesticaPlant-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- -- *
Anethum graveolensFruit-- -- *
Eleutherococcus senticosusRoot-- -- *
Cinchona pubescensBark-- -- *
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Morus albaPlant-- -- *
Cinchona pubescensLeaf-- -- *
Sorbus aucubariaFruit-- -- *
Calendula officinalisPlant-- -- *
Cola acuminataPlant-- -- *
Ficus caricaPlant-- -- *
Solanum melongenaFruit-- -- *
Rubus idaeusFruit-- -- Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.
Olea europaeaFruit-- -- *
Viscum albumPlant-- -- *
Trifolium pratenseFlower-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Cynara cardunculusLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Carum carviSeed-- 2840.0 1.94 *
Spinacia oleraceaShoot-- -- *
Berberis vulgarisPlant-- -- *
Euphrasia officinalisPlant-- 11500.0 0.73 Tyler, V.E.. 1982. The Honest Herbal. George F. Stickley Co., Philadelphia PA. 263 pp.
Spinacia oleraceaLeaf-- -- *
Harpagophytum procumbensRoot-- -- *
Althaea officinalisFlower-- -- *
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot-- -- *
Coleus barbatusRoot-- 42.9 -0.88 Jim Duke's personal files.
Althaea officinalisRoot-- -- *
Lycopodium clavatumPlant-- -- Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Tanacetum vulgarePlant-- -- *
Gaultheria procumbensLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Conium maculatumPlant-- -- *
Prunus spinosaPlant-- -- *
Eriobotrya japonicaPlant-- -- *
Anethum graveolensLeaf-- 1140.0 -0.56 *
Verbena officinalisLeaf-- 10000.0 0.67 *
Sambucus simpsoniiFlower-- -- Grenand, P., Moretti, C., and Jacquemin, H. 1987. Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. l'ORSTROM, Paris. 569 pp.
Valeriana officinalisRoot-- 5800.0 1.57 *
Melilotus officinalisPlant-- -- Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.
Matricaria recutitaPlant-- -- Kameoka, H. and Nakai, K. 1987. Components of essential oil from the root of Glycyrrhiza-glabra. Nippon Gogeikagaku Kaishi 61(9): 1119-1122.
Salvia officinalisShoot-- -- *
Plantago majorPlant-- -- *
Brassica nigraSeed-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Panax ginsengRoot-- -- *
Prunus persicaLeaf-- -- *
Inonotus obliquusPlant-- -- *
Vaccinium corymbosumPlant-- -- *
Zea maysShoot-- 0.7 -0.7 *
Digitalis purpureaLeaf-- -- *
Lycopus europeusPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pinus sylvestrisLeaf-- -- *
Myristica fragransPlant-- 16.0 -1.08 *
Melilotus officinalisShoot-- -- *
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Teucrium chamaedrysPlant-- -- Abstract (See species file)
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- *
Tecoma stansPlant-- -- *
Citrullus colocynthisFruit-- -- *
Cucumis meloPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Artemisia capillarisPlant-- -- *
Portulaca oleraceaPlant-- -- *
Solidago virgaureaFlower-- -- *
Arnica montanaFlower-- -- *
Brassica pekinensisLeaf-- 11.0 -0.71 *
Symphytum officinaleRoot-- -- *
Nicotiana tabacumLeaf-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Solidago giganteaPlant-- 21980.0 2.39 *
Satureja montanaShoot-- -- *
Crataegus laevigataFlower-- -- *
Petroselinum crispumStem-- -- *
Crataegus laevigataShoot-- -- *
Fagopyrum esculentumPlant-- -- *
Capsicum annuumFruit-- 11.0 -0.34 *
Crataegus laevigataBud-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumShoot-- -- *
Hordeum vulgareSeed-- -- *
Melia azedarachPlant-- -- *
Persea americanaFruit-- -- *
Sesamum indicumFruit-- -- *
Camellia sinensisPlant-- -- *
Sesamum indicumLeaf-- -- *
Asimina trilobaLeaf-- -- *
Laurus nobilisFruit-- -- *
Origanum majoranaPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rheum rhabarbarumPt-- 8.0 *
Laurus nobilisLeaf-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.