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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abies sachalinensisBranches3360.0 3780.0 *
Achillea moschataPlant927.0 1854.0 1.0 *
Achillea millefoliumLeaf6.0 275.0 -0.14 *
Acinos suaveolensShoot-- 25.0 -0.37 Tumen, G. 1991. The Volatile Constituents of Acinos suaveolens (Sibt. et Smith). G. Don fil. Growing in Turkey. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3:191-2.
Acinos alpinusShoot-- 2.0 -0.4 Velasco-Negueruela,A., Perez-Alonso,M.J., Jiminez,S.M. and Garcia,F.M. 1993. The Volatile Constituents of Acinus alpinus (L.) Moench ssp. meridionalis (Nyman). P.W. Ball Growing in Spain. Flav. & Frag. J. 8:127-130.)
Acinos alpinusShoot-- 2.0 -0.4 Velasco-Negueruela,A., Perez-Alonso,M.J., Jiminez,S.M. and Garcia,F.M. 1993. The Volatile Constituents of Acinus alpinus (L.) Moench ssp. meridionalis (Nyman). P.W. Ball Growing in Spain. Flav. & Frag. J. 8:127-130.)
Acorus calamusPlant-- -- *
Aframomum meleguetaSeed-- -- Wealth of India.
Agathosma betulinaLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Ageratum conyzoidesShoot-- 500.0 0.08 R. Vera, (1993); Chemical composition of the essential oil Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) from Reunion, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol.8, 257-260.
Aloysia citrodoraPlant-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Alpinia galangaRhizome-- -- *
Alpinia galangaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 41300.0 -0.12 *
Alpinia galangaLeaf-- 410.0 0.03 *
Amomum xanthioidesSeed-- -- *
Amomum compactumSeed-- -- Duke, J. A. and duCellier, J. L. 1993. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL 33431. 536 pp. US $312.50.
Angelica archangelicaPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Angelica archangelicaRoot-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Angelica archangelicaRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Annona squamosaLeaf-- -- *
Aristolochia serpentariaPlant-- -- *
Artemisia annuaPlant6.0 520.0 -0.2 *
Artemisia salsoloidesShoot-- 4500.0 3.95 V. Kaul, P. Weyerstahl, H. Wahlberg, H. Marschall, (1992); Volatile constituents of the essential oil and the absolute of Aremisia salsoloides Willd. from Ladakh,Flavour and Fragrance journal, Vol.7, 299-305.
Artemisia vulgarisPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Artemisia herba-albaPlant-- 319.0 -0.38 *
Aspalathus linearisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 500.0 -0.68 *
Bidens pilosaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 20000.0 -0.41 Jim Duke's personal files.
Boswellia sacraEssential Oil-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Calamintha nepetaShoot-- 16.0 -0.38 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Callicarpa americanaLeaf-- 0.55 -0.47 *
Cannabis sativaEssential Oil-- -- *
Cannabis sativaResin, Exudate, Sap-- -- *
Cannabis sativaPlant-- -- Turner, C. E., El Sohly, M. A., Boeren, E. G. 1980. Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. XVII. A Review of the Natural Constituents. J Natural Products, 432: 169-234.
Cedrus libaniPlant-- -- *
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Chrysanthemum x morifoliumFlower-- -- *
Chrysanthemum x morifoliumPlant12.0 45.0 -0.63 Wealth of India.
Chrysanthemum partheniumShoot-- 9.0 -0.39 Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Chrysanthemum balsamitaPlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumRoot Bark-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf-- 9.4 -0.46 Mallavarupu, G. R. et al. 1995. Investigation of the essential oil of cinnamon leaf grown at Bangalore and Hyderabad. Flav. & Fragr. J., 10: 239-242.
Cinnamomum verumBark2.0 8.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cinnamomum camphoraLeaf-- 290.0 -0.12 *
Cistus ladaniferusLeaf24.0 1680.0 1.6 *
Citrus aurantiifoliaFruit-- 60.0 -0.71 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cleonia lusitanicaLeaf1.0 5.0 -0.47 Perez-Alonso, M., Velasco-Negueruela, A., and Lopez-Saez, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Cleonia lusitanica. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 441-442.
Coleus barbatusLeaf Essent. Oil-- 11900.0 -0.52 Jim Duke's personal files.
Coleus barbatusStem Essent. Oil-- 11900.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Coriandrum sativumEssential Oil-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumFruit2.0 54.0 -0.71 *
Coriandrum sativumSeed Essent. Oil15500.0 70100.0 *
Coridothymus capitatusShoot-- 130.0 -0.27 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Crocus sativusSilk Stigma Style-- -- *
Croton lechleriPlant-- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Croton eluteriaBark-- -- *
Curcuma longaRhizome Essent. Oil-- -- *
Curcuma xanthorrhizaRhizome-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Curcuma longaRhizome-- -- *
Curcuma longaRoot-- -- *
Cymbopogon flexuosusLeaf750.0 1500.0 1.38 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Daucus carotaRoot-- -- *
Diospyros virginianaFruit-- -- *
Echinacea purpureaShoot-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Echinacea sppPlant-- -- Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 253.
Echinacea pallidaShoot-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Echinacea angustifoliaShoot-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Elettaria cardamomumSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Elettaria cardamomumFruit32.0 8000.0 1.41 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Elsholtzia densaPlant-- -- Hegnauer, R. 1962-1997. Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen, Bde 1-11. Birkhauser Verlag Basel, Boston, Berlin.
Elsholtzia blandaShoot-- 55.0 -0.35 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Eucalyptus maideniShoot-- 0.1 -0.4 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus polyanthemosShoot-- 6.0 -0.39 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus occidentalisShoot-- 0.1 -0.4 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus diversicolorShoot-- 0.1 -0.4 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus citriodoraShoot-- 0.1 -0.4 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf Essent. Oil-- 1000.0 -0.67 *
Eucalyptus botryoidesShoot-- 42.0 -0.36 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus globulusFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Eucalyptus astringensShoot-- 210.0 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus leucoxylonLeaf-- 5.5 -0.47 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus viridisLeaf-- 0.5 -0.47 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus sparsaLeaf-- 25.0 -0.44 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus lansdowneanaLeaf-- 30.0 -0.44 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus tereticornisShoot-- 9.0 -0.39 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus behrianaLeaf-- 2.7 -0.47 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus salignaShoot-- 8.0 -0.39 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maculataShoot-- 0.1 -0.4 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus paniculataShoot-- 7.0 -0.39 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus moluccanaShoot-- 24.0 -0.38 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus dealbataShoot-- 0.1 -0.4 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus camaldulensisShoot-- 0.1 -0.4 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus bosistoanaShoot-- 0.1 -0.4 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus globulusLeaf Essent. Oil-- 2000.0 -0.66 *
Eucalyptus albensShoot-- 0.1 -0.4 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus porosaLeaf-- 10.0 -0.46 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus fasiculosaLeaf-- 8.0 -0.47 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus desquamataLeaf-- 15.0 -0.46 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus populneaLeaf-- 1.8 -0.47 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus ochrophloiaLeaf-- 0.5 -0.47 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus sideroxylonShoot-- 0.1 -0.4 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus cupreaLeaf-- 17.0 -0.45 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus punctataShoot-- 140.0 -0.26 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus oviformisShoot-- 0.1 -0.4 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus globulusShoot-- 3000.0 2.5 *
Eucalyptus melliodoraShoot-- 0.1 -0.4 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus cladocalyxShoot-- 17.0 -0.38 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus grandisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 8000.0 -0.58 *
Eucalyptus brassianaLeaf-- 20.0 -0.45 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Eucalyptus blakelyiShoot-- 100.0 -0.3 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus melanophloiaLeaf-- 11.0 -0.46 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus odorataLeaf-- 12.0 -0.46 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus intertextaLeaf-- 14.0 -0.46 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus siderophloiaShoot-- 75.0 -0.33 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus largisparsaLeaf-- 4.6 -0.47 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eupatorium triplinervePlant-- 480.0 -0.24 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ferula gummosaPlant-- -- *
Gardenia jasminoidesFlower-- -- *
Glechoma hederaceaPlant1.0 5.0 -0.67 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Grindelia squarrosaEssential Oil-- -- *
Hedeoma drummondiiPlant1.0 3800.0 2.76 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hedeoma reverchoniiPlant-- 2528.0 1.61 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hedeoma hispidaPlant-- 214.0 -0.48 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Helianthus annuusFlower-- -- *
Houttuynia cordataShoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Hypericum perforatumPlant0.15 2.7 -0.67 *
Hyptis suaveolensShoot-- 2.0 -0.4 Mallvarapu, G.R., Ramesh, S., Kaul, P.N., Bhattacharya, A.K., and Rao, B.R.R. 1993. The Essential Oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 321.
Hyptis suaveolensShoot-- 2.0 -0.4 Mallvarapu, G.R., Ramesh, S., Kaul, P.N., Bhattacharya, A.K., and Rao, B.R.R. 1993. The Essential Oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 321.
Hyssopus officinalisShoot3.0 4.0 -0.39 Indian Perfumer, 35: 52.
Juniperus communisEssential Oil-- -- *
Juniperus communisPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Kaempferia galangaRhizome-- -- *
Kaempferia galangaPlant-- -- *
Larrea tridentataPlant-- -- *
Laurus nobilisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 4700.0 -0.62 *
Laurus nobilisLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula latifoliaPlant20.0 759.0 0.01 *
Lavandula angustifoliaPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula x hybridaShoot55.0 80.0 -0.32 Tucker, A.O., Maciarello, M.J., Angell, S., Espaillat, J.R., and French, E.C. 1993. The Essential Oil of Lavandula x hybrida Balb. ex Ging., a Distinct Hybrid from L. x heterophylla Poir. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 443-445.
Lavandula x intermediaPlant200.0 330.0 -0.37 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Leonotis leonurusSe-- 0.1 Pedro, L.G., Barroso, J.G., Marques, N.T., Ascensao, L., Pais, M.S.S. and Scheffer, J.J.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil from Sepals of Leonotis leonurus R. Br. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 451-3
Levisticum officinaleRoot-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lindera benzoinTwig13.0 15.0 *
Liquidambar styracifluaLeaf-- -- *
Matricaria recutitaPlant-- -- Kameoka, H. and Nakai, K. 1987. Components of essential oil from the root of Glycyrrhiza-glabra. Nippon Gogeikagaku Kaishi 61(9): 1119-1122.
Mentha longifoliaShoot1.0 1250.0 0.81 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oils from Mentha longifolia Growing in Sinai and Israel. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 57.
Mentha spicataLeaf-- -- Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Mentha spicataEssential Oil-- -- *
Micromeria fruticosaLeaf-- 570.0 0.23 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria croaticaLeaf-- 2240.0 2.3 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria variaShoot-- 24.0 -0.38 *
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- 5.0 -0.39 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria variaShoot-- 24.0 -0.38 Pedro, L.G., et al. 1995. Composition of the Essential oil of Micromeria varia Benth. ssp. thymoides (Sol. ex Lowe) Perez var. thymoides, and endemic species of the Madeira Archipelago. flav. & Fragr. J. 10(3): 199-202.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- 5.0 -0.39 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria teneriffaeLeaf-- 1490.0 1.37 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Monarda didymaLeaf40.0 75.0 -0.38 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 80.
Monarda didymaFlower-- 7.0 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 80.
Myristica fragransEssential Oil-- -- *
Myrtus communisPlant-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 3.0 -0.67 Die Nahrung. Pino, J., Rosado, A., Goire, I., Roncal, E., and Garcia, I. 1993. Analysis of the Essential Oil from Cuban Basil. Die Nahrung 37:(5): 501-504.
Ocimum basilicumShoot Essent. Oil-- 1200.0 -0.79 *
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 3.0 -0.67 Die Nahrung. Pino, J., Rosado, A., Goire, I., Roncal, E., and Garcia, I. 1993. Analysis of the Essential Oil from Cuban Basil. Die Nahrung 37:(5): 501-504.
Ocimum basilicumEssential Oil-- 1200.0 -0.9 *
Ocimum tenuiflorumLeaf-- 240.0 -0.18 Brophy, J.J., Goldsack, R.J., and Clarkson, J.R. 1993. The Essential Oil of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae) Growing in Northern Australia, J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 459-461.
Ocimum gratissimumPlant1.0 9.0 -0.66 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum onitesShoot-- 950.0 0.52 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Origanum vulgareShoot Essent. Oil-- 14100.0 -0.62 *
Origanum syriacumShoot-- 15.0 -0.38 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum sipyleumShoot-- 200.0 -0.21 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Origanum sipyleumShoot-- 140.0 -0.26 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Origanum vulgarePlant32.0 252.0 -0.44 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum onitesShoot-- 950.0 0.52 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Origanum syriacumShoot-- 30.0 -0.37 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum sipyleumShoot-- 1400.0 0.95 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Origanum onitesPlant-- 315.0 -0.39 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum majoranaPlant-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Origanum vulgareShoot-- 45.0 -0.36 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Origanum syriacumShoot-- 15.0 -0.38 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum sipyleumShoot-- 50.0 -0.35 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Pelargonium graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Pinus elliottiiLeaf-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pinus wallicianaLeaf-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus sylvestrisEssential Oil-- -- *
Pinus sylvestrisLeaf Essent. Oil6500.0 62000.0 0.16 *
Pinus sylvestrisLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- *
Piper nigrumFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Piper auritumLeaf-- -- Tramil
Plectranthus coleoidesShoot-- 120.0 -0.28 Buchbauer, G., Jorovetz, L., Wasicky, M. and Nikiforov, A. 1993. Volatile Constituents of the Headspace and Essential Oil of Plectranthus coleoides Marginatus (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 311-313.
Plectranthus barbatusEssential Oil30000.0 239000.0 1.45 *
Polygonum hydropiperEssential Oil-- -- *
Ptychopetalum olacoidesRoot Essent. Oil-- 5000.0 Uber Bucek, E., Fournier, G., Dadoun, H. 1987. Volatile Constituents of Ptychopetalum olacoides Root Oil. Planta Med. 53, 2: 231.
Pycnanthemum setosumShoot160.0 248.0 -0.16 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum montanumShoot21.0 24.0 -0.38 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum pycnanthemoidesShoot78.0 116.0 -0.29 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum incanumShoot33.0 57.0 -0.34 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum tenuifoliumShoot6.0 220.0 -0.19 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum muticumShoot58.0 1350.0 0.91 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum beadleiShoot-- 42.0 -0.36 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Rosmarinus tomentosusShoot110.0 555.0 0.14 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus eriocalyxShoot105.0 245.0 -0.16 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot100.0 1020.0 0.59 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf-- 24.0 -0.45 Soliman, F.M., El-Kashoury, M.M., Fathy, M.M. and Gonaid, M.H. 1994. Analysis and Biological Activity of the Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Egypt. Flavour and Fragrance J. 9: 29-33.
Rosmarinus officinalisResin, Exudate, Sap-- -- *
Rosmarinus x mendizabaliiShoot23.0 165.0 -0.24 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus eriocalyxShoot105.0 245.0 -0.16 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot-- 180.0 -0.22 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot Essent. Oil-- 175000.0 1.41 *
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf-- 24.0 -0.45 Soliman, F.M., El-Kashoury, M.M., Fathy, M.M. and Gonaid, M.H. 1994. Analysis and Biological Activity of the Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Egypt. Flavour and Fragrance J. 9: 29-33.
Rosmarinus officinalisEssential Oil21000.0 223000.0 1.29 *
Rosmarinus x lavandulaceusShoot75.0 345.0 -0.07 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot145.0 895.0 0.47 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalisPlant12.0 4237.0 3.16 *
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 47000.0 -0.04 *
Salvia officinalisEssential Oil19700.0 156000.0 0.63 *
Salvia officinalisLeaf Essent. Oil16000.0 250000.0 2.73 *
Salvia officinalisShoot-- 7000.0 6.37 *
Salvia officinalisEt-- 79000.0 *
Salvia canariensisLeaf-- 160.0 -0.28 Casnigueral,S., Iglesias,J., Vila,R., Virgili,A. and Ibanez,C.1994. The Essential Oil from Leaves of Salvia canariensis L. Flav. & Frag. J. 9:201-204. S. Canigueral, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Ave.Diagonal 643,E-08028, Barcelone Spain
Santalum albumWood-- -- *
Satureja montanaPlant15.0 545.0 -0.18 *
Satureja subspicataPlant-- 25.0 -0.65 Stanic, G., Petricic, J., and Blazevic, N. 1991. Gas Chromatographic Investigations of Essential Oils of Satureja montana and Satureja subspicata from Yugoslavia. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 153-158.
Satureja montanaEssential Oil-- 12200.0 -0.8 *
Satureja hortensisPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Satureja cuneifoliaShoot-- 430.0 0.02 Tumen, G. 1991. The Volatile Constituents of Satureja cuneifolia. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 365-366.
Satureja douglasiiPlant1.0 910.0 0.15 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Satureja thymbraShoot-- 185.0 -0.22 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Stevia rebaudianaPlant-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stevia rebaudianaFlower-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Tagetes minutaEssential Oil-- 6500.0 -0.85 *
Tanacetum partheniumShoot-- 9.0 -0.39 Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Tanacetum partheniumEssential Oil-- 10000.0 -0.82 *
Tanacetum partheniumFruit Essent. Oil-- 1300.0 *
Tanacetum vulgarePlant-- -- *
Teucrium scorodoniaShoot-- -- Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium micropodioidesLeaf-- -- -0.48 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium cypriumLeaf-- 65.0 -0.4 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium oxylepisShoot-- -- Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium poliumPlant-- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Teucrium salviastrumShoot-- -- Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium kotschyanumLeaf-- -- -0.48 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium asiaticumShoot-- 0.1 -0.4 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium oxylepisShoot-- -- Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium pseudoscorodoniaShoot-- -- Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium divaricatumLeaf-- -- -0.48 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Thuja occidentalisBranches-- -- *
Thymus x citriodorusPlant-- 20.0 -0.65 Stahl-Biskup, E. and Holthuijzen, J. 1995. Essential oil and glycosidally bound volatiles of lemon-scented thyme, Thymus x citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10: 225-229.
Thymus zygisShoot-- -- Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Thymus mastichinaPlant1.0 350.0 -0.35 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus vulgarisLeaf15.0 1462.0 1.33 *
Thymus broussonettiiShoot-- 70.0 -0.33 Tantaoui-Elaraki, A., Lattaoui, N., Errifi, A. and Benjilali, B. 1993. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils of Thymus broussonettii, T. zygis and T. saturejoides. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 45-53.
Thymus zygisShoot-- 0.1 -0.4 Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 550.0 0.13 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus capitatusShoot-- 60.0 -0.34 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Thymus serpyllumPlant4.0 573.0 -0.15 *
Thymus saturejoidesShoot-- 3120.0 2.62 Tantaoui-Elaraki, A., Lattaoui, N., Errifi, A. and Benjilali, B. 1993. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils of Thymus broussonettii, T. zygis and T. saturejoides. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 45-53.
Thymus zygisShoot0.1 420.0 0.01 De Cunha, A.P. and Salguiero, L.R. 1991. The Chemical Polymorphism of Thymus zygis ssp. sylvestris from Central Portugal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 409-12.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 550.0 0.13 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus orospedanusPlant-- 875.0 0.12 J. Nat. Prod.
Thymus capitatusPlant20.0 330.0 -0.37 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus riatarumShoot-- 1115.0 0.68 Iglesias, J., Vila, R., Canigueral, S., Bellakdhar, and Il Idrissi, A. 1991. Analysis of the Essential Oil of Thymus riatarum. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 43-4.
Thymus vulgarisEssential Oil-- -- *
Valeriana officinalisLeaf5.0 3900.0 4.35 Father Nature's Farmacy: The aggregate of all these three-letter citations.
Valeriana officinalisLeaf Essent. Oil18200.0 153000.0 1.41 *
Valeriana officinalisEssential Oil-- -- *
Valeriana officinalisRoot5.0 460.0 *
Valeriana officinalisRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- 180.0 *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil-- 18000.0 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.