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Paginate rows. Click on column headings to sort table by that column
Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Panax ginsengRoot Essent. Oil-- 150000.0 1.0 *
Scutellaria laterifloraEssential Oil-- 92000.0 1.39 *
Ocimum basilicumShoot Essent. Oil4900.0 81600.0 1.41 *
Apium graveolensFruit Essent. Oil-- 35000.0 1.68 *
Apium graveolensSeed Essent. Oil-- 35000.0 *
Centella asiaticaEssential Oil-- 30000.0 -0.49 Jim Duke's personal files.
Panax ginsengFlower Essent. Oil-- 29000.0 *
Ocimum basilicumEssential Oil-- 16100.0 -0.91 *
Copaifera sppGum3900.0 14400.0 *
Coleus barbatusRoot Essent. Oil-- 14000.0 -1.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Piper cubebaFruit Essent. Oil-- 10000.0 -0.16 *
Perilla frutescensShoot Essent. Oil-- 4000.0 -0.67 Nguyen, X. D., La, D. M., Lu'u, D. C., Leclercq, P. A. 1995. Essential Oil Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. J. Essent. Oil Res., 7(4): 429-432.
Tamarindus indicaFruit Essent. Oil-- 3000.0 -0.68 *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil-- 3000.0 *
Piper cubebaFruit1200.0 2400.0 2.72 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum tenuifoliumShoot16.0 1600.0 5.09 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum virginianumShoot240.0 1160.0 3.59 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Umbellularia californicaPlant280.0 1120.0 3.67 *
Origanum vulgareShoot Essent. Oil-- 1100.0 -0.75 *
Ocimum tenuiflorumLeaf120.0 1080.0 5.25 *
Piper nigrumFruit Essent. Oil-- 900.0 -0.83 *
Apium graveolensSeed1.0 875.0 1.41 *
Acorus calamusRhizome60.0 750.0 1.07 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Illicium verumFruit1.0 650.0 0.32 *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome2.0 500.0 0.27 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Ocimum gratissimumShoot-- 425.0 1.1 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Lycium chinenseFruit-- 360.0 -0.07 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Mentha longifoliaShoot-- 275.0 0.59 *
Eucalyptus incrassataLeaf-- 240.0 0.84 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot3.0 200.0 0.34 Bandoni, A.L., Mizrahi, I., and Juarez, M.A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis Growing in Argentina. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 11.
Pycnanthemum incanumShoot22.0 190.0 0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Metrosideros sclerocarpaLeaf47.0 188.0 0.57 *
Nepeta catariaPlant4.0 155.0 0.1 Bourrel, C., Perineau, F., Michel, G., Bessiere, J.M. 1993. Catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) Essential Oil: Analysis of Chemical Constituents, Bacteriostatic and Fungistatic Properties. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 159-167.
Murraya koenigiiLeaf5.0 155.0 0.39 *
Eucalyptus stoateiLeaf-- 150.0 0.37 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Dracocephalum thymifloraPlant-- 148.0 0.07 *
Moldavica thymifloraPlant-- 148.0 0.07 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Levisticum officinaleRoot12.0 125.0 1.0 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Cinnamomum verumLeaf-- 120.0 0.21 Mallavarupu, G. R. et al. 1995. Investigation of the essential oil of cinnamon leaf grown at Bangalore and Hyderabad. Flav. & Fragr. J., 10: 239-242.
Eucalyptus tetrapteraLeaf-- 120.0 0.21 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Stevia rebaudianaFlower-- 110.0 1.0 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Lindera benzoinFruit50.0 105.0 -0.42 *
Pycnanthemum pilosumFlower28.0 105.0 -1.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum pilosumLeaf28.0 105.0 0.13 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Juniperus communisFruit10.0 100.0 -0.43 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Angelica archangelicaRoot-- 90.0 -1.0 *
Eucalyptus astringensShoot-- 85.0 -0.05 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus largisparsaLeaf-- 85.0 0.03 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Artemisia annuaPlant3.0 80.0 -0.18 *
Anethum graveolensSeed12.0 77.0 -0.65 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Anethum graveolensFruit12.0 77.0 -0.46 *
Cymbopogon winterianusPlant40.0 70.0 -0.22 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Eucalyptus dolichorhynchaLeaf-- 65.0 -0.08 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Ocimum gratissimumPlant5.0 65.0 -0.24 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha aquaticaShoot-- 65.0 -0.12 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha aquaticaShoot-- 65.0 -0.12 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha aquaticaShoot-- 55.0 -0.15 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Eucalyptus forrestianaLeaf-- 55.0 -0.13 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Glechoma hederaceaPlant9.0 53.0 -0.28 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Eucalyptus erythrandraLeaf-- 44.0 -0.19 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Hyssopus officinalisShoot-- 42.0 -0.2 Tsankova, E.T., Konatchiev, A.N. and Genova, E.M. 1993. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Two Hyssopus officinalis cultivars. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 609-611.
Hyssopus officinalisShoot-- 42.0 -0.2 Tsankova, E.T., Konatchiev, A.N. and Genova, E.M. 1993. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Two Hyssopus officinalis cultivars. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 609-611.
Eucalyptus sideroxylonShoot-- 40.0 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus tereticornisShoot-- 35.0 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Melissa officinalisShoot4.0 32.0 -0.23 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
Cuminum cyminumFruit-- 30.0 -0.53 *
Origanum vulgarePlant6.0 30.0 -0.36 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cuminum cyminumSeed-- 30.0 -0.77 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha aquaticaShoot-- 29.0 -0.24 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha aquaticaShoot-- 29.0 -0.24 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Eucalyptus ceratocorysLeaf-- 26.0 -0.28 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus sparsaLeaf-- 25.0 -0.29 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus angulosaLeaf-- 22.0 -0.3 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Tagetes lucidaShoot-- 18.0 -0.28 Bicchi, C., Fresia, M., Rubiolo, P., Monti, D., Franz, C., Goehler, I. 1997. Constituents of Tagetes lucida Cav. ssp. lucida essential oil. Flavor & Fragrance, 12(1): 47-52.
Collinsonia canadensisPlant-- 16.0 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Ageratum conyzoidesPlant2.0 16.0 -0.42 *
Eucalyptus desquamataLeaf-- 15.0 -0.34 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 12.0 -0.43 Die Nahrung. Pino, J., Rosado, A., Goire, I., Roncal, E., and Garcia, I. 1993. Analysis of the Essential Oil from Cuban Basil. Die Nahrung 37:(5): 501-504.
Eucalyptus cupreaLeaf-- 10.0 -0.37 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Acinos alpinusShoot-- 10.0 -0.31 Velasco-Negueruela,A., Perez-Alonso,M.J., Jiminez,S.M. and Garcia,F.M. 1993. The Volatile Constituents of Acinus alpinus (L.) Moench ssp. meridionalis (Nyman). P.W. Ball Growing in Spain. Flav. & Frag. J. 8:127-130.)
Eucalyptus porosaLeaf-- 10.0 -0.37 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus populneaLeaf-- 8.0 -0.38 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf-- 6.0 -0.39 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Chrysanthemum x morifoliumPlant2.0 6.0 -0.45 Wealth of India.
Eucalyptus paniculataShoot-- 6.0 -0.32 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus leucoxylonLeaf-- 5.5 -0.39 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus intertextaLeaf-- 5.5 -0.39 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Salvia gilliesiiShoot-- 5.5 -0.32 Velasco-Negueruela, A. et al. 1993. The Essential Oil of Salvia gilliesii Benth. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 319-320.
Petroselinum crispumLeaf-- 5.4 -0.39 *
Hypericum perforatumPlant0.25 4.5 -0.46 *
Eucalyptus odorataLeaf-- 4.4 -0.4 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Myrtus communisPlant3.0 4.0 -0.46 *
Eucalyptus behrianaLeaf-- 2.7 -0.41 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus lansdowneanaLeaf-- 2.4 -0.41 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus fasiculosaLeaf-- 1.3 -0.41 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Citrus sinensisFruit0.7 1.0 -0.57 *
Citrus reticulataFruit0.7 1.0 -0.57 *
Eucalyptus melanophloiaLeaf-- 1.0 -0.41 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Lindera benzoinLeaf-- 0.5 -0.42 *
Rheum palmatumRhizome-- 0.5 -1.34 *
Eucalyptus viridisLeaf-- 0.5 -0.42 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus ochrophloiaLeaf-- 0.5 -0.42 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus punctataShoot-- 0.1 -0.34 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maculataShoot-- 0.1 -0.34 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus albensShoot-- 0.1 -0.34 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus camaldulensisShoot-- 0.1 -0.34 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maideniShoot-- 0.1 -0.34 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus salignaShoot-- 0.1 -0.34 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus siderophloiaShoot-- 0.1 -0.34 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus melliodoraShoot-- 0.1 -0.34 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus moluccanaShoot-- 0.1 -0.34 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus citriodoraShoot-- 0.1 -0.34 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus occidentalisShoot-- 0.1 -0.34 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus cladocalyxShoot-- 0.1 -0.34 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus globulusShoot-- 0.1 -0.34 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus blakelyiShoot-- 0.1 -0.34 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus botryoidesShoot-- 0.1 -0.34 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus oviformisShoot-- 0.1 -0.34 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus dealbataShoot-- 0.1 -0.34 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus bosistoanaShoot-- 0.1 -0.34 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus diversicolorShoot-- 0.1 -0.34 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus polyanthemosShoot-- 0.1 -0.34 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Melaleuca alternifoliaLeaf-- 0.001 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- -- -0.34 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- -- -0.34 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Micromeria variaShoot-- -- -0.34 Pedro, L.G., et al. 1995. Composition of the Essential oil of Micromeria varia Benth. ssp. thymoides (Sol. ex Lowe) Perez var. thymoides, and endemic species of the Madeira Archipelago. flav. & Fragr. J. 10(3): 199-202.
Boswellia sacraEssential Oil-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Panax ginsengShoot-- -- *
Agathosma betulinaLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Hedera helixLeaf-- -- *
Saussurea lappaRoot-- -- *
Pelargonium graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- -- *
Opopanax chironiumEssential Oil-- -- *
Citrus limonEssential Oil-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Scutellaria baicalensisRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pimenta dioicaPlant-- -- *
Croton eluteriaBark-- -- *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant-- -- *
Valeriana officinalisRoot-- -- *
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cinnamomum camphoraLeaf-- -- *
Arctium lappaRoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Agastache rugosaEssential Oil-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Agastache rugosaTissue Culture-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Mentha spicataLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Apium graveolensLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Centella asiaticaLeaf-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Micromeria variaShoot-- -- *
Apium graveolensLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Aniba rosaeodoraEssential Oil-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot-- -- *
Citrus sinensisPericarp Essent. Oil-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Daucus carotaPlant-- -- *
Achillea millefoliumLeaf-- -- *
Chrysanthemum x morifoliumFlower-- -- Wealth of India.
Petasites hybridusRhizome-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Laurus nobilisPlant-- -- *
Carum carviEssential Oil-- -- *
Carum carviSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Mentha spicataEssential Oil-- -- *
Tanacetum vulgarePlant-- -- *
Pinus sylvestrisEssential Oil-- -- *
Croton lechleriPlant-- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Angelica archangelicaRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Rosmarinus officinalisResin, Exudate, Sap-- -- *
Hyssopus officinalisPlant-- -- *
Magnolia denudataBark-- -- *
Magnolia denudataBulb-- -- *
Artemisia capillarisEssential Oil-- -- *
Marrubium vulgarePlant-- -- *
Magnolia denudataLeaf-- -- *
Magnolia denudataTwig-- -- *
Citrus aurantiumPlant-- -- *
Alpinia officinarumRhizome-- -- Wealth of India.
Pogostemon cablinPlant-- -- *
Laurus nobilisLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.