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Paginate rows. Click on column headings to sort table by that column
Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Bidens pilosaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 730000.0 3.94 Jim Duke's personal files.
Syzygium aromaticumEssential Oil-- 495000.0 2.81 *
Piper nigrumFruit Essent. Oil160000.0 352000.0 2.21 *
Perilla frutescensShoot Essent. Oil-- 167000.0 1.23 Nguyen, X. D., La, D. M., Lu'u, D. C., Leclercq, P. A. 1995. Essential Oil Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. J. Essent. Oil Res., 7(4): 429-432.
Rosmarinus officinalisEssential Oil145000.0 153000.0 0.39 *
Lindera benzoinShoot Essent. Oil-- 150000.0 0.97 Tucker, A. O. and Debaggio, T. 2000. The Big Book of Herbs. Interweave Press, Inc. Loveland, CO. 688 pp.
Centella asiaticaEssential Oil-- 125000.0 0.19 Jim Duke's personal files.
Angelica archangelicaRoot Essent. Oil-- 110000.0 1.04 *
Coleus barbatusLeaf Essent. Oil-- 107100.0 0.23 Jim Duke's personal files.
Coleus barbatusStem Essent. Oil-- 107100.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Origanum vulgareShoot Essent. Oil15000.0 90600.0 0.06 *
Ptychopetalum olacoidesRoot Essent. Oil-- 77000.0 0.31 Uber Bucek, E., Fournier, G., Dadoun, H. 1987. Volatile Constituents of Ptychopetalum olacoides Root Oil. Planta Med. 53, 2: 231.
Origanum vulgareEssential Oil-- 74500.0 -0.16 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf Essent. Oil-- 70000.0 0.01 *
Syzygium aromaticumFruit2230.0 69365.0 2.0 *
Salvia officinalisEssential Oil18900.0 66000.0 -0.22 *
Vitex agnus-castusLeaf Essent. Oil-- 63800.0 -0.03 Jim Duke's personal files.
Petroselinum crispumFruit Essent. Oil11000.0 62100.0 -0.18 *
Coriandrum sativumSeed Essent. Oil1600.0 55470.0 1.0 *
Boswellia sacraResin, Exudate, Sap-- 49100.0 Chiavari, G., Gtalletti, G. C., Piccaglia, R., Mohamud, M. A. 1991. Differentiation Between Resins Boswellia carterii and Boswellia frereana (Frankincense) of Somali Origin. J. Essent. Oil Res. 3 (3):185-186.
Apium graveolensFruit Essent. Oil5000.0 43000.0 -0.33 *
Apium graveolensSeed Essent. Oil5000.0 43000.0 -1.0 *
Salvia officinalisEt-- 41000.0 *
Perilla frutescensLeaf Essent. Oil-- 38000.0 -0.18 Kang, R., Helms, R., Stout, M.J., Jaber, H., Chen, Z., and Nakatsu, T. 1992. Antimicrobial Activity of the Volatile Constituents of Perilla frutescens and Its Synergistic Effects with Polygodial. J. Agric. Food Chem., 40: 2328-2330.
Ocimum basilicumEssential Oil6800.0 37700.0 -0.42 *
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf Essent. Oil27000.0 35000.0 -0.2 *
Piper cubebaFruit Essent. Oil-- 34000.0 -0.41 *
Piper nigrumLeaf Essent. Oil-- 30000.0 -0.23 *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf Essent. Oil-- 18500.0 -0.3 *
Thymus vulgarisEssential Oil-- 17800.0 -0.56 *
Myrrhis odorataLeaf Essent. Oil-- 17000.0 -0.3 *
Syzygium aromaticumLeaf2295.0 14520.0 6.77 Charalambous, G. (Ed.). 1994. Spices, Herbs and Edible Fungi. Elsevier Science B. V. Amsterdam. 764 pp.
Ocimum basilicumShoot Essent. Oil2300.0 13900.0 -1.12 *
Pinus sylvestrisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 13900.0 -0.32 *
Valeriana officinalisLeaf Essent. Oil2500.0 13600.0 -0.32 *
Cinnamomum verumBark Essent. Oil-- 13500.0 *
Aesculus hippocastanumFlower Essent. Oil-- 13000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot Essent. Oil-- 12200.0 -1.14 *
Salvia officinalisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 11000.0 -0.34 *
Murraya koenigiiLeaf23.0 7540.0 3.36 *
Tagetes minutaFruit Essent. Oil-- 5800.0 -0.64 *
Tamarindus indicaFruit Essent. Oil-- 5000.0 -0.65 *
Apium graveolensLeaf Essent. Oil-- 5000.0 -0.38 *
Melaleuca alternifoliaEssential Oil-- 4400.0 -0.66 *
Mentha longifoliaShoot30.0 4155.0 8.01 *
Citrus limonLeaf Essent. Oil100.0 3500.0 -0.39 Jim Duke's personal files.
Ocimum tenuiflorumLeaf30.0 3060.0 1.16 *
Tagetes filifoliaEssential Oil-- 2700.0 -0.67 Hussain, R.A., et. al. 1990. Sweetening Agents of Plant Origin: Phenylpropanoid Constituents of Seven Sweet-Tasting Plants. Econ. Bot. 44 2: 174-182. Program Collab. Res. Pharm. Sci. Coll. Pharmacy Univ. Illinois at Chicago IL 60680, USA.
Hedychium flavumShoot-- 2690.0 5.04 *
Eucalyptus tetrapteraLeaf-- 2670.0 0.97 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Micromeria fruticosaLeaf-- 2640.0 0.96 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Salvia trilobaPlant500.0 2280.0 2.08 *
Artemisia annuaPlant15.0 2240.0 2.03 *
Salvia canariensisLeaf-- 2105.0 0.7 Casnigueral,S., Iglesias,J., Vila,R., Virgili,A. and Ibanez,C.1994. The Essential Oil from Leaves of Salvia canariensis L. Flav. & Frag. J. 9:201-204. S. Canigueral, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Ave.Diagonal 643,E-08028, Barcelone Spain
Rosmarinus officinalisPlant12.0 2075.0 1.82 *
Nepeta catariaPlant-- 1800.0 1.47 *
Satureja thymbraShoot-- 1590.0 2.81 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Carum carviSeed20.0 1320.0 0.92 *
Apium graveolensSeed55.0 1290.0 0.86 *
Alpinia galangaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 1100.0 -0.4 *
Alpinia galangaRhizome Essent. Oil-- 1100.0 1.0 *
Satureja montanaPlant20.0 1050.0 0.51 J. Ethnopharmacology, 39: 167.
Eucalyptus grandisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 1000.0 -0.4 *
Satureja obovataLeaf-- 985.0 0.15 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Ocimum kilimandscharicumFlower25.0 945.0 2.54 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil-- 900.0 -1.0 *
Melaleuca alternifoliaRoot Essent. Oil-- 900.0 -1.35 *
Melissa officinalisShoot1.0 870.0 1.35 *
Mentha aquaticaLeaf70.0 850.0 0.08 *
Petroselinum crispumSeed6.6 770.0 -0.25 *
Salvia officinalisLeaf500.0 760.0 0.04 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum majoranaPlant35.0 750.0 0.13 *
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 720.0 0.09 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Salvia gilliesiiShoot-- 720.0 1.05 Velasco-Negueruela, A. et al. 1993. The Essential Oil of Salvia gilliesii Benth. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 319-320.
Mentha arvensis var. piperascensLeaf-- 700.0 0.01 *
Hyssopus officinalisLeaf3.0 660.0 -0.01 *
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- 645.0 0.9 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- 645.0 0.9 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Eucalyptus forrestianaLeaf-- 645.0 -0.02 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Thymus vulgarisPlant15.0 605.0 -0.06 *
Teucrium cypriumLeaf-- 600.0 -0.04 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Mentha rotundifoliaLeaf-- 600.0 -0.04 *
Teucrium divaricatumLeaf-- 530.0 -0.08 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Humulus lupulusFruit-- 520.0 -0.49 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Artemisia salsoloidesShoot-- 500.0 0.6 V. Kaul, P. Weyerstahl, H. Wahlberg, H. Marschall, (1992); Volatile constituents of the essential oil and the absolute of Aremisia salsoloides Willd. from Ladakh,Flavour and Fragrance journal, Vol.7, 299-305.
Thymus zygisShoot0.1 460.0 0.52 De Cunha, A.P. and Salguiero, L.R. 1991. The Chemical Polymorphism of Thymus zygis ssp. sylvestris from Central Portugal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 409-12.
Teucrium chamaedrysPlant-- 420.0 -0.29 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Eucalyptus dolichorhynchaLeaf-- 415.0 -0.13 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Hyssopus officinalisFlower40.0 415.0 0.72 *
Origanum minutiflorumShoot165.0 380.0 0.36 Baser, K.H.C., Tumen, G., Sezik, E. 1991. The Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 445-446.
Thymus x citriodorusPlant-- 370.0 -0.36 Stahl-Biskup, E. and Holthuijzen, J. 1995. Essential oil and glycosidally bound volatiles of lemon-scented thyme, Thymus x citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10: 225-229.
Origanum onitesShoot-- 365.0 0.33 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Micromeria julianaLeaf-- 365.0 -0.16 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Origanum vulgareShoot-- 360.0 0.32 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Rosmarinus tomentosusShoot55.0 355.0 0.31 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Alpinia galangaLeaf-- 350.0 -0.16 *
Eucalyptus incrassataLeaf-- 350.0 -0.16 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Valeriana officinalisLeaf6.0 345.0 -0.17 Father Nature's Farmacy: The aggregate of all these three-letter citations.
Hyssopus officinalisShoot-- 330.0 0.26 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Ravensara aromaticaLeaf-- 300.0 -0.19 *
Lippia albaLeaf-- 300.0 -0.19 Grenand, P., Moretti, C., and Jacquemin, H. 1987. Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. l'ORSTROM, Paris. 569 pp.
Thymus riatarumShoot-- 300.0 0.2 Iglesias, J., Vila, R., Canigueral, S., Bellakdhar, and Il Idrissi, A. 1991. Analysis of the Essential Oil of Thymus riatarum. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 43-4.
Tagetes lucidaLeaf-- 280.0 -0.2 Tramil
Hyssopus officinalisShoot-- 270.0 0.14 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Eucalyptus stoateiLeaf-- 270.0 -0.2 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Ageratum conyzoidesPlant34.0 270.0 -0.48 *
Hyssopus officinalisShoot-- 260.0 0.12 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Rosmarinus eriocalyxShoot50.0 260.0 0.12 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus eriocalyxShoot50.0 260.0 0.12 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Eucalyptus dealbataShoot-- 250.0 0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Teucrium arduiniShoot-- 245.0 0.09 Blazevic, N., Kalodera, Z., Petricic, J., and Plazibat, M. 1992. Essential Oil Content and Composition of Teucrium arduini L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 223-225.
Teucrium kotschyanumLeaf-- 245.0 -0.21 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Hyssopus officinalisShoot-- 240.0 0.08 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Hyssopus officinalisShoot-- 240.0 0.08 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Rosmarinus x lavandulaceusShoot29.0 240.0 0.08 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Eucalyptus sideroxylonShoot-- 240.0 0.08 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Nepeta racemosaShoot-- 240.0 0.08 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Nepeta racemosaShoot-- 240.0 0.08 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Hyssopus officinalisShoot-- 230.0 0.06 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Ocimum gratissimumFlower145.0 220.0 0.06 Charles, D.J. and Simon, J.E. 1992. A New Geraniol Chemotype of Ocimum gratissimum L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 231-234.
Ocimum gratissimumLeaf115.0 215.0 -0.23 Charles, D.J. and Simon, J.E. 1992. A New Geraniol Chemotype of Ocimum gratissimum L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 231-234.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 210.0 0.02 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 210.0 0.02 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Hyssopus officinalisShoot-- 210.0 0.02 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Hyssopus officinalisShoot-- 200.0 -0.0 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Foeniculum vulgareEssential Oil-- 200.0 -0.69 Jim Duke's personal files.
Hyssopus officinalisShoot-- 200.0 -0.0 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Thymus cilicicusShoot-- 200.0 -0.0 Tumen, G., Koyuncu, M., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil of Thymus cilicicus Boiss. & Bal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Coridothymus capitatusShoot-- 200.0 -0.0 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Origanum syriacumShoot-- 200.0 -0.0 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum syriacumShoot-- 200.0 -0.0 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Laurus nobilisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 200.0 -0.4 *
Eucalyptus porosaLeaf-- 195.0 -0.24 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Lantana camaraShoot-- 188.0 -0.03 *
Origanum syriacumShoot-- 185.0 -0.03 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Laurus nobilisLeaf4.0 180.0 -0.25 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Eucalyptus leucoxylonLeaf-- 170.0 -0.25 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Teucrium micropodioidesLeaf-- 170.0 -0.25 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Daucus carotaSeed55.0 170.0 -1.53 *
Ocimum kilimandscharicumLeaf90.0 165.0 -0.25 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Leonotis leonurusSe-- 155.0 Pedro, L.G., Barroso, J.G., Marques, N.T., Ascensao, L., Pais, M.S.S. and Scheffer, J.J.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil from Sepals of Leonotis leonurus R. Br. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 451-3
Micromeria variaShoot-- 155.0 -0.1 Pedro, L.G., et al. 1995. Composition of the Essential oil of Micromeria varia Benth. ssp. thymoides (Sol. ex Lowe) Perez var. thymoides, and endemic species of the Madeira Archipelago. flav. & Fragr. J. 10(3): 199-202.
Micromeria variaShoot-- 155.0 -0.1 *
Stevia rebaudianaFlower-- 150.0 -0.18 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot31.0 150.0 -0.11 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Plectranthus coleoidesShoot-- 150.0 -0.11 Buchbauer, G., Jorovetz, L., Wasicky, M. and Nikiforov, A. 1993. Volatile Constituents of the Headspace and Essential Oil of Plectranthus coleoides Marginatus (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 311-313.
Lindera benzoinFruit60.0 135.0 -0.5 *
Calamintha nepetaPlant-- 135.0 -0.65 J. Ethnopharmacology, 39: 167.
Micromeria myrtifoliaShoot-- 130.0 -0.15 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Citrus paradisiPericarp-- 130.0 *
Teucrium arduiniShoot-- 120.0 -0.17 Blazevic, N., Kalodera, Z., Petricic, J., and Plazibat, M. 1992. Essential Oil Content and Composition of Teucrium arduini L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 223-225.
Mentha aquaticaShoot-- 115.0 -0.18 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Salvia dorisianaShoot90.0 115.0 -0.18 Tucker, A.O. & Maciarello, M.J. 1994. The Essential Oil of Salvia dorisiana Standley. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Pimenta racemosaLeaf-- 110.0 -0.28 *
Ocimum suaveShoot-- 110.0 -0.19 J. Nat. Prod. 44: 308.
Sideritis scardicaShoot-- 105.0 -0.2 Menkovic, N., et al. 1991. The Essential Oil of Sideritis scardica. Pl. Med. 57. Suppl. 2. pp. A137-A132.
Plectranthus incanusShoot-- 100.0 -0.21 Shah, G.C., Bhandari, R. & Mathela, C.S. 1992. 1,2-Epoxy-p-Menthane Derivatives from some Labiatae Species. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 57-59.
Lindera benzoinLeaf30.0 100.0 -0.29 *
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot50.0 100.0 -0.21 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Satureja obovataLeaf-- 95.0 -0.29 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja obovataLeaf-- 95.0 -0.29 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot12.0 90.0 -0.23 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Sassafras albidumLeaf30.0 90.0 -0.29 *
Eucalyptus erythrandraLeaf-- 85.0 -0.29 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Tagetes lucidaShoot-- 80.0 -0.25 Bicchi, C., Fresia, M., Rubiolo, P., Monti, D., Franz, C., Goehler, I. 1997. Constituents of Tagetes lucida Cav. ssp. lucida essential oil. Flavor & Fragrance, 12(1): 47-52.
Mentha x piperitaLeaf8.0 80.0 -0.3 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Mentha aquaticaShoot-- 75.0 -0.26 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha aquaticaShoot-- 75.0 -0.26 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Hyssopus officinalisShoot-- 70.0 -0.27 Tsankova, E.T., Konatchiev, A.N. and Genova, E.M. 1993. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Two Hyssopus officinalis cultivars. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 609-611.
Hyssopus officinalisShoot-- 70.0 -0.27 Tsankova, E.T., Konatchiev, A.N. and Genova, E.M. 1993. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Two Hyssopus officinalis cultivars. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 609-611.
Rosmarinus x mendizabaliiShoot8.0 65.0 -0.28 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Satureja subspicataPlant-- 65.0 -0.74 Stanic, G., Petricic, J., and Blazevic, N. 1991. Gas Chromatographic Investigations of Essential Oils of Satureja montana and Satureja subspicata from Yugoslavia. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 153-158.
Achillea millefoliumLeaf1.0 65.0 -0.3 *
Sideritis mugronensisLeaf20.0 65.0 -0.3 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Cinnamomum verumLeaf30.0 60.0 -0.31 *
Teucrium gnaphalodesShoot-- 60.0 -0.29 Perez-Alonso, M.J. Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Lopez-Saez, J.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Two Iberian Teucrium Species. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 397-402.
Eucalyptus angulosaLeaf-- 60.0 -0.31 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus fasiculosaLeaf-- 60.0 -0.31 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Dictamnus albusShoot-- 55.0 -0.3 Baser, K.H.C., Kosar, M.Malyer, H. & Ozek, T. 1994. The Essential Oil Composition of Dictamnus albus from Turkey. Planta Med. 60:481-2
Dictamnus albusShoot-- 55.0 -0.3 Baser, K.H.C., Kosar, M.Malyer, H. & Ozek, T. 1994. The Essential Oil Composition of Dictamnus albus from Turkey. Planta Med. 60:481-2
Satureja cilicicaShoot-- 55.0 -0.3 Tumen, G. Baser, K.H.C. and Kirimer, N. 1993. The Essential Oil of Satureja cilicica P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 547-548.
Monarda citriodoraFlower-- 50.0 -0.53 Collins, J.E., Bishop, C.D., Deans, S.G. and Svoboda, K.P. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil from the Leaves and Flowers of Monarda citriodora var. citriodora grown in the United Kingdom. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 27-9.
Monarda citriodoraLeaf-- 50.0 -0.31 Collins, J.E., Bishop, C.D., Deans, S.G. and Svoboda, K.P. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil from the Leaves and Flowers of Monarda citriodora var. citriodora grown in the United Kingdom. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 27-9.
Alpinia galangaRhizome-- 50.0 1.0 *
Sideritis germanicolpitanaPlant23.0 47.0 -0.77 J. Essential Oil, 4: 533.
Lavandula x hybridaShoot20.0 45.0 -0.32 Tucker, A.O., Maciarello, M.J., Angell, S., Espaillat, J.R., and French, E.C. 1993. The Essential Oil of Lavandula x hybrida Balb. ex Ging., a Distinct Hybrid from L. x heterophylla Poir. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 443-445.
Zingiber officinaleRhizome0.7 45.0 -1.0 *
Myrtus communisShoot7.0 40.0 -0.33 *
Eucalyptus sparsaLeaf-- 40.0 -0.32 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus polyanthemosShoot-- 40.0 -0.33 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf-- 38.0 -0.32 Soliman, F.M., El-Kashoury, M.M., Fathy, M.M. and Gonaid, M.H. 1994. Analysis and Biological Activity of the Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Egypt. Flavour and Fragrance J. 9: 29-33.
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf-- 38.0 -0.32 Soliman, F.M., El-Kashoury, M.M., Fathy, M.M. and Gonaid, M.H. 1994. Analysis and Biological Activity of the Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Egypt. Flavour and Fragrance J. 9: 29-33.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 35.0 -0.78 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 35.0 -0.78 Die Nahrung. Pino, J., Rosado, A., Goire, I., Roncal, E., and Garcia, I. 1993. Analysis of the Essential Oil from Cuban Basil. Die Nahrung 37:(5): 501-504.
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 35.0 -0.78 Die Nahrung. Pino, J., Rosado, A., Goire, I., Roncal, E., and Garcia, I. 1993. Analysis of the Essential Oil from Cuban Basil. Die Nahrung 37:(5): 501-504.
Minthostachys mollisShoot11.0 32.0 -0.35 Alkire, B.H., Tucker, A.O., and Maciarello, M.J. 1994. Tipo (Minthostachys mollis (Lamiaceae): An Ecuadorian Mint. Econ. Bot. 48(1): 60-64.
Mentha aquaticaShoot-- 32.0 -0.35 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha aquaticaShoot-- 32.0 -0.35 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Eucalyptus maculataShoot-- 30.0 -0.35 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Salvia sclareaPlant1.0 30.0 -0.79 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 153.
Monarda didymaFlower-- 30.0 -0.6 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 80.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 28.0 -0.35 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 28.0 -0.35 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Eucalyptus melanophloiaLeaf-- 27.0 -0.32 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Daucus carotaShoot-- 24.0 -0.36 *
Dictamnus albusShoot-- 23.0 -0.36 Baser, K.H.C., Kosar, M.Malyer, H. & Ozek, T. 1994. The Essential Oil Composition of Dictamnus albus from Turkey. Planta Med. 60:481-2
Elsholtzia blandaShoot-- 23.0 -0.36 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Ravensara aromaticaBark-- 22.0 *
Eucalyptus desquamataLeaf-- 22.0 -0.32 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 22.0 -0.37 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Eucalyptus tereticornisShoot-- 22.0 -0.37 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Sideritis mugronensisFlower15.0 20.0 -0.63 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Teucrium pseudoscorodoniaShoot-- 19.84 -0.37 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot-- 18.0 -0.37 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Ephedra sinicaShoot-- 15.0 -0.38 *
Eucalyptus bosistoanaShoot-- 15.0 -0.38 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus ceratocorysLeaf-- 14.0 -0.33 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus cupreaLeaf-- 13.0 -0.33 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf-- 13.0 -0.33 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Sideritis pauliShoot-- 13.0 -0.38 Burzaco, A., Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1992. Essential Oil Analysis of Sideritis pauli Pau. FFJ7: 47-8. 1992.
Citrus limonPetiole-- 13.0 *
Chrysanthemum x morifoliumPlant3.0 12.0 -0.81 Wealth of India.
Eucalyptus moluccanaShoot-- 12.0 -0.39 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus lansdowneanaLeaf-- 11.0 -0.33 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Teucrium salviastrumShoot-- 10.8 -0.39 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium scorodoniaShoot-- 10.52 -0.39 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Elsholtzia eriostachyaShoot-- 9.0 -0.39 Pant, A.K., Dev, V., Parihar, R., Mathela,C.S., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky, O. and Bestmann, H.J. 1992. The Essential Oil from Elsholtzia eriostachya var. pusilla. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 547-549.
Chrysanthemum partheniumShoot-- 8.0 -0.39 Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Tanacetum partheniumShoot-- 8.0 -0.39 Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Sideritis athoaShoot-- 7.0 -0.4 Ozek, T., Baser, K.H.C. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Essential Oil of Sideritis athoa Papanikolaou Et Kokkini. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 669-670.
Eucalyptus cladocalyxShoot-- 7.0 -0.4 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Hyptis suaveolensShoot-- 7.0 -0.4 Mallvarapu, G.R., Ramesh, S., Kaul, P.N., Bhattacharya, A.K., and Rao, B.R.R. 1993. The Essential Oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 321.
Hyptis suaveolensShoot-- 7.0 -0.4 Mallvarapu, G.R., Ramesh, S., Kaul, P.N., Bhattacharya, A.K., and Rao, B.R.R. 1993. The Essential Oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 321.
Aralia cordataRoot-- 6.0 *
Eucalyptus intertextaLeaf-- 5.5 -0.33 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Teucrium oxylepisShoot-- 5.2 -0.4 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Satureja cuneifoliaShoot-- 5.0 -0.4 Tumen, G. 1991. The Volatile Constituents of Satureja cuneifolia. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 365-366.
Pelargonium citrosumShoot-- 5.0 -0.4 Matsuda, B. M., et al. 1996. Essential Oil Analysis and Field Evaluation of the Citrosa Plant 'Pelargonium citrosum' as a Repellent Against Populations of Aedes Mosquitoes. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 12(1):69-74.
Cleonia lusitanicaLeaf2.0 5.0 -0.33 Perez-Alonso, M., Velasco-Negueruela, A., and Lopez-Saez, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Cleonia lusitanica. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 441-442.
Eucalyptus brassianaLeaf-- 5.0 -0.33 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Trifolium pratenseFlower-- 5.0 -0.68 Buchnauer,G.,Jirovetz,L.,Nikiforov,A.1996.Comparative Investigation of Essential Clover Flower Oils from Austria Using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection,Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry,and Gas Chrom.-Olfactometry.J.Agrc.Food Chem.44:1827-8
Cinnamomum camphoraLeaf-- 5.0 -0.33 *
Eucalyptus largisparsaLeaf-- 4.6 -0.33 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus odorataLeaf-- 4.4 -0.33 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Teucrium poliumShoot-- 4.0 -0.4 Perez-Alonso, M.J. Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Lopez-Saez, J.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Two Iberian Teucrium Species. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 397-402.
Eucalyptus behrianaLeaf-- 2.7 -0.33 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Petroselinum crispumLeaf-- 2.46 -0.33 *
Vitex agnus-castusLeaf-- 2.0 -0.33 Ekundayo, O., Laakso, I., Holopainen, M., Hiltunen, R., Oguntimein, B., and Kauppinen, V. 1990. The Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaf Oil of Vitex agnus-castus L. J. Essential Oil Research, 2: 115-119.
Citrus reticulataFruit1.0 2.0 -0.51 *
Citrus sinensisFruit1.0 2.0 -0.51 *
Eucalyptus populneaLeaf-- 1.8 -0.33 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Teucrium oxylepisShoot-- 1.74 -0.41 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 1.0 -0.83 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Eucalyptus ochrophloiaLeaf-- 0.8 -0.33 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus viridisLeaf-- 0.5 -0.33 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Teucrium asiaticumShoot-- 0.15 -0.41 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Eucalyptus punctataShoot-- 0.1 -0.41 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus albensShoot-- 0.1 -0.41 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus camaldulensisShoot-- 0.1 -0.41 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maideniShoot-- 0.1 -0.41 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus siderophloiaShoot-- 0.1 -0.41 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus melliodoraShoot-- 0.1 -0.41 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Thymus zygisShoot-- 0.1 -0.41 Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Eucalyptus citriodoraShoot-- 0.1 -0.41 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus occidentalisShoot-- 0.1 -0.41 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus astringensShoot-- 0.1 -0.41 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus globulusShoot-- 0.1 -0.41 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus botryoidesShoot-- 0.1 -0.41 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus oviformisShoot-- 0.1 -0.41 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus blakelyiShoot-- 0.1 -0.41 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus diversicolorShoot-- 0.1 -0.41 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Lonicera japonicaFlower0.047 0.085 -0.7 Schlotzhauer, W.S., S.D. Pair, and R.J. Horvat. 1996. Volatile constituents from the flowers of Japanese Honeysuckle. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:206-209.
Pistacia lentiscusPlant-- -- *
Houttuynia cordataShoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Centella asiaticaShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Tanacetum partheniumEssential Oil-- -- *
Teucrium poliumPlant-- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Cinnamomum verumStem Bark-- -- *
Origanum vulgarePlant-- -- *
Vitex agnus-castusFlower-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vitex agnus-castusFruit-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Pimpinella anisumPlant-- -- *
Psidium guajavaFruit-- -- *
Ocimum gratissimumPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Humulus lupulusEssential Oil-- -- *
Croton lechleriPlant-- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Syzygium aromaticumFlower-- -- *
Montanoa tomentosaPlant-- -- *
Pimenta dioicaLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Croton eluteriaBark-- -- *
Leptospermum scopariumEssential Oil-- -- *
Artemisia absinthiumPlant-- -- *
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Pimpinella anisumSeed-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Agastache rugosaShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Piper nigrumSeed-- -- *
Piper nigrumEssential Oil-- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticumLeaf-- -- Charalambous, G. (Ed.). 1994. Spices, Herbs and Edible Fungi. Elsevier Science B. V. Amsterdam. 764 pp.
Cinnamomum aromaticumStem Bark-- -- Charalambous, G. (Ed.). 1994. Spices, Herbs and Edible Fungi. Elsevier Science B. V. Amsterdam. 764 pp.
Angelica archangelicaSeed-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Mentha spicataLeaf-- -- Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Annona squamosaLeaf-- -- *
Aloysia citrodoraPlant-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Monarda didymaLeaf-- -- Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 80.
Centella asiaticaPlant-- -- *
Elettaria cardamomumFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Satureja obovataLeaf-- -- Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Mentha spicataEssential Oil-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Perilla frutescensPlant-- -- Kang, R., Helms, R., Stout, M.J., Jaber, H., Chen, Z., and Nakatsu, T. 1992. Antimicrobial Activity of the Volatile Constituents of Perilla frutescens and Its Synergistic Effects with Polygodial. J. Agric. Food Chem., 40: 2328-2330.
Satureja hortensisPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Anethum graveolensPlant-- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Populus tacamahaccaPlant-- -- *
Myrciaria dubiaFruit-- -- *
Anethum graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Zea maysRoot-- -- *
Pinus sylvestrisEssential Oil-- -- *
Matricaria recutitaPlant-- -- Kameoka, H. and Nakai, K. 1987. Components of essential oil from the root of Glycyrrhiza-glabra. Nippon Gogeikagaku Kaishi 61(9): 1119-1122.
Pinus strobusLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Sambucus nigraFlower Essent. Oil-- -- *
Valeriana officinalisRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- -- *
Eruca sativaHs-- -- *
Panax ginsengFlower Essent. Oil-- -- *
Rosmarinus officinalisResin, Exudate, Sap-- -- *
Myristica fragransSeed-- -- *
Panax ginsengShoot-- -- *
Myristica fragransSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Magnolia denudataBark-- -- *
Magnolia denudataBulb-- -- *
Magnolia denudataFlower-- -- *
Magnolia denudataLeaf-- -- *
Magnolia denudataTwig-- -- *
Artemisia capillarisEssential Oil-- -- *
Mentha pulegiumPlant-- -- Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Mentha pulegiumEssential Oil-- -- *
Melia azedarachWood-- -- *
Boswellia sacraEssential Oil-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.