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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Elaeis guineensisFruit365.0 575.0 0.96 *
Hordeum vulgarePlant149.0 660.0 2.85 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Peperomia pereskiifoliaLeaf138.0 920.0 2.87 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Acacia farnesianaLeaf120.0 646.0 1.68 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Carica papayaLeaf116.0 514.0 1.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pimenta dioicaLeaf103.0 120.0 -0.62 *
Sambucus nigraFruit100.0 150.0 0.14 *
Luffa aegyptiacaLeaf92.0 933.0 2.93 *
Tropaeolum majusShoot90.0 665.0 2.31 *
Chrysanthemum coronariumBud88.0 1183.0 1.0 *
Rumex acetosaLeaf77.0 1100.0 3.65 *
Arachis hypogaeaLeaf77.0 360.0 0.43 *
Lycium barbarumFruit75.0 90.0 0.02 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Ulex europaeusPlant75.0 253.0 0.64 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensisLeaf75.0 750.0 2.13 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Chenopodium albumLeaf71.0 316.0 0.24 *
Mimosa pudicaLeaf65.0 930.0 2.91 *
Amaranthus spinosusLeaf65.0 408.0 0.64 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Sorbus aucubariaPlant62.0 98.0 -0.2 *
Sida rhombifoliaLeaf60.0 305.0 0.19 *
Cnidoscolus chayamansaLeaf60.0 425.0 0.71 *
Murraya koenigiiLeaf60.0 225.0 -0.16 *
Rumex crispusRoot58.0 225.0 1.0 *
Boehmeria niveaLeaf52.0 403.0 0.62 *
Phytolacca americanaShoot52.0 621.0 2.11 *
Momordica charantiaLeaf51.0 330.0 0.3 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf50.0 345.0 0.36 *
Senna alexandrinaLeaf48.0 235.0 -0.11 *
Basella albaLeaf48.0 695.0 1.89 *
Origanum majoranaPlant48.0 52.0 -0.45 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Moringa oleiferaShoot45.0 215.0 0.26 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Larrea tridentataPlant45.0 138.0 0.02 *
Perilla frutescensLeaf44.0 313.0 0.23 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Lycium chinenseLeaf44.0 428.0 0.73 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hibiscus sabdariffaLeaf41.0 555.0 1.28 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Origanum vulgarePlant41.0 45.0 -0.48 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Taraxacum officinaleLeaf40.0 583.0 1.4 *
Centella asiaticaLeaf40.0 369.0 0.47 *
Mentha x piperitaLeaf35.0 238.0 -0.1 *
Chenopodium ambrosioidesLeaf35.0 165.0 -0.42 *
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf34.0 475.0 0.93 *
Piper auritumLeaf34.0 193.0 -0.3 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Malva sylvestrisLeaf33.0 390.0 0.56 *
Corchorus olitoriusLeaf33.0 495.0 1.02 *
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumLeaf33.0 327.0 0.29 *
Phaseolus vulgarisLeaf32.4 245.5 -0.07 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Chrysanthemum coronariumLeaf32.0 485.0 0.97 *
Mimulus glabratusShoot32.0 326.0 0.76 *
Coriandrum sativumLeaf29.0 228.0 -0.15 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Brassica nigraLeaf29.0 475.0 0.93 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Medicago sativaPlant28.0 149.0 0.08 *
Ipomoea aquaticaLeaf28.0 500.0 1.04 *
Nasturtium officinaleHerb28.0 560.0 -1.0 *
Justicia pectoralisLeaf27.0 178.0 -0.36 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Daucus carotaRoot27.0 673.0 3.87 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf27.0 84.0 -0.77 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Armoracia rusticanaRoot27.0 150.0 0.52 *
Tetragonia tetragonioidesLeaf26.4 440.0 0.78 *
Allium ampeloprasumFlower25.0 151.0 1.71 *
Borago officinalisLeaf25.0 360.0 0.43 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Peperomia pelucidaLeaf25.0 320.0 0.26 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Capsicum annuumFruit25.0 95.0 0.03 *
Raphanus sativusLeaf24.7 214.0 -0.21 *
Thymus vulgarisPlant24.0 25.0 -0.59 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Trigonella foenum-graecumLeaf23.0 278.0 0.07 *
Erythrina fuscaLeaf23.0 125.0 -0.59 *
Eriodictyon californicumLeaf21.0 96.0 -0.72 *
Foeniculum vulgarePlant21.0 241.0 0.58 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Artemisia vulgarisLeaf21.0 168.0 -0.41 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Coffea arabicaLeaf20.0 25.0 -1.03 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Lepidium sativumLeaf20.0 526.0 1.15 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiLeaf20.0 172.0 -0.39 *
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l.Leaf20.0 328.0 0.29 *
Rosmarinus officinalisPlant19.0 21.0 -0.61 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf19.0 94.0 -0.73 *
Verbascum thapsusLeaf19.0 43.0 -0.95 *
Rubus idaeusLeaf19.0 114.0 -0.64 *
Piper betelLeaf19.0 175.0 -0.38 *
Cnicus benedictusPlant18.0 133.0 -0.01 *
Colocasia esculentaLeaf18.0 298.0 0.16 *
Moringa oleiferaLeaf18.0 72.0 -0.82 *
Brassica chinensisLeaf18.0 385.0 0.54 *
Brassica rapaLeaf18.0 385.0 0.54 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pereskia aculeataFruit17.0 556.0 0.92 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Rosa gallicaFlower16.0 17.0 -0.36 *
Avena sativaPlant16.0 72.0 -0.34 *
Coccinia grandisFruit15.6 226.0 0.29 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Turnera diffusaLeaf15.0 71.0 -0.83 *
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf15.0 55.0 -0.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Alpinia galangaRhizome15.0 108.0 1.41 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Sonchus oleraceusLeaf14.0 545.0 1.24 *
Manihot esculentaRoot14.0 150.0 0.52 *
Carthamus tinctoriusFlower13.0 90.0 0.77 *
Frangula purshianaBark13.0 46.0 2.14 *
Prunus armeniacaFruit13.0 189.0 0.21 *
Taraxacum officinaleRoot12.0 84.0 0.1 *
Cucurbita pepoFlower12.0 240.0 3.09 *
Symphytum officinaleLeaf12.0 108.0 -0.67 *
Allium cepaLeaf12.0 158.0 -0.45 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pachira macrocarpaSeed12.0 13.0 0.38 *
Petroselinum crispumPlant12.0 154.0 0.11 *
Sechium eduleShoot12.0 164.0 0.02 *
Lactuca sativaLeaf11.0 190.0 -0.31 *
Arctium lappaRoot11.0 45.0 -0.15 *
Equisetum arvensePlant11.0 49.0 -0.46 *
Mangifera indicaFruit11.0 96.0 0.03 *
Euphrasia officinalisPlant11.0 73.0 -0.33 *
Portulaca oleraceaHerb11.0 4650.0 1.0 *
Rumex crispusLeaf10.38 140.0 -0.53 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Plectranthus amboinicusLeaf10.0 175.0 -0.38 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Quararibea cordataFruit10.0 72.0 -0.01 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Urtica dioicaSeed10.0 25.0 1.13 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Cucurbita pepoFruit9.6 114.0 0.07 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium endiviaLeaf9.6 241.0 -0.09 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf9.0 138.0 -0.54 *
Gentiana luteaRoot9.0 39.0 -0.19 *
Allium sativum var. sativumLeaf9.0 68.0 -0.84 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf9.0 138.0 -0.54 *
Schisandra chinensisFruit9.0 61.0 -0.03 *
Eugenia unifloraFruit9.0 101.0 0.04 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ephedra sinicaPlant8.0 37.0 -0.53 *
Rosa caninaFruit8.0 42.0 -0.07 *
Smilax sppRoot8.0 36.0 -0.21 *
Apium graveolensFruit8.0 36.0 -0.08 *
Smilax officinalisRoot8.0 36.0 -0.21 *
Anacardium occidentaleFruit7.6 53.0 -0.05 *
Apium graveolensSeed7.5 36.0 1.82 *
Ginkgo bilobaLeaf7.2 30.0 -1.01 *
Parthenium integrifoliumRoot7.0 42.0 -0.17 *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit7.0 113.0 0.07 *
Perilla frutescensSeed7.0 66.0 3.7 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Silybum marianumLeaf7.0 31.0 -1.0 *
Dioscorea villosaRoot7.0 29.0 -0.25 *
Asparagus officinalisRoot6.5 65.0 -0.02 *
Murraya spFruit6.0 21.0 -0.11 *
Gymnema sylvestreLeaf6.0 30.0 -1.01 *
Eleutherococcus senticosusRoot6.0 30.0 -0.24 *
Mangifera indicaLeaf6.0 44.0 -0.95 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit6.0 21.0 -0.11 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lobelia inflataLeaf6.0 54.0 -0.9 *
Curcuma longaPlant6.0 18.0 -0.63 *
Salvia officinalisLeaf6.0 39.0 -0.97 *
Anacardium occidentaleLeaf6.0 20.0 -1.05 *
Blighia sapidaAril5.5 18.0 1.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Elaeagnus umbellatusFruit5.5 30.0 -0.09 *
Erythroxylum cocaLeaf5.4 7.0 -1.11 *
Passiflora incarnataFlower5.3 48.0 0.12 *
Brosimum alicastrumFruit5.0 35.0 -0.08 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cuminum cyminumFruit5.0 8.0 -0.14 *
Fucus vesiculosusPlant5.0 40.0 -0.51 *
Plantago psylliumSeed5.0 24.0 1.07 *
Cimicifuga racemosaRoot5.0 24.0 -0.28 *
Cuminum cyminumSeed5.0 8.0 0.07 *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaLeaf5.0 41.0 -0.96 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glycine maxFruit4.1 13.4 -0.12 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Juniperus communisFruit4.0 12.2 -0.13 *
Bupleurum chinenseRoot4.0 36.0 -0.21 *
Passiflora edulisFruit4.0 17.0 -0.12 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Spinacia oleraceaPlant4.0 690.0 3.01 *
Stellaria mediaPlant4.0 43.0 -0.49 *
Thymus vulgarisLeaf4.0 25.0 -1.03 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf4.0 333.0 0.31 *
Solanum torvumFruit4.0 27.0 -0.1 *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit4.0 47.0 -0.06 *
Ruscus aculeatusRoot4.0 13.0 -0.35 *
Ulmus rubraBark4.0 25.0 0.78 *
Sambucus canadensisFruit4.0 18.0 -0.12 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pisum sativumSeed3.6 18.2 0.71 *
Nepeta catariaPlant3.0 24.0 -0.6 *
Hippophae rhamnoidesFruit3.0 80.0 0.0 *
Serenoa repensFruit3.0 24.0 -0.1 *
Malpighia glabraFruit3.0 69.0 -0.02 *
Artocarpus altilisSeed3.0 6.0 -0.05 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cyphomandra betaceaFruit3.0 32.0 -0.09 *
Annona glabraFruit3.0 23.0 -0.11 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Polymnia edulisRoot2.6 10.0 -0.37 *
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant2.6 22.0 -0.61 *
Scutellaria laterifloraPlant2.6 19.0 -0.62 *
Caulophyllum thalictroidesRoot2.6 24.0 -0.28 *
Eriobotrya japonicaFruit2.6 68.0 -0.02 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Chrysanthemum partheniumLeaf2.5 14.0 -1.08 *
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit2.2 66.0 -0.02 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Vicia fabaSeed2.1 11.0 0.26 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Citrullus lanatusFruit2.0 48.0 -0.06 *
Cucurbita pepoSeed2.0 2.5 -0.27 *
Erythrina berteroanaShoot2.0 14.0 -0.66 *
Syzygium aromaticumBark2.0 3.0 -0.65 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Tamarindus indicaLeaf2.0 110.0 -0.66 *
Artemisia dracunculusLeaf2.0 74.0 -0.82 *
Allium sativum var. sativumShoot2.0 9.0 -0.68 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Mentha spicataLeaf2.0 175.0 -0.38 *
Perideridia gairdneriRoot2.0 5.0 -0.4 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Diospyros digynaFruit2.0 6.0 -0.14 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Spondias dulcisFruit2.0 16.0 -0.12 *
Trifolium pratenseFlower2.0 12.0 -0.44 *
Pouteria caimitoFruit2.0 29.0 -0.09 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pouteria campechianaFruit2.0 29.0 -0.09 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Spondias pinnataFruit2.0 28.0 -0.1 *
Theobroma bicolorFruit1.9 9.0 -0.13 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ipomoea batatasLeaf1.8 345.0 0.36 *
Olea europaeaFruit1.8 8.3 -0.13 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Licania platypusFruit1.6 7.7 -0.14 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Vigna unguiculataFruit1.5 72.0 -0.01 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Solanum sessiliflorumFruit1.4 14.0 -0.12 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Syzygium jambosFruit1.4 8.5 -0.13 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Crataegus laevigataFruit1.4 5.0 -0.14 *
Prunus domesticaFruit1.4 43.0 -0.07 *
Pistacia veraSeed1.38 1.46 -0.34 *
Lupinus mutabilisSeed1.3 1.5 -0.34 *
Luffa aegyptiacaFruit1.2 34.0 -0.09 *
Arracacia xanthorrhizaRoot1.1 3.8 -0.41 *
Cinnamomum verumBark1.0 2.0 -0.71 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Citrus sinensisFruit1.0 28.0 -0.1 *
Hibiscus sabdariffaFlower1.0 9.0 -0.48 *
Prunus cerasusFruit1.0 6.0 -0.14 *
Solanum nigrumLeaf1.0 110.0 -0.66 *
Sicana odoriferaFruit1.0 8.0 -0.14 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Juglans nigraSeed1.0 2.0 -0.3 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Citrus reticulataFruit1.0 44.0 -0.07 *
Solanum quitoensisFruit1.0 16.0 -0.12 *
Cynara cardunculusFlower1.0 20.0 -0.31 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Trichosanthes anguinaFruit1.0 18.0 -0.12 *
Apium graveolensPt1.0 144.0 1.41 *
Ribes nigrumFruit1.0 8.0 -0.14 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Morus albaFruit1.0 8.0 -0.14 *
Ginkgo bilobaSeed1.0 4.0 -0.18 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark1.0 2.0 -0.71 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Citrus aurantiumFruit1.0 27.0 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Spondias mombinFruit1.0 115.0 0.07 *
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit1.0 3.6 -0.14 *
Capsicum frutescensFruit1.0 38.0 -0.08 *
Bixa orellanaFruit0.9 113.0 0.07 *
Vigna radiataSeed0.9 1.2 -0.35 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cajanus cajanSeed0.84 4.6 -0.14 *
Tabebuia heptaphyllaBark0.8 4.3 -0.56 *
Pisum sativumFruit0.8 8.3 -0.13 *
Hydrastis canadensisRoot0.8 3.0 -0.42 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusSeed0.78 6.0 -0.05 *
Psidium guajavaFruit0.75 46.0 -0.06 *
Vigna unguiculataShoot0.7 6.9 -0.69 *
Gliricidia sepiumFlower0.7 5.0 -0.55 *
Vigna unguiculataShoot0.7 6.9 -0.69 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Chrysobalanus icacoFruit0.7 5.0 -0.14 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Lablab purpureusSeed0.66 5.44 -0.09 *
Spondias purpureaFruit0.6 9.0 -0.13 *
Carica pentagonaFruit0.6 9.0 -0.13 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf0.6 12.0 -1.09 *
Ribes uva-crispaFruit0.6 14.0 -0.12 *
Allium sativum var. sativumFlower0.6 5.0 -0.55 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Musa x paradisiacaHull Husk0.6 16.6 0.29 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit0.6 3.9 -0.14 *
Rheum rhabarbarumPt0.6 12.0 -0.62 *
Echinacea purpureaRoot0.6 2.2 -0.42 *
Pouteria viridisFruit0.5 1.6 -0.15 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Physalis ixocarpaFruit0.5 6.0 -0.14 *
Vitis viniferaFruit0.5 2.1 -0.15 *
Aegle marmelosFruit0.5 1.3 -0.15 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Humulus lupulusFlower0.5 2.4 -0.59 *
Zea maysSeed0.5 2.5 -0.27 *
Bactris gasipaesFruit0.5 55.0 -0.04 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Actinidia chinensisFruit0.4 6.0 -0.14 *
Cajanus cajanFruit0.4 4.0 -0.14 *
Cicer arietinumSeed0.4 0.5 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mammea americanaFruit0.4 24.0 -0.1 *
Eugenia brasiliensisFruit0.4 2.4 -0.15 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Asimina trilobaFruit0.4 2.5 -0.15 *
Averrhoa bilimbiFruit0.35 14.0 -0.12 *
Tropaeolum tuberosumRoot0.3 2.1 -0.42 *
Raphanus sativusFruit0.3 26.2 -0.1 *
Cyclanthera pedataFruit0.3 82.0 0.01 *
Casimiroa edulisFruit0.3 2.4 -0.15 *
Angelica sinensisRoot0.3 1.2 -0.43 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed0.3 21.9 0.94 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus lunatusSprout Seedling0.3 0.8 -0.46 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Asparagus officinalisShoot0.3 120.0 -0.18 *
Cucumis sativusFruit0.3 8.0 -0.14 *
Lens culinarisSprout Seedling0.3 1.0 -0.29 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ficus caricaFruit0.3 16.0 -0.12 *
Lupinus mutabilisFruit0.3 1.0 -0.15 *
Persea americanaFruit0.3 27.0 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Rheum rhabarbarumLeaf0.3 5.0 -1.12 *
Ribes rubrumFruit0.25 4.0 -0.14 *
Brassica oleraceaStem0.24 2.67 -0.85 *
Canavalia ensiformisFruit0.24 2.2 -0.15 *
Artocarpus heterophyllusFruit0.2 8.0 -0.14 *
Passiflora quadrangularisSeed0.2 1.0 -0.37 *
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit0.2 2.6 -0.15 *
Pastinaca sativaRoot0.2 1.0 -0.43 *
Vigna mungoSeed0.2 0.5 -0.4 *
Allium ampeloprasumLeaf0.2 230.0 -0.14 *
Allium ampeloprasumRoot0.2 1.8 -0.42 *
Elaeagnus commutataFruit0.2 1.4 -0.15 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Zizyphus jujubaFruit0.2 700.0 1.2 *
Aloe spp.Leaf0.2 31.0 -1.0 *
Glycine maxSprout Seedling0.2 3.5 1.84 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Manilkara zapotaFruit0.2 1.0 -0.15 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cucumis meloFruit0.2 201.0 0.24 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Melicoccus bijugatasFruit0.2 14.0 -0.12 *
Pyrus communisFruit0.17 1.7 -0.15 *
Physalis peruvianaFruit0.14 84.0 0.01 *
Carya illinoensisSeed0.13 0.83 -0.38 *
Cucurbita sppFruit0.12 1.9 -0.15 *
Piper nigrumFruit0.114 0.128 -0.15 *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed0.1 0.9 -0.37 *
Ipomoea batatasRoot0.1 476.0 2.61 *
Vigna angularisSeed0.1 0.9 -0.37 *
Pinus cembroidesSeed0.1 0.2 -0.42 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vicia fabaFruit0.1 0.6 -0.15 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Durio zibethinusFruit0.1 1.0 -0.15 *
Phaseolus vulgarisSeed0.1 9.8 0.18 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Canna indicaRoot0.1 0.3 -0.43 *
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling0.1 1.4 0.05 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium sativum var. sativumRoot0.1 0.2 -0.44 *
Zingiber officinaleRoot0.1 1.0 -0.43 *
Fragaria sppFruit0.089 7.0 -0.14 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaFruit0.08 0.09 -0.15 Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Medicago sativaLeaf0.06 394.0 0.58 *
Nelumbo nuciferaSeed0.06 0.18 -0.42 *
Rubus idaeusFruit0.06 7.0 -0.14 *
Prunus salicifoliaFruit0.05 7.0 -0.14 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Hylocereus guatemalensisFruit0.05 0.7 -0.15 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Artocarpus altilisFruit0.04 0.1 -0.15 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Averrhoa carambolaFruit0.03 75.0 -0.01 *
Petasites japonicusPt0.03 0.5 -0.79 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Persea schiedeanaFruit0.03 1.4 -0.15 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Byrsonima crassifoliaFruit0.02 2.8 -0.15 *
Annona muricataFruit-- 0.6 -0.15 *
Muntingia calaburaFruit-- 1.2 -0.15 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Triticum aestivumSeed-- 0.22 -0.42 *
Raphanus sativusRoot-- 1.0 -0.43 *
Malus domesticaFruit-- 76.0 -0.0 *
Cyrtosperma chamissonisRoot-- 0.2 -0.44 *
Cydonia oblongaFruit-- 16.0 -0.12 *
Corylus avellanaSeed-- 0.4 -0.4 *
Prunus dulcisSeed-- 0.05 -0.43 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Arachis hypogaeaSeed-- 0.34 -0.41 *
Colocasia esculentaRoot-- 0.8 -0.43 *
Citrus paradisiFruit-- 5.0 -0.14 *
Annona reticulataFruit-- 0.2 -0.15 *
Tamarindus indicaFruit-- 1.0 -0.15 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Citrus limonFruit-- 2.0 -0.15 *
Dioscorea alataRoot-- 0.2 -0.44 *
Allium cepaBulb-- 52.0 1.0 *
Tragopogon porrifoliusRoot-- 0.268 -0.43 *
Phaseolus lunatusSeed-- 9.8 0.18 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psoralea esculentaRoot-- 1.0 -0.43 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Bromelia pinguinShoot-- 1.7 -0.72 *
Amorphophallus campanulatusRoot-- 6.8 -0.39 *
Beta vulgarisRoot-- 438.0 2.36 *
Syzygium cuminiFruit-- 3.0 -0.15 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Amaranthus sp.Leaf-- 508.0 1.07 *
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb-- 0.17 -1.0 *
Foeniculum vulgareFruit-- 1.0 -0.15 *
Helianthus tuberosusTuber-- 6.0 1.41 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Chrysophyllum cainitoFruit-- 0.9 -0.15 *
Passiflora ligularisFruit-- 1.2 -0.15 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Phyllanthus acidusFruit-- 8.0 -0.14 *
Vigna subterraneaSeed-- 0.11 -0.42 *
Annona squamosaFruit-- 0.2 -0.15 *
Passiflora mollissimaFruit-- 1.2 -0.15 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit-- 4.0 -0.14 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Helianthus annuusSeed-- 0.3 -0.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans regiaSeed-- 1.0 -0.37 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Syzygium malaccenseFruit-- 0.08 -0.15 *
Linum usitatissimumSeed-- 0.321 -0.41 *
Citrus aurantiifoliaFruit-- 2.0 -0.15 *
Oxalis tuberosaRoot-- 0.2 -0.44 *
Benincasa hispidaFruit-- 2.5 -0.15 *
Ananas comosusFruit-- 3.0 -0.15 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Ullucus tuberosusRoot-- 0.7 -0.43 *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- 4.0 -0.67 *
Glycine maxSeed-- 11.3 0.28 *
Canavalia ensiformisSeed-- 0.2 -0.42 *
Annona cherimolaFruit-- 0.2 -0.15 *
Solanum melongenaFruit-- 6.0 -0.14 *
Annona diversifoliaFruit-- 0.4 -0.15 *
Prunus persicaFruit-- 30.0 -0.09 *
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumRoot-- 0.6 -0.43 *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed-- 0.6 -0.39 *
Hordeum vulgareSeed-- 1.0 -0.37 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Psidium cattleianumFruit-- 9.0 -0.13 *
Cannabis sativaSeed-- 0.06 -0.43 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cichorium intybusLeaf-- 228.0 -0.15 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Morinda citrifoliaBark-- 8.6 -0.28 *
Juglans nigraPericarp-- 0.6 *
Morinda citrifoliaFruit-- 5.2 -0.14 *
Bertholletia excelsaSeed-- -- -0.43 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Spirulina spp.Plant-- 480.0 1.87 *
Astragalus membranaceusRoot-- -- *
Cycas revolutaFruit-- -- *
Humulus lupulusFruit-- 2.4 -0.15 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Yucca baccataRoot-- -- *
Ocimum tenuiflorumLeaf-- 25.0 -1.03 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Phaseolus coccineusFruit-- 0.15 -0.15 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Aleurites moluccanaSeed-- -- -0.43 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Crocus sativusSilk Stigma Style-- -- *
Phaseolus coccineusSeed-- 0.1 -0.42 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Lycopodium selagoPlant-- -- *
Myrciaria caulifloraFruit-- -- -0.15 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Aloe veraLeaf-- 3.0 -1.12 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Carica papayaSeed Oil-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Carica papayaPericarp-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Sambucus nigraLeaf-- 150.0 -0.48 *
Valeriana officinalisRoot-- -- *
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaPlant-- -- *
Momordica charantiaFruit-- 18.0 -0.12 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Garcinia mangostanaFruit-- -- -0.15 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Carum carviFruit-- 2.0 -0.15 *
Brassica rapaRoot-- -- *
Stachys officinalisPlant-- -- *
Althaea officinalisRoot-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumSeed-- -- -0.43 *
Berberis vulgarisBark-- -- *
Vigna aconitifoliaSeed-- 0.2 -0.42 *
Myrciaria dubiaFruit-- -- -0.15 *
Catha edulisLeaf-- 18.0 -1.06 *
Acacia decurrensPlant-- -- *
Eugenia floribundaFruit-- -- -0.15 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pinus sylvestrisLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Juglans nigraHull Husk-- 0.6 -1.34 *
Passiflora quadrangularisFruit-- -- *
Juglans nigraFruit-- 0.6 -0.15 *
Plantago psylliumHull Husk-- 24.0 1.05 *
Chrysanthemum partheniumPlant-- 14.0 -0.65 *
Moringa oleiferaSeed-- 100.0 5.82 *
Viburnum opulusFruit-- 6400.0 12.22 *
Terminalia catappaFruit-- 1.8 -0.15 Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Hylocereus undatusFruit-- -- -0.15 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Salix albaBark-- -- *
Terminalia catappaSeed-- -- -0.43 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Tamarindus indicaFlower-- 10.0 -0.47 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Eupatorium perfoliatumPlant-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed-- 0.2 -0.42 *
Allium cepaFlower-- 28.0 -0.19 *
Inga edulisSeed-- -- -0.43 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phragmites australisShoot-- 50.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ginkgo bilobaTissue Culture-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Papaver somniferumSeed-- -- *
Artemisia absinthiumLeaf-- 500.0 1.04 *
Valeriana officinalisPlant-- -- *
Inga feuilleiAril-- -- -1.0 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Menyanthes trifoliataLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Theobroma cacaoPlant-- -- *
Plantago majorSeed-- -- *
Passiflora foetidaFruit-- -- -0.15 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Momordica charantiaPericarp-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Opuntia ficus-indicaBud-- 0.3 -1.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Maranta arundinaceaRoot-- -- -0.44 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Vitis viniferaStem-- 43.0 -0.56 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Macadamia sppSeed-- -- -0.43 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Morinda citrifoliaLeaf-- 124.0 -0.6 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower-- 4.0 -0.56 *
Platycodon grandiflorumRoot-- -- *
Rosa rubiginosaPlant-- -- *
Curcuma longaRhizome-- -- -0.75 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Aloe veraStem Essent. Oil-- 7.2 Rowe, T. D., Parks, L. M. 1941. A Phytochemical Study of Aloe vera Leaf. J. Amer. Pharm. Ass. Sci. Ed., 30: 262-266.
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome-- -- *
Pteridium aquilinumLeaf-- 1.0 -1.13 *
Silybum marianumPlant-- 31.0 -0.56 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Lens culinarisSeed-- 16.0 0.57 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Citrus sinensisPericarp-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Myrica ceriferaBark-- -- *
Calathea macrosepalaFlower-- -- -0.62 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ocimum sanctumLeaf-- 25.0 -1.03 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Amorphophallus konjacRoot-- -- *
Brassica napus var. napobrassicaRoot-- -- -0.44 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Eleocharis dulcisTuber-- -- -0.71 *
Panax ginsengRoot-- -- *
Berberis vulgarisFruit-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Prunus armeniacaSeed-- -- -0.43 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Coix lacryma-jobiSeed-- -- -0.43 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Dioscorea pentaphyllaRoot-- -- *
Taxus baccataFruit-- -- *
Equisetum arvenseSprout Seedling-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vigna unguiculataSeed-- 0.3 -0.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pimenta dioicaFruit-- 4.0 -0.14 *
Actaea racemosaRoot-- 2.4 -0.42 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Harpagophytum procumbensRoot-- -- *
Satureja hortensisPlant-- 34.0 -0.54 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Spirulina pratensisPlant-- 478.0 1.86 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Tanacetum partheniumPlant-- 14.0 -0.65 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Crataegus rhipidophyllaFruit-- 5.4 -0.14 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Hypericum perforatumShoot-- 12.1 -0.67 *
Carica papayaFruit-- -- *
Glycine maxPlant-- 0.3 -0.73 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusFruit-- 4.0 -0.14 *
Cyamopsis tetragonolobaFruit-- 2.0 -0.15 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Alocasia macrorrhizaRoot-- -- *
Chamaemelum nobileFlower-- 2.2 -0.59 *
Cyamopsis tetragonolobaShoot-- 11.0 -0.67 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Lagenaria sicerariaFruit-- -- *
Quercus albaBark-- -- *
Solanum tuberosumTuber-- 0.01 -0.71 *
Medicago sativaFlower-- -- *
Frangula alnusFruit-- -- *
Aglaonema commutatumFruit-- -- Wealth of India.
Cola acuminataSeed-- 1.0 -0.37 *
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot-- -- *
Viscum albumLeaf-- -- *
Glycyrrhiza glabraSeed-- 5.0 -0.12 *
Spinacia oleraceaLeaf-- 32.5 -1.0 *
Dioscorea sp.Root-- 19.0 -0.31 *
Zea maysSilk Stigma Style-- -- *
Berberis vulgarisRoot-- -- -0.44 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Rhodymenia palmataPlant-- -- *
Pourouma cecropiaefoliaFruit-- -- -0.15 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Theobroma bicolorSeed-- -- -0.43 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Glycine maxSeed Oil-- -- *
Verbena officinalisLeaf-- -- *
Phaseolus vulgarisSprout Seedling-- -- -1.14 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber-- -- *
Hydrangea arborescensRoot-- -- *
Chondrus crispusPlant-- 55.0 -0.43 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- *
Tecoma stansFlower-- -- *
Inula heleniumRoot-- -- *
Iris x germanicaLeaf-- -- *
Nicotiana tabacumLeaf-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tagetes erectaFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Petroselinum crispumShoot-- -- *
Symphytum officinaleRoot-- 660.0 3.78 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Oryza sativaSeed-- -- *
Hordeum vulgareStem-- 312.0 1.4 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Zizyphus spina-christiFruit-- -- *
Acacia niloticaPlant-- -- *
Sesamum indicumSeed-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Carum carviSeed-- 2.0 -0.3 *
Taraxacum officinaleFlower-- -- *
Polygonum multiflorumRoot-- 2.4 -0.42 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf-- 75.0 -0.81 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Sinapis albaSeed-- -- *
Crescentia alataSeed-- 0.2 -0.42 *
Echinacea sppRoot-- 2.2 -0.42 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Areca catechuPlant-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.