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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Mentha longifoliaShoot1.0 535.0 4.32 *
Satureja douglasiiPlant-- 533.0 3.46 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Teucrium kotschyanumLeaf-- 640.0 3.39 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Pycnanthemum tenuifoliumShoot16.0 400.0 3.12 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Ocimum gratissimumFlower95.0 145.0 1.95 Charles, D.J. and Simon, J.E. 1992. A New Geraniol Chemotype of Ocimum gratissimum L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 231-234.
Pycnanthemum virginianumShoot6.0 232.0 1.63 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Perilla frutescensShoot Essent. Oil-- 12000.0 1.26 Nguyen, X. D., La, D. M., Lu'u, D. C., Leclercq, P. A. 1995. Essential Oil Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. J. Essent. Oil Res., 7(4): 429-432.
Pycnanthemum montanumShoot91.0 104.0 0.49 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lycopus virginicusPlant53.0 132.0 0.46 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Satureja montanaPlant4.0 85.0 0.11 *
Teucrium cypriumLeaf-- 105.0 0.08 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Pycnanthemum albescensShoot16.0 54.0 0.04 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Nepeta racemosaShoot-- 50.0 0.01 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Nepeta racemosaShoot-- 50.0 0.01 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Monarda didymaPlant5.0 70.0 -0.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda didymaLeaf50.0 90.0 -0.01 *
Teucrium divaricatumLeaf-- 90.0 -0.01 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Melissa officinalisShoot1.0 48.0 -0.01 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
Thymus cilicicusShoot-- 47.0 -0.02 Tumen, G., Koyuncu, M., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil of Thymus cilicicus Boiss. & Bal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Salvia gilliesiiShoot-- 44.0 -0.05 Velasco-Negueruela, A. et al. 1993. The Essential Oil of Salvia gilliesii Benth. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 319-320.
Monarda fistulosaPlant1.0 62.0 -0.06 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum vulgareShoot Essent. Oil-- 7500.0 -0.08 *
Pycnanthemum pilosumFlower10.0 35.0 -0.11 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Ocimum gratissimumLeaf40.0 70.0 -0.13 Charles, D.J. and Simon, J.E. 1992. A New Geraniol Chemotype of Ocimum gratissimum L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 231-234.
Micromeria congestaLeaf45.0 55.0 -0.23 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Mentha spicataLeaf2.0 50.0 -0.26 *
Acinos alpinusShoot-- 20.0 -0.26 Velasco-Negueruela,A., Perez-Alonso,M.J., Jiminez,S.M. and Garcia,F.M. 1993. The Volatile Constituents of Acinus alpinus (L.) Moench ssp. meridionalis (Nyman). P.W. Ball Growing in Spain. Flav. & Frag. J. 8:127-130.)
Acinos alpinusShoot-- 20.0 -0.26 Velasco-Negueruela,A., Perez-Alonso,M.J., Jiminez,S.M. and Garcia,F.M. 1993. The Volatile Constituents of Acinus alpinus (L.) Moench ssp. meridionalis (Nyman). P.W. Ball Growing in Spain. Flav. & Frag. J. 8:127-130.)
Mentha pulegiumPlant15.0 30.0 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hyptis suaveolensShoot-- 15.0 -0.3 Mallvarapu, G.R., Ramesh, S., Kaul, P.N., Bhattacharya, A.K., and Rao, B.R.R. 1993. The Essential Oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 321.
Hyptis suaveolensShoot-- 15.0 -0.3 Mallvarapu, G.R., Ramesh, S., Kaul, P.N., Bhattacharya, A.K., and Rao, B.R.R. 1993. The Essential Oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 321.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- 10.0 -0.35 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- 10.0 -0.35 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Sideritis pauliShoot-- 10.0 -0.35 Burzaco, A., Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1992. Essential Oil Analysis of Sideritis pauli Pau. FFJ7: 47-8. 1992.
Pycnanthemum pilosumLeaf10.0 35.0 -0.35 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 9.0 -0.36 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 9.0 -0.36 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 8.0 -0.37 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 8.0 -0.37 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus x citriodorusPlant-- 20.0 -0.37 Stahl-Biskup, E. and Holthuijzen, J. 1995. Essential oil and glycosidally bound volatiles of lemon-scented thyme, Thymus x citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10: 225-229.
Calamintha nepetaShoot-- 5.0 -0.39 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Teucrium scorodoniaShoot-- 4.88 -0.39 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Sideritis athoaShoot-- 4.0 -0.4 Ozek, T., Baser, K.H.C. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Essential Oil of Sideritis athoa Papanikolaou Et Kokkini. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 669-670.
Sideritis mugronensisLeaf15.0 25.0 -0.41 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Teucrium oxylepisShoot-- 2.92 -0.41 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium pseudoscorodoniaShoot-- 2.45 -0.42 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Satureja cilicicaShoot-- 2.0 -0.42 Tumen, G. Baser, K.H.C. and Kirimer, N. 1993. The Essential Oil of Satureja cilicica P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 547-548.
Teucrium salviastrumShoot-- 1.56 -0.42 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Pelargonium citrosumShoot-- 1.0 -0.43 Matsuda, B. M., et al. 1996. Essential Oil Analysis and Field Evaluation of the Citrosa Plant 'Pelargonium citrosum' as a Repellent Against Populations of Aedes Mosquitoes. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 12(1):69-74.
Teucrium asiaticumShoot-- 0.87 -0.43 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium oxylepisShoot-- 0.34 -0.43 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Micromeria myrtifoliaShoot-- 0.1 -0.44 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Thymus riatarumShoot-- 0.1 -0.44 Iglesias, J., Vila, R., Canigueral, S., Bellakdhar, and Il Idrissi, A. 1991. Analysis of the Essential Oil of Thymus riatarum. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 43-4.
Micromeria variaShoot-- -- -0.44 Pedro, L.G., et al. 1995. Composition of the Essential oil of Micromeria varia Benth. ssp. thymoides (Sol. ex Lowe) Perez var. thymoides, and endemic species of the Madeira Archipelago. flav. & Fragr. J. 10(3): 199-202.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- -- -0.44 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Teucrium micropodioidesLeaf-- 20.0 -0.44 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Thymus mastichinaPlant-- 10.0 -0.45 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Sideritis germanicolpitanaPlant6.0 9.0 -0.46 J. Essential Oil, 4: 533.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 9.0 -0.46 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 8.0 -0.46 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Glechoma hederaceaPlant1.0 6.0 -0.48 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Sideritis mugronensisFlower10.0 15.0 -0.49 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Hypericum perforatumPlant0.25 4.5 -0.49 *
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 2.0 -0.51 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Calamintha nepetaLeaf-- 8.0 -0.52 Akgul, A., De Pooter, H.L., and De Buyck, L.F. 1991. The Essential Oils of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa and Ziziphora clinopodioides from Turkey. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 7-10.
Callicarpa americanaLeaf-- 3.0 -0.55 *
Vitex agnus-castusLeaf-- 0.2 -0.57 Ekundayo, O., Laakso, I., Holopainen, M., Hiltunen, R., Oguntimein, B., and Kauppinen, V. 1990. The Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaf Oil of Vitex agnus-castus L. J. Essential Oil Research, 2: 115-119.
Monarda didymaFlower-- 10.0 -0.58 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 80.
Lonicera japonicaFlower0.001 0.062 -0.77 Schlotzhauer, W.S., S.D. Pair, and R.J. Horvat. 1996. Volatile constituents from the flowers of Japanese Honeysuckle. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:206-209.
Ocimum basilicumShoot Essent. Oil-- 3800.0 -1.18 *
Boswellia sacraEssential Oil-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Leonotis leonurusSe-- 4.0 Pedro, L.G., Barroso, J.G., Marques, N.T., Ascensao, L., Pais, M.S.S. and Scheffer, J.J.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil from Sepals of Leonotis leonurus R. Br. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 451-3
Stevia rebaudianaFlower-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Pelargonium graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- -- *
Salvia officinalisLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- -- *
Agastache rugosaShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Micromeria variaShoot-- -- *
Boswellia sacraResin, Exudate, Sap-- 10000.0 Chiavari, G., Gtalletti, G. C., Piccaglia, R., Mohamud, M. A. 1991. Differentiation Between Resins Boswellia carterii and Boswellia frereana (Frankincense) of Somali Origin. J. Essent. Oil Res. 3 (3):185-186.
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Mentha spicataEssential Oil-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumLeaf-- -- Charalambous, G. (Ed.). 1994. Spices, Herbs and Edible Fungi. Elsevier Science B. V. Amsterdam. 764 pp.
Panax ginsengFlower Essent. Oil-- -- *
Panax ginsengShoot-- -- *
Magnolia denudataBark-- -- *
Magnolia denudataBulb-- -- *
Magnolia denudataFlower-- -- *
Magnolia denudataTwig-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.