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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Ocimum gratissimumFlower95.0 145.0 1.95 Charles, D.J. and Simon, J.E. 1992. A New Geraniol Chemotype of Ocimum gratissimum L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 231-234.
Pycnanthemum montanumShoot91.0 104.0 0.49 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lycopus virginicusPlant53.0 132.0 0.46 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda didymaLeaf50.0 90.0 -0.01 *
Micromeria congestaLeaf45.0 55.0 -0.23 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Ocimum gratissimumLeaf40.0 70.0 -0.13 Charles, D.J. and Simon, J.E. 1992. A New Geraniol Chemotype of Ocimum gratissimum L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 231-234.
Pycnanthemum tenuifoliumShoot16.0 400.0 3.12 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum albescensShoot16.0 54.0 0.04 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha pulegiumPlant15.0 30.0 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Sideritis mugronensisLeaf15.0 25.0 -0.41 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Pycnanthemum pilosumFlower10.0 35.0 -0.11 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum pilosumLeaf10.0 35.0 -0.35 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Sideritis mugronensisFlower10.0 15.0 -0.49 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Pycnanthemum virginianumShoot6.0 232.0 1.63 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Sideritis germanicolpitanaPlant6.0 9.0 -0.46 J. Essential Oil, 4: 533.
Monarda didymaPlant5.0 70.0 -0.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Satureja montanaPlant4.0 85.0 0.11 *
Mentha spicataLeaf2.0 50.0 -0.26 *
Mentha longifoliaShoot1.0 535.0 4.32 *
Glechoma hederaceaPlant1.0 6.0 -0.48 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Melissa officinalisShoot1.0 48.0 -0.01 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
Monarda fistulosaPlant1.0 62.0 -0.06 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hypericum perforatumPlant0.25 4.5 -0.49 *
Lonicera japonicaFlower0.001 0.062 -0.77 Schlotzhauer, W.S., S.D. Pair, and R.J. Horvat. 1996. Volatile constituents from the flowers of Japanese Honeysuckle. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:206-209.
Micromeria variaShoot-- -- *
Boswellia sacraEssential Oil-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Leonotis leonurusSe-- 4.0 Pedro, L.G., Barroso, J.G., Marques, N.T., Ascensao, L., Pais, M.S.S. and Scheffer, J.J.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil from Sepals of Leonotis leonurus R. Br. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 451-3
Calamintha nepetaLeaf-- 8.0 -0.52 Akgul, A., De Pooter, H.L., and De Buyck, L.F. 1991. The Essential Oils of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa and Ziziphora clinopodioides from Turkey. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 7-10.
Calamintha nepetaShoot-- 5.0 -0.39 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Vitex agnus-castusLeaf-- 0.2 -0.57 Ekundayo, O., Laakso, I., Holopainen, M., Hiltunen, R., Oguntimein, B., and Kauppinen, V. 1990. The Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaf Oil of Vitex agnus-castus L. J. Essential Oil Research, 2: 115-119.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 8.0 -0.37 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 8.0 -0.37 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- 10.0 -0.35 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- 10.0 -0.35 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Teucrium salviastrumShoot-- 1.56 -0.42 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Stevia rebaudianaFlower-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Ocimum basilicumShoot Essent. Oil-- 3800.0 -1.18 *
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 8.0 -0.46 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Sideritis pauliShoot-- 10.0 -0.35 Burzaco, A., Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1992. Essential Oil Analysis of Sideritis pauli Pau. FFJ7: 47-8. 1992.
Pelargonium graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- -- *
Teucrium scorodoniaShoot-- 4.88 -0.39 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 2.0 -0.51 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Callicarpa americanaLeaf-- 3.0 -0.55 *
Micromeria myrtifoliaShoot-- 0.1 -0.44 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Salvia officinalisLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- -- *
Agastache rugosaShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Teucrium kotschyanumLeaf-- 640.0 3.39 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Thymus cilicicusShoot-- 47.0 -0.02 Tumen, G., Koyuncu, M., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil of Thymus cilicicus Boiss. & Bal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Origanum vulgareShoot Essent. Oil-- 7500.0 -0.08 *
Pelargonium citrosumShoot-- 1.0 -0.43 Matsuda, B. M., et al. 1996. Essential Oil Analysis and Field Evaluation of the Citrosa Plant 'Pelargonium citrosum' as a Repellent Against Populations of Aedes Mosquitoes. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 12(1):69-74.
Teucrium oxylepisShoot-- 0.34 -0.43 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium asiaticumShoot-- 0.87 -0.43 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Monarda didymaFlower-- 10.0 -0.58 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 80.
Micromeria variaShoot-- -- -0.44 Pedro, L.G., et al. 1995. Composition of the Essential oil of Micromeria varia Benth. ssp. thymoides (Sol. ex Lowe) Perez var. thymoides, and endemic species of the Madeira Archipelago. flav. & Fragr. J. 10(3): 199-202.
Satureja douglasiiPlant-- 533.0 3.46 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Perilla frutescensShoot Essent. Oil-- 12000.0 1.26 Nguyen, X. D., La, D. M., Lu'u, D. C., Leclercq, P. A. 1995. Essential Oil Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. J. Essent. Oil Res., 7(4): 429-432.
Teucrium micropodioidesLeaf-- 20.0 -0.44 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Thymus riatarumShoot-- 0.1 -0.44 Iglesias, J., Vila, R., Canigueral, S., Bellakdhar, and Il Idrissi, A. 1991. Analysis of the Essential Oil of Thymus riatarum. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 43-4.
Sideritis athoaShoot-- 4.0 -0.4 Ozek, T., Baser, K.H.C. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Essential Oil of Sideritis athoa Papanikolaou Et Kokkini. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 669-670.
Acinos alpinusShoot-- 20.0 -0.26 Velasco-Negueruela,A., Perez-Alonso,M.J., Jiminez,S.M. and Garcia,F.M. 1993. The Volatile Constituents of Acinus alpinus (L.) Moench ssp. meridionalis (Nyman). P.W. Ball Growing in Spain. Flav. & Frag. J. 8:127-130.)
Acinos alpinusShoot-- 20.0 -0.26 Velasco-Negueruela,A., Perez-Alonso,M.J., Jiminez,S.M. and Garcia,F.M. 1993. The Volatile Constituents of Acinus alpinus (L.) Moench ssp. meridionalis (Nyman). P.W. Ball Growing in Spain. Flav. & Frag. J. 8:127-130.)
Boswellia sacraResin, Exudate, Sap-- 10000.0 Chiavari, G., Gtalletti, G. C., Piccaglia, R., Mohamud, M. A. 1991. Differentiation Between Resins Boswellia carterii and Boswellia frereana (Frankincense) of Somali Origin. J. Essent. Oil Res. 3 (3):185-186.
Hyptis suaveolensShoot-- 15.0 -0.3 Mallvarapu, G.R., Ramesh, S., Kaul, P.N., Bhattacharya, A.K., and Rao, B.R.R. 1993. The Essential Oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 321.
Hyptis suaveolensShoot-- 15.0 -0.3 Mallvarapu, G.R., Ramesh, S., Kaul, P.N., Bhattacharya, A.K., and Rao, B.R.R. 1993. The Essential Oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 321.
Nepeta racemosaShoot-- 50.0 0.01 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Nepeta racemosaShoot-- 50.0 0.01 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 9.0 -0.36 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Teucrium oxylepisShoot-- 2.92 -0.41 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- -- -0.44 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 9.0 -0.36 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Mentha spicataEssential Oil-- -- *
Teucrium cypriumLeaf-- 105.0 0.08 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Syzygium aromaticumLeaf-- -- Charalambous, G. (Ed.). 1994. Spices, Herbs and Edible Fungi. Elsevier Science B. V. Amsterdam. 764 pp.
Salvia gilliesiiShoot-- 44.0 -0.05 Velasco-Negueruela, A. et al. 1993. The Essential Oil of Salvia gilliesii Benth. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 319-320.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 9.0 -0.46 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Panax ginsengFlower Essent. Oil-- -- *
Panax ginsengShoot-- -- *
Thymus mastichinaPlant-- 10.0 -0.45 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Teucrium pseudoscorodoniaShoot-- 2.45 -0.42 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Thymus x citriodorusPlant-- 20.0 -0.37 Stahl-Biskup, E. and Holthuijzen, J. 1995. Essential oil and glycosidally bound volatiles of lemon-scented thyme, Thymus x citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10: 225-229.
Magnolia denudataBark-- -- *
Magnolia denudataBulb-- -- *
Magnolia denudataFlower-- -- *
Magnolia denudataTwig-- -- *
Teucrium divaricatumLeaf-- 90.0 -0.01 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Satureja cilicicaShoot-- 2.0 -0.42 Tumen, G. Baser, K.H.C. and Kirimer, N. 1993. The Essential Oil of Satureja cilicica P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 547-548.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.