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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Alpinia galangaRhizome2.0 7775.0 1.0 *
Alpinia galangaRhizome Essent. Oil-- 5700.0 -1.0 *
Alpinia galangaLeaf-- 305.0 -0.1 *
Alpinia galangaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 5700.0 -0.99 *
Angelica archangelicaRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Angelica archangelicaRoot8.0 72.0 -1.2 *
Artemisia herba-albaPlant-- -- *
Artemisia capillarisEssential Oil-- -- *
Cannabis sativaFlower Essent. Oil-- -- *
Cannabis sativaPlant-- -- Turner, C. E., El Sohly, M. A., Boeren, E. G. 1980. Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. XVII. A Review of the Natural Constituents. J Natural Products, 432: 169-234.
Cannabis sativaLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Centella asiaticaShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Citrus limonEssential Oil23.0 400.0 -1.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus aurantiifoliaFruit-- 90.0 -0.86 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus paradisiPericarp-- -- *
Citrus limonLeaf Essent. Oil-- 8000.0 -0.45 Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus limonPetiole-- 25.0 *
Coleus barbatusRoot Essent. Oil-- 13000.0 -0.43 Jim Duke's personal files.
Copaifera sppGum-- -- *
Coridothymus capitatusShoot-- 44.0 -0.47 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Cuminum cyminumSeed60.0 360.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cuminum cyminumFruit60.0 360.0 -0.63 *
Curcuma longaRhizome-- -- *
Daucus carotaRoot-- 116.0 -0.04 *
Daucus carotaShoot-- 38.0 -0.49 *
Daucus carotaSeed100.0 3500.0 1.41 *
Illicium verumFruit1.0 75.0 -0.87 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Lantana camaraShoot-- 32.0 -0.5 *
Laurus nobilisLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula latifoliaPlant1.0 15.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula x hybridaShoot20.0 42.0 -0.48 Tucker, A.O., Maciarello, M.J., Angell, S., Espaillat, J.R., and French, E.C. 1993. The Essential Oil of Lavandula x hybrida Balb. ex Ging., a Distinct Hybrid from L. x heterophylla Poir. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 443-445.
Lindera benzoinLeaf-- 11.0 -0.42 *
Litsea glaucescensShoot3.0 20.0 -0.53 Tucker, et al, EB46(1):21-24.1992
Murraya koenigiiLeaf-- -- -0.43 *
Myristica fragransEssential Oil-- -- *
Myrrhis odorataLeaf Essent. Oil-- 17000.0 1.66 *
Myrtus communisPlant-- 1.0 -0.65 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Nepeta racemosaShoot-- 9.0 -0.56 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Nepeta racemosaShoot-- 9.0 -0.56 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Ocimum suaveShoot-- 205.0 -0.06 J. Nat. Prod. 44: 308.
Ocimum tenuiflorumLeaf-- 2970.0 2.81 *
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 6.5 -0.63 Die Nahrung. Pino, J., Rosado, A., Goire, I., Roncal, E., and Garcia, I. 1993. Analysis of the Essential Oil from Cuban Basil. Die Nahrung 37:(5): 501-504.
Ocimum basilicumShoot Essent. Oil-- 2600.0 1.0 *
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 6.5 -0.63 Die Nahrung. Pino, J., Rosado, A., Goire, I., Roncal, E., and Garcia, I. 1993. Analysis of the Essential Oil from Cuban Basil. Die Nahrung 37:(5): 501-504.
Origanum onitesPlant-- 246.0 0.27 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 200.0 0.09 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum vulgareShoot Essent. Oil-- 1500.0 -1.0 *
Origanum onitesShoot-- 1415.0 2.99 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Origanum vulgareShoot-- 270.0 0.1 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 45.0 -0.49 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum vulgareEssential Oil-- 38100.0 1.0 *
Origanum vulgarePlant3.0 640.0 1.74 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 20.0 -0.58 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 80.0 -0.36 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum onitesShoot-- 1415.0 2.99 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Panax ginsengPlant-- -- *
Panax quinquefoliusRoot Essent. Oil6251.0 58670.0 1.71 *
Panax ginsengRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pastinaca sativaRoot-- -- *
Pelargonium graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Petasites hybridusRhizome-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Petroselinum crispumSeed-- 22.0 -0.81 *
Petroselinum crispumLeaf-- 2.76 -0.43 *
Pimpinella anisumPlant-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumTissue Culture-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumEssential Oil-- -- *
Piper auritumLeaf-- -- Tramil
Piper cubebaFruit Essent. Oil-- 20000.0 -1.0 *
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Piper nigrumFruit Essent. Oil21200.0 111600.0 1.0 *
Piper cubebaFruit1500.0 3000.0 1.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Plectranthus barbatusRoot Essent. Oil-- 13000.0 -0.43 *
Plectranthus incanusShoot-- 30.0 -0.51 Shah, G.C., Bhandari, R. & Mathela, C.S. 1992. 1,2-Epoxy-p-Menthane Derivatives from some Labiatae Species. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 57-59.
Psidium guajavaFruit-- 2000.0 0.75 *
Psidium guajavaPericarp Essent. Oil-- -- *
Ptychopetalum olacoidesRoot Essent. Oil-- 4000.0 -0.85 Uber Bucek, E., Fournier, G., Dadoun, H. 1987. Volatile Constituents of Ptychopetalum olacoides Root Oil. Planta Med. 53, 2: 231.
Satureja thymbraShoot-- -- -0.58 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Satureja cilicicaShoot-- 60.0 -0.43 Tumen, G. Baser, K.H.C. and Kirimer, N. 1993. The Essential Oil of Satureja cilicica P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 547-548.
Satureja montanaPlant20.0 400.0 0.84 *
Scutellaria parvulaPlant-- 54.0 -0.45 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Sideritis germanicolpitanaPlant17.0 41.0 -0.5 J. Essential Oil, 4: 533.
Tagetes lucidaShoot-- 30.0 -0.51 Bicchi, C., Fresia, M., Rubiolo, P., Monti, D., Franz, C., Goehler, I. 1997. Constituents of Tagetes lucida Cav. ssp. lucida essential oil. Flavor & Fragrance, 12(1): 47-52.
Teucrium poliumShoot-- 12.0 -0.55 Perez-Alonso, M.J. Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Lopez-Saez, J.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Two Iberian Teucrium Species. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 397-402.
Teucrium micropodioidesLeaf-- 255.0 -0.15 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium divaricatumLeaf-- -- -0.43 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium kotschyanumLeaf-- -- -0.43 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium cypriumLeaf-- -- -0.43 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium gnaphalodesShoot-- -- -0.58 Perez-Alonso, M.J. Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Lopez-Saez, J.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Two Iberian Teucrium Species. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 397-402.
Thymus capitatusPlant20.0 40.0 -0.51 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- -- -0.58 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 355.0 0.31 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus serpyllumPlant68.0 1012.0 3.14 *
Thymus x citriodorusPlant-- 130.0 -0.17 Stahl-Biskup, E. and Holthuijzen, J. 1995. Essential oil and glycosidally bound volatiles of lemon-scented thyme, Thymus x citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10: 225-229.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 345.0 0.29 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus riatarumShoot-- 575.0 0.87 Iglesias, J., Vila, R., Canigueral, S., Bellakdhar, and Il Idrissi, A. 1991. Analysis of the Essential Oil of Thymus riatarum. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 43-4.
Thymus capitatusShoot-- 45.0 -0.47 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- -- Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 345.0 0.29 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Umbellularia californicaPlant10.0 40.0 -0.51 *
Valeriana officinalisLeaf Essent. Oil6200.0 9000.0 -0.22 *
Valeriana officinalisRoot2.0 165.0 1.25 *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome5.0 3600.0 -1.0 *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil25000.0 105100.0 1.0 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.