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Paginate rows. Click on column headings to sort table by that column
Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- -- *
Zea maysSilk Essent. Oil-- 1000.0 *
Zea maysHusk Essent. Oil-- -- *
Zea maysShoot-- -- *
Vanilla planifoliaFruit-- -- *
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit Juice-- -- *
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit-- -- *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit Juice-- -- *
Umbellularia californicaPlant70.0 280.0 1.5 *
Triticum aestivumShoot-- -- *
Trifolium pratenseFlower-- 12.0 1.0 Buchnauer,G.,Jirovetz,L.,Nikiforov,A.1996.Comparative Investigation of Essential Clover Flower Oils from Austria Using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection,Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry,and Gas Chrom.-Olfactometry.J.Agrc.Food Chem.44:1827-8
Thymus capitatusShoot-- -- -0.23 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Tanacetum partheniumShoot-- -- Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Syzygium aromaticumFlower-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumFruit-- -- *
Syringa vulgarisFlower-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Styrax benzoinPlant-- -- *
Sambucus nigraPlant-- -- *
Sambucus nigraLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Sambucus nigraFlower Essent. Oil-- -- *
Salvia sclareaPlant-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Rubus idaeusPlant-- -- *
Rosa damascenaEssential Oil-- -- *
Robinia pseudoacaciaFlower-- -- *
Ribes nigrumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rheum palmatumRhizome-- 1.5 *
Psidium guajavaFruit-- 1000.0 1.65 *
Prunus serotinaBark-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Prunus laurocerasusLeaf413.0 456.0 0.24 *
Prunus persicaSeed-- -- *
Prunus dulcisSeed-- 8200.0 *
Prunus persicaFruit-- -- *
Prunus cerasusFruit-- 3.0 -0.79 *
Pogostemon cablinPlant-- -- *
Phaseolus vulgarisStem Essent. Oil-- -- *
Peumus boldusLeaf-- 1.0 -0.47 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Petroselinum crispumLeaf-- -- *
Petiveria alliaceaRoot-- -- Tramil
Perilla frutescensLeaf Essent. Oil-- 16000.0 0.72 Kang, R., Helms, R., Stout, M.J., Jaber, H., Chen, Z., and Nakatsu, T. 1992. Antimicrobial Activity of the Volatile Constituents of Perilla frutescens and Its Synergistic Effects with Polygodial. J. Agric. Food Chem., 40: 2328-2330.
Perilla frutescensShoot Essent. Oil-- -- Nguyen, X. D., La, D. M., Lu'u, D. C., Leclercq, P. A. 1995. Essential Oil Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. J. Essent. Oil Res., 7(4): 429-432.
Panax ginsengShoot-- -- *
Origanum onitesShoot-- -- -0.23 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Ocimum gratissimumShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Ocimum basilicumEssential Oil-- 700.0 -0.69 *
Narcissus tazettaFlower-- -- *
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- -- *
Murraya koenigiiLeaf-- 0.1 -0.47 *
Morus albaPlant-- -- *
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- -- -0.23 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- -- -0.23 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Mentha spicataLeaf-- -- Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Mentha spicataEssential Oil-- -- *
Melissa officinalisTissue Culture-- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
Melaleuca leucadendraEssential Oil-- -- *
Melaleuca viridifloraLeaf-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- -- *
Ligustrum japonicumFlower-- -- *
Leonurus cardiacaPlant-- 1.0 -1.29 *
Laurus nobilisLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Juglans nigraEssential Oil-- 28000.0 1.41 *
Juglans nigraFruit-- -- *
Jasminum officinaleFlower-- -- *
Iris x germanicaRhizome-- -- *
Hyssopus officinalisShoot-- -- Indian Perfumer, 35: 51.
Hyacinthus orientalisFlower0.16 2.3 -1.0 *
Hibiscus sabdariffaFruit-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Glycyrrhiza glabraRhizome Essent. Oil-- -- *
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Ficus caricaFruit-- 1.0 -0.8 *
Eucalyptus tereticornisShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus salignaShoot-- 280.0 0.47 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus oviformisShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus botryoidesShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus astringensShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus melliodoraShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus globulusShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus cladocalyxShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus sideroxylonShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus punctataShoot-- 80.0 -0.03 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus citriodoraShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus bosistoanaShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus occidentalisShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus albensShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maideniShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus diversicolorShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus siderophloiaShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus polyanthemosShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus camaldulensisShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus blakelyiShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus moluccanaShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maculataShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus dealbataShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eruca sativaHs-- -- *
Eriobotrya japonicaLeaf-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Ephedra sinicaShoot-- 15.0 -0.19 *
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- -- -0.47 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- -- -0.47 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia blandaShoot-- 13.0 -0.19 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Cymbopogon winterianusPlant-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Cucumis meloPetiole-- -- *
Cnicus benedictusShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrullus lanatusFruit Juice-- -- *
Cistus ladaniferusLeaf28.0 1960.0 2.57 *
Cinnamomum verumEssential Oil-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumBark Essent. Oil-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cinnamomum verumBark26.0 104.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cinnamomum verumStem Bark-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumPlant26.0 104.0 -0.26 *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf Essent. Oil-- 7000.0 -1.41 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark-- -- *
Chrysanthemum x morifoliumFlower-- -- Wealth of India.
Chrysanthemum partheniumShoot-- -- Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Carthamus tinctoriusLeaf-- 0.04 -0.47 *
Carthamus tinctoriusBud-- 0.1 *
Carica papayaFruit-- 300.0 -0.06 *
Capsicum frutescensFruit-- -- *
Capsicum annuumFruit-- -- *
Cananga odorataFlower-- -- *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- -- *
Camellia sinensisShoot2100.0 2300.0 5.51 *
Callicarpa americanaLeaf-- 0.55 -0.47 *
Brassica oleraceaStem-- 0.02 *
Avena sativaSeed-- -- *
Aspalathus linearisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 15900.0 0.7 *
Arctium lappaRoot-- -- *
Aniba rosaeodoraEssential Oil-- 300.0 -0.72 *
Anacardium occidentaleFruit-- -- *
Agastache foeniculumPlant1.0 135.0 0.05 Mazza, G. and Kiehn, F.A. 1992. Essential Oil of Agastache foeniculum, A Potential Source of Methyl Chavicol. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 295-299.
Aesculus hippocastanumFlower Essent. Oil-- 11000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Acinos suaveolensShoot-- 200.0 0.27 Jim Duke's personal files.
Acacia farnesianaPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Acacia farnesianaFlower-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.