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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Acacia farnesianaPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Acacia farnesianaFlower-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Acinos suaveolensShoot-- 200.0 0.27 Jim Duke's personal files.
Aesculus hippocastanumFlower Essent. Oil-- 11000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Agastache foeniculumPlant1.0 135.0 0.05 Mazza, G. and Kiehn, F.A. 1992. Essential Oil of Agastache foeniculum, A Potential Source of Methyl Chavicol. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 295-299.
Anacardium occidentaleFruit-- -- *
Aniba rosaeodoraEssential Oil-- 300.0 -0.72 *
Arctium lappaRoot-- -- *
Aspalathus linearisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 15900.0 0.7 *
Avena sativaSeed-- -- *
Brassica oleraceaStem-- 0.02 *
Callicarpa americanaLeaf-- 0.55 -0.47 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- -- *
Camellia sinensisShoot2100.0 2300.0 5.51 *
Cananga odorataFlower-- -- *
Capsicum frutescensFruit-- -- *
Capsicum annuumFruit-- -- *
Carica papayaFruit-- 300.0 -0.06 *
Carthamus tinctoriusBud-- 0.1 *
Carthamus tinctoriusLeaf-- 0.04 -0.47 *
Chrysanthemum x morifoliumFlower-- -- Wealth of India.
Chrysanthemum partheniumShoot-- -- Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Cinnamomum verumPlant26.0 104.0 -0.26 *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf Essent. Oil-- 7000.0 -1.41 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumEssential Oil-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumBark Essent. Oil-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cinnamomum verumBark26.0 104.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cinnamomum verumStem Bark-- -- *
Cistus ladaniferusLeaf28.0 1960.0 2.57 *
Citrullus lanatusFruit Juice-- -- *
Cnicus benedictusShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cucumis meloPetiole-- -- *
Cymbopogon winterianusPlant-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- -- -0.47 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia blandaShoot-- 13.0 -0.19 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- -- -0.47 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Ephedra sinicaShoot-- 15.0 -0.19 *
Eriobotrya japonicaLeaf-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Eruca sativaHs-- -- *
Eucalyptus sideroxylonShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus punctataShoot-- 80.0 -0.03 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus citriodoraShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus bosistoanaShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus occidentalisShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus albensShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maideniShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus diversicolorShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus siderophloiaShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus polyanthemosShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus camaldulensisShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus blakelyiShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus moluccanaShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maculataShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus dealbataShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus tereticornisShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus salignaShoot-- 280.0 0.47 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus botryoidesShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus oviformisShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus astringensShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus melliodoraShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus globulusShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus cladocalyxShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Ficus caricaFruit-- 1.0 -0.8 *
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Glycyrrhiza glabraRhizome Essent. Oil-- -- *
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Hibiscus sabdariffaFruit-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Hyacinthus orientalisFlower0.16 2.3 -1.0 *
Hyssopus officinalisShoot-- -- Indian Perfumer, 35: 51.
Iris x germanicaRhizome-- -- *
Jasminum officinaleFlower-- -- *
Juglans nigraEssential Oil-- 28000.0 1.41 *
Juglans nigraFruit-- -- *
Laurus nobilisLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Leonurus cardiacaPlant-- 1.0 -1.29 *
Ligustrum japonicumFlower-- -- *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- -- *
Melaleuca viridifloraLeaf-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Melaleuca leucadendraEssential Oil-- -- *
Melissa officinalisTissue Culture-- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
Mentha spicataEssential Oil-- -- *
Mentha spicataLeaf-- -- Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- -- -0.23 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- -- -0.23 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Morus albaPlant-- -- *
Murraya koenigiiLeaf-- 0.1 -0.47 *
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- -- *
Narcissus tazettaFlower-- -- *
Ocimum basilicumEssential Oil-- 700.0 -0.69 *
Ocimum gratissimumShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Origanum onitesShoot-- -- -0.23 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Panax ginsengShoot-- -- *
Perilla frutescensLeaf Essent. Oil-- 16000.0 0.72 Kang, R., Helms, R., Stout, M.J., Jaber, H., Chen, Z., and Nakatsu, T. 1992. Antimicrobial Activity of the Volatile Constituents of Perilla frutescens and Its Synergistic Effects with Polygodial. J. Agric. Food Chem., 40: 2328-2330.
Perilla frutescensShoot Essent. Oil-- -- Nguyen, X. D., La, D. M., Lu'u, D. C., Leclercq, P. A. 1995. Essential Oil Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. J. Essent. Oil Res., 7(4): 429-432.
Petiveria alliaceaRoot-- -- Tramil
Petroselinum crispumLeaf-- -- *
Peumus boldusLeaf-- 1.0 -0.47 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phaseolus vulgarisStem Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pogostemon cablinPlant-- -- *
Prunus dulcisSeed-- 8200.0 *
Prunus persicaFruit-- -- *
Prunus cerasusFruit-- 3.0 -0.79 *
Prunus serotinaBark-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Prunus laurocerasusLeaf413.0 456.0 0.24 *
Prunus persicaSeed-- -- *
Psidium guajavaFruit-- 1000.0 1.65 *
Rheum palmatumRhizome-- 1.5 *
Ribes nigrumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Robinia pseudoacaciaFlower-- -- *
Rosa damascenaEssential Oil-- -- *
Rubus idaeusPlant-- -- *
Salvia sclareaPlant-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Sambucus nigraLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Sambucus nigraFlower Essent. Oil-- -- *
Sambucus nigraPlant-- -- *
Styrax benzoinPlant-- -- *
Syringa vulgarisFlower-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Syzygium aromaticumFruit-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumFlower-- -- *
Tanacetum partheniumShoot-- -- Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Thymus capitatusShoot-- -- -0.23 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Trifolium pratenseFlower-- 12.0 1.0 Buchnauer,G.,Jirovetz,L.,Nikiforov,A.1996.Comparative Investigation of Essential Clover Flower Oils from Austria Using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection,Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry,and Gas Chrom.-Olfactometry.J.Agrc.Food Chem.44:1827-8
Triticum aestivumShoot-- -- *
Umbellularia californicaPlant70.0 280.0 1.5 *
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit-- -- *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit Juice-- -- *
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit Juice-- -- *
Vanilla planifoliaFruit-- -- *
Zea maysHusk Essent. Oil-- -- *
Zea maysShoot-- -- *
Zea maysSilk Essent. Oil-- 1000.0 *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.