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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Camellia sinensisShoot2100.0 2300.0 5.51 *
Prunus laurocerasusLeaf413.0 456.0 0.24 *
Umbellularia californicaPlant70.0 280.0 1.5 *
Cistus ladaniferusLeaf28.0 1960.0 2.57 *
Cinnamomum verumPlant26.0 104.0 -0.26 *
Cinnamomum verumBark26.0 104.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Agastache foeniculumPlant1.0 135.0 0.05 Mazza, G. and Kiehn, F.A. 1992. Essential Oil of Agastache foeniculum, A Potential Source of Methyl Chavicol. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 295-299.
Hyacinthus orientalisFlower0.16 2.3 -1.0 *
Zea maysHusk Essent. Oil-- -- *
Triticum aestivumShoot-- -- *
Eucalyptus punctataShoot-- 80.0 -0.03 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maculataShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- -- -0.23 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- -- -0.23 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Cinnamomum verumBark Essent. Oil-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf Essent. Oil-- 7000.0 -1.41 *
Cinnamomum verumStem Bark-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumEssential Oil-- -- *
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- -- -0.47 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Eucalyptus albensShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Rheum palmatumRhizome-- 1.5 *
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- -- -0.47 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Ocimum basilicumEssential Oil-- 700.0 -0.69 *
Eucalyptus camaldulensisShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Ligustrum japonicumFlower-- -- *
Aspalathus linearisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 15900.0 0.7 *
Hyssopus officinalisShoot-- -- Indian Perfumer, 35: 51.
Cymbopogon winterianusPlant-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Hibiscus sabdariffaFruit-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Chrysanthemum partheniumShoot-- -- Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Eucalyptus maideniShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Prunus cerasusFruit-- 3.0 -0.79 *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit Juice-- -- *
Psidium guajavaFruit-- 1000.0 1.65 *
Eucalyptus salignaShoot-- 280.0 0.47 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Robinia pseudoacaciaFlower-- -- *
Ocimum gratissimumShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Prunus dulcisSeed-- 8200.0 *
Elsholtzia blandaShoot-- 13.0 -0.19 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Leonurus cardiacaPlant-- 1.0 -1.29 *
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- -- *
Citrullus lanatusFruit Juice-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumFlower-- -- *
Eucalyptus siderophloiaShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus melliodoraShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Acinos suaveolensShoot-- 200.0 0.27 Jim Duke's personal files.
Cnicus benedictusShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumFruit-- -- *
Acacia farnesianaFlower-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Acacia farnesianaPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Callicarpa americanaLeaf-- 0.55 -0.47 *
Capsicum annuumFruit-- -- *
Jasminum officinaleFlower-- -- *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- -- *
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit-- -- *
Melaleuca viridifloraLeaf-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Cananga odorataFlower-- -- *
Eucalyptus sideroxylonShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus moluccanaShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Origanum onitesShoot-- -- -0.23 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Murraya koenigiiLeaf-- 0.1 -0.47 *
Arctium lappaRoot-- -- *
Thymus capitatusShoot-- -- -0.23 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Salvia sclareaPlant-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Eucalyptus citriodoraShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Mentha spicataLeaf-- -- Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Ribes nigrumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Brassica oleraceaStem-- 0.02 *
Zea maysShoot-- -- *
Eucalyptus occidentalisShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus astringensShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Perilla frutescensShoot Essent. Oil-- -- Nguyen, X. D., La, D. M., Lu'u, D. C., Leclercq, P. A. 1995. Essential Oil Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. J. Essent. Oil Res., 7(4): 429-432.
Perilla frutescensLeaf Essent. Oil-- 16000.0 0.72 Kang, R., Helms, R., Stout, M.J., Jaber, H., Chen, Z., and Nakatsu, T. 1992. Antimicrobial Activity of the Volatile Constituents of Perilla frutescens and Its Synergistic Effects with Polygodial. J. Agric. Food Chem., 40: 2328-2330.
Ficus caricaFruit-- 1.0 -0.8 *
Tanacetum partheniumShoot-- -- Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Aniba rosaeodoraEssential Oil-- 300.0 -0.72 *
Prunus serotinaBark-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Eucalyptus cladocalyxShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Styrax benzoinPlant-- -- *
Mentha spicataEssential Oil-- -- *
Chrysanthemum x morifoliumFlower-- -- Wealth of India.
Cinnamomum verumLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Carthamus tinctoriusBud-- 0.1 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- -- *
Phaseolus vulgarisStem Essent. Oil-- -- *
Carthamus tinctoriusLeaf-- 0.04 -0.47 *
Melissa officinalisTissue Culture-- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
Avena sativaSeed-- -- *
Eucalyptus globulusShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus botryoidesShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus oviformisShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Melaleuca leucadendraEssential Oil-- -- *
Eucalyptus blakelyiShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Carica papayaFruit-- 300.0 -0.06 *
Morus albaPlant-- -- *
Aesculus hippocastanumFlower Essent. Oil-- 11000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Petiveria alliaceaRoot-- -- Tramil
Ephedra sinicaShoot-- 15.0 -0.19 *
Eucalyptus dealbataShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Glycyrrhiza glabraRhizome Essent. Oil-- -- *
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Laurus nobilisLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Rubus idaeusPlant-- -- *
Zea maysSilk Essent. Oil-- 1000.0 *
Narcissus tazettaFlower-- -- *
Eucalyptus tereticornisShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Panax ginsengShoot-- -- *
Sambucus nigraPlant-- -- *
Eucalyptus bosistoanaShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Sambucus nigraFlower Essent. Oil-- -- *
Eruca sativaHs-- -- *
Sambucus nigraLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Eriobotrya japonicaLeaf-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Prunus persicaFruit-- -- *
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit Juice-- -- *
Prunus persicaSeed-- -- *
Trifolium pratenseFlower-- 12.0 1.0 Buchnauer,G.,Jirovetz,L.,Nikiforov,A.1996.Comparative Investigation of Essential Clover Flower Oils from Austria Using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection,Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry,and Gas Chrom.-Olfactometry.J.Agrc.Food Chem.44:1827-8
Peumus boldusLeaf-- 1.0 -0.47 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Petroselinum crispumLeaf-- -- *
Cucumis meloPetiole-- -- *
Eucalyptus diversicolorShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark-- -- *
Iris x germanicaRhizome-- -- *
Eucalyptus polyanthemosShoot-- 0.1 -0.22 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Rosa damascenaEssential Oil-- -- *
Anacardium occidentaleFruit-- -- *
Juglans nigraFruit-- -- *
Juglans nigraEssential Oil-- 28000.0 1.41 *
Pogostemon cablinPlant-- -- *
Syringa vulgarisFlower-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Capsicum frutescensFruit-- -- *
Vanilla planifoliaFruit-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.