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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit1450.0 14820.0 0.61 *
Acacia senegalPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Acacia farnesianaPlant7040.0 37770.0 1.34 *
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf2590.0 32400.0 0.34 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium ampeloprasumPlant-- -- *
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb0.1 11736.0 1.0 *
Allium sativum var. sativumLeaf-- -- *
Allium cepaBulb640.0 6967.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Aloe veraPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Aloe veraLeaf-- -- Waller, G. R., Mangiafico, S., Ritchey, C. R. 1978. A Chemical Investigation of Aloe barbadensis. Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci. 58: 69-.
Alpinia galangaLeaf-- -- *
Amaranthus sp.Leaf2290.0 27549.0 0.03 *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed15050.0 15310.0 -0.65 *
Ananas comosusFruit293.0 4222.0 -0.78 *
Anastatica hierochunticaFruit-- -- *
Angelica archangelicaLeaf-- -- *
Angelica sinensisRoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Apium graveolensPt1130.0 23880.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Apium graveolensShoot-- -- *
Arachis hypogaeaSeed31900.0 36968.0 1.28 *
Arctium lappaRoot1770.0 8850.0 -0.14 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artemisia dracunculusLeaf-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusRoot-- -- *
Artocarpus altilisSeed8170.0 18685.0 -0.35 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Asimina trilobaFruit424.0 5167.0 -0.66 *
Asparagus officinalisShoot3550.0 45805.0 0.77 *
Astragalus membranaceusRoot-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Avena sativaSeed-- 7000.0 -1.38 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Averrhoa carambolaFruit510.0 5615.0 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Bacopa monnieriPlant-- -- Wealth of India.
Basella albaLeaf1080.0 15650.0 -0.72 *
Bertholletia excelsaSeed13550.0 14019.0 -0.76 *
Beta vulgarisRoot1060.0 8360.0 -0.21 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Borago officinalisLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l.Leaf1200.0 19668.0 -0.46 *
Brassica napus var. napobrassicaRoot870.0 8410.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf2130.0 22876.0 -0.26 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapaRoot630.0 7750.0 -0.29 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf1190.0 15910.0 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica chinensisLeaf1080.0 23080.0 -0.25 *
Brassica rapaLeaf1080.0 23080.0 -0.25 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf2950.0 18985.0 -0.51 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf2130.0 22876.0 -0.26 *
Cajanus cajanSeed17940.0 24000.0 0.13 *
Calathea allouiaRoot7650.0 8415.0 -0.2 *
Cannabis sativaPlant-- -- Turner, C. E., El Sohly, M. A., Boeren, E. G. 1980. Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. XVII. A Review of the Natural Constituents. J Natural Products, 432: 169-234.
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant-- -- *
Capsicum frutescensFruit2860.0 23338.0 1.73 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Capsicum annuumFruit1200.0 16504.0 0.83 *
Carica papayaFruit490.0 4387.0 -0.76 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carum carviSeed20840.0 23130.0 0.05 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Castanea mollisimaSeed8522.0 15169.0 -0.66 *
Castanea dentataSeed8071.0 14362.0 -0.73 *
Castanea sativaSeed3381.0 7438.0 -1.35 *
Centella asiaticaPlant-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Ceratonia siliquaSeed-- 42300.0 1.75 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Chenopodium albumPlant4310.0 27457.0 0.5 *
Cicer arietinumSeed22700.0 25660.0 0.27 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium endiviaLeaf1300.0 20934.0 -0.38 *
Citrullus lanatusSeed-- 25500.0 0.26 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrullus lanatusFruit-- 4594.0 -0.73 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrus reticulataFruit240.0 6206.0 -0.52 *
Citrus paradisiFruit810.0 4700.0 -0.72 *
Citrus sinensisFruit70.0 8607.0 -0.2 *
Cnidoscolus chayamansaLeaf8495.0 42470.0 0.97 *
Cocos nuciferaEndosperm-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cocos nuciferaSeed3250.0 6130.0 -1.46 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cocos nuciferaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Coffea arabicaSeed-- -- *
Colocasia esculentaRoot1920.0 6540.0 -0.44 *
Corchorus olitoriusLeaf5670.0 46150.0 1.21 *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- *
Crocus sativusBulb-- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonicaShoot-- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonicaRoot-- -- *
Cucumis sativusFruit320.0 8101.0 -0.27 *
Cucurbita pepoSeed24770.0 41080.0 1.64 *
Cucurbita pepoFruit1020.0 12143.0 0.26 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cucurbita foetidissimaSeed29165.0 37280.0 1.3 *
Cucurbita sppFruit1440.0 22785.0 1.66 *
Daucus carotaRoot1370.0 11220.0 0.17 *
Dioscorea pentaphyllaRoot1360.0 7330.0 -0.34 *
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed-- 12000.0 -0.94 *
Ficus caricaFruit1760.0 3447.0 -0.88 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Foeniculum vulgareFruit18333.0 20111.0 1.31 *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed18333.0 20111.0 -0.22 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Fragaria sppFruit1380.0 16370.0 0.82 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ginkgo bilobaSeed5430.0 14815.0 -0.69 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glechoma hederaceaPlant-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Glycine maxShoot-- -- *
Glycine maxSeed45890.0 50175.0 2.45 *
Harpagophytum procumbensRoot-- 160.0 -1.27 *
Helianthus annuusSeed24460.0 25800.0 0.29 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Helianthus tuberosusTuber-- 16852.0 -1.33 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Hibiscus sabdariffaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ipomoea aquaticaLeaf6500.0 86320.0 3.74 *
Ipomoea batatasRoot2730.0 10383.0 0.06 *
Juglans cinereaSeed30960.0 32030.0 0.84 *
Juglans regiaSeed14750.0 15310.0 -0.65 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans nigraSeed24620.0 25740.0 0.28 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lablab purpureusSeed2560.0 31130.0 0.76 *
Lactuca sativaLeaf1420.0 23667.0 -0.21 *
Larrea tridentataPlant-- 5700.0 -1.28 *
Lens culinarisSprout Seedling14330.0 47765.0 -0.96 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lens culinarisSeed31020.0 34900.0 1.09 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lentinus edodesFruit-- -- *
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- 9170.0 -0.1 Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Linum usitatissimumSeed-- 0.557 -2.01 *
Lupinus albusSeed38770.0 43290.0 1.84 *
Lycium barbarumFruit-- 12000.0 0.24 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit1230.0 20332.0 1.34 *
Macadamia sppSeed8270.0 8500.0 -1.25 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Malus domesticaFruit210.0 2115.0 -1.06 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mangifera indicaFruit420.0 4100.0 -0.8 *
Manihot esculentaRoot1810.0 5750.0 -0.55 *
Mentha spicataLeaf3880.0 26850.0 -0.01 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mentha x piperitaLeaf4430.0 20750.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Momordica charantiaSeed-- 90.0 -2.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Moringa oleiferaShoot9200.0 43110.0 0.64 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mucuna pruriensSeed19850.0 42080.0 1.73 *
Murraya spFruit1080.0 3110.0 -0.93 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit1080.0 3110.0 -0.93 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nasturtium officinaleHerb1870.0 37400.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nelumbo nuciferaSeed5050.0 15303.0 -0.65 *
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome3690.0 17655.0 1.0 *
Nigella sativaSeed10670.0 13650.0 -0.79 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf-- 16960.0 -0.64 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Oenothera biennisSeed11800.0 12593.0 -0.89 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaBud-- 8315.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Opuntia ficus-indicaSeed-- 15900.0 -0.59 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Oryza sativaHay-- -- *
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber3870.0 35670.0 0.67 *
Panax ginsengLeaf-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot-- -- *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant1265.0 4310.0 -1.39 *
Papaver somniferumSeed22020.0 23622.0 0.09 *
Papaver bracteatumSeed17000.0 20350.0 -0.2 *
Perideridia gairdneriRoot-- 7556.0 -0.31 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Persea americanaFruit2270.0 11000.0 0.11 *
Phaseolus vulgarisSprout Seedling5460.0 58710.0 1.38 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus lunatusSeed7350.0 30802.0 0.73 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisSeed26130.0 29366.0 0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisLeaf-- -- *
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit2550.0 26208.0 2.11 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit20.0 3150.0 -0.92 *
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit361.0 1785.0 -1.1 *
Pinellia ternataTuber-- -- *
Pinus pineaSeed21870.0 26000.0 0.3 *
Pinus edulisSeed10540.0 11200.0 -1.01 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pistacia veraSeed21160.0 22012.0 -0.05 *
Pisum sativumSeed4950.0 23415.0 0.07 *
Pisum sativumFruit2280.0 22552.0 1.63 *
Pisum sativumShoot-- 22.0 -1.41 *
Portulaca oleraceaHerb770.0 19600.0 -1.0 *
Prunus dulcisSeed23490.0 24571.0 0.18 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus armeniacaFruit3140.0 23000.0 1.69 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus domesticaFruit2490.0 16824.0 0.88 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus persicaFruit1170.0 8586.0 -0.21 *
Prunus cerasusFruit-- -- *
Psidium guajavaFruit520.0 3744.0 -0.84 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psidium cattleianumFruit370.0 1915.0 -1.08 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusTuber17350.0 40728.0 1.21 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusSeed31870.0 34770.0 1.08 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusLeaf5170.0 22333.0 -0.3 *
Psoralea esculentaRoot-- 8989.0 -0.13 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Pyrus communisFruit770.0 4756.0 -0.71 *
Raphanus sativusRoot480.0 9300.0 -0.08 *
Rehmannia glutinosaRoot1000.0 39000.0 3.78 *
Ribes nigrumFruit Juice-- 23.0 *
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf3910.0 12130.0 -0.94 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sambucus canadensisFruit580.0 2871.0 -0.96 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Scutellaria baicalensisRoot-- -- *
Secale cerealeSeed11770.0 13215.0 -0.83 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sechium eduleFruit1010.0 14430.0 0.56 *
Senna obtusifoliaSeed-- 15000.0 -0.67 *
Sesamum indicumSeed9890.0 23795.0 0.11 *
Sinapis albaSeed19670.0 21050.0 -0.14 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber4340.0 24050.0 -0.56 *
Solanum melongenaFruit1770.0 21933.0 1.55 *
Spinacia oleraceaPlant2400.0 28502.0 0.58 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Stachys officinalisShoot-- -- *
Tribulus terrestrisFruit-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed23220.0 29790.0 0.64 *
Triticum aestivumSeed5106.0 5957.0 -1.48 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit520.0 3379.0 -0.89 *
Valeriana officinalisRhizome-- -- *
Valerianella locustaPlant1760.0 24440.0 0.25 *
Vicia fabaSeed6310.0 33210.0 0.94 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling4790.0 50315.0 -0.42 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSeed27560.0 30302.0 0.68 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataSeed25730.0 32254.0 0.86 *
Vigna angularisSeed23550.0 27207.0 0.41 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed29380.0 32085.0 0.84 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vitis viniferaFruit810.0 4167.0 -0.79 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zea maysSeed2440.0 10150.0 -1.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinaleShoot-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRoot2080.0 11990.0 0.27 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinaleTuber-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome2080.0 11990.0 -1.0 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.