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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Malpighia glabraFruit16228.0 172231.0 10.42 *
Viburnum opulusFruit-- 126100.0 7.56 *
Foeniculum vulgareLeaf-- 123600.0 11.02 Jim Duke's personal files.
Aspalathus linearisShoot157.0 94000.0 4.18 *
Momordica charantiaFruit570.0 36447.0 1.98 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit110.0 27293.0 1.41 *
Capsicum frutescensFruit350.0 23000.0 1.15 *
Capsicum annuumFruit230.0 20982.0 1.02 *
Psidium guajavaFruit24.0 18315.0 0.85 *
Armoracia rusticanaPlant1220.0 18200.0 3.68 *
Anacardium occidentaleFruit252.0 17500.0 0.8 *
Phytolacca americanaShoot1360.0 16184.0 0.41 *
Phyllanthus emblicaPlant-- 15610.0 3.07 *
Juglans regiaFruit4500.0 15000.0 0.65 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Basella albaLeaf1020.0 14785.0 0.93 *
Hippophae rhamnoidesFruit500.0 14000.0 0.59 *
Nasturtium officinaleHerb430.0 13690.0 1.0 *
Rosa caninaFlower3000.0 13000.0 3.17 *
Juglans regiaLeaf8000.0 13000.0 0.76 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Rosa rubiginosaSeed-- 12500.0 7.17 *
Rosa sppFruit1000.0 12500.0 0.49 *
Momordica charantiaLeaf1700.0 12412.0 0.71 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Rumex acetosaLeaf630.0 12400.0 0.71 *
Cnidoscolus chayamansaLeaf1960.0 12200.0 0.69 *
Rumex acetosellaLeaf500.0 12000.0 0.67 *
Citrus mitisFruit884.0 11130.0 0.41 *
Sambucus nigraLeaf739.0 11000.0 0.58 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf911.0 10360.0 0.52 *
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf911.0 10360.0 0.52 *
Ribes nigrumFruit150.0 10030.0 0.34 *
Manihot esculentaLeaf800.0 10000.0 0.48 *
Armoracia rusticanaRoot1800.0 10000.0 5.07 *
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf57.0 9875.0 0.47 *
Brassica chinensisLeaf450.0 9713.0 0.46 *
Brassica rapaLeaf450.0 9713.0 0.46 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Luffa aegyptiacaLeaf950.0 9596.0 0.45 *
Diospyros digynaFruit1915.0 9330.0 0.3 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Cichorium endiviaLeaf462.0 9302.0 0.42 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower660.0 9300.0 2.03 *
Byrsonima crassifoliaFruit840.0 9275.0 0.29 *
Mentha spicataLeaf135.0 9200.0 0.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phragmites australisLeaf2000.0 9100.0 0.4 *
Chenopodium albumPlant600.0 9000.0 1.52 *
Moringa oleiferaLeaf2200.0 8800.0 0.37 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Passiflora mollissimaFruit700.0 8750.0 0.26 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Rosa gallicaFruit5450.0 8470.0 0.24 *
Phaseolus vulgarisLeaf1100.0 8333.0 0.33 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Sclerocarya caffraFruit540.0 8190.0 0.22 *
Solanum quitoensisFruit310.0 7925.0 0.21 *
Raphanus sativusFruit690.0 7822.0 0.2 *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf1200.0 7720.0 0.27 *
Petroselinum crispumPlant430.0 7695.0 1.21 *
Spinacia oleraceaPlant239.0 7595.0 1.19 *
Acalypha indicaLeaf1470.0 7540.0 0.26 Wealth of India.
Viscum albumFruit-- 7500.0 0.18 *
Rosa caninaFruit1384.0 7400.0 0.18 *
Ipomoea aquaticaLeaf320.0 7300.0 0.23 *
Raphanus sativusLeaf810.0 7043.0 0.21 *
Portulaca oleraceaHerb105.0 7000.0 -1.0 *
Fragaria sppFruit400.0 6948.0 0.15 *
Brassica oleraceaStem620.0 6890.0 1.26 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf190.0 6774.0 0.18 *
Benincasa hispidaFruit130.0 6750.0 0.14 *
Taraxacum officinaleLeaf18.0 6520.0 0.16 *
Lepidium sativumLeaf690.0 6510.0 0.16 *
Actinidia chinensisFruit750.0 6370.0 0.11 *
Coriandrum sativumLeaf780.0 6290.0 0.14 *
Amaranthus sp.Leaf345.0 6263.0 0.14 *
Aloe veraLeaf-- 6260.0 0.14 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Aloe spp.Leaf31.0 6260.0 0.14 *
Carica papayaLeaf1400.0 6222.0 0.13 *
Raphanus sativusRoot226.0 6216.0 2.91 *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaLeaf720.0 6069.0 0.12 *
Pisum sativumFruit600.0 5935.0 0.08 *
Solanum melongenaLeaf790.0 5809.0 0.1 *
Cucurbita pepoFlower280.0 5773.0 0.94 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Petasites japonicusPt315.0 5725.0 1.66 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Asparagus officinalisShoot100.0 5714.0 -0.09 *
Artemisia vulgarisLeaf720.0 5670.0 0.08 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Boehmeria niveaLeaf730.0 5615.0 0.08 *
Citrus limonFruit5208.0 5566.0 0.06 *
Senna alexandrinaLeaf1130.0 5566.0 0.07 *
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant360.0 5500.0 0.7 *
Amaranthus spinosusLeaf98.0 5030.0 0.02 *
Borago officinalisLeaf30.0 5005.0 0.02 *
Allium cepaLeaf390.0 5000.0 0.02 *
Tetragonia tetragonioidesLeaf300.0 5000.0 0.02 *
Chrysanthemum coronariumBud370.0 4975.0 *
Averrhoa carambolaFruit200.0 4935.0 0.02 *
Agathosma betulinaLeaf-- 4900.0 0.01 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Barosma betulinaLeaf-- 4900.0 0.01 *
Iris x germanicaLeaf-- 4860.0 0.01 *
Tropaeolum tuberosumRoot670.0 4800.0 2.1 *
Ruta graveolensLeaf-- 4790.0 0.0 *
Malva parvifloraPlant454.0 4745.0 0.52 *
Carica papayaFruit640.0 4741.0 0.01 *
Averrhoa bilimbiFruit160.0 4665.0 0.01 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Tropaeolum majusLeaf2000.0 4650.0 -0.01 *
Syzygium malaccenseFruit65.0 4615.0 0.0 *
Armoracia rusticanaLeaf2440.0 4560.0 -0.02 *
Arachis hypogaeaLeaf980.0 4558.0 -0.02 *
Sida rhombifoliaLeaf900.0 4545.0 -0.02 *
Sechium eduleShoot330.0 4460.0 -0.16 *
Citrus aurantiifoliaFruit291.0 4444.0 -0.01 *
Cucumis meloFruit397.0 4370.0 -0.01 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Fragaria sppLeaf3190.0 4350.0 -0.04 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Carica pentagonaFruit290.0 4265.0 -0.02 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ipomoea batatasLeaf210.0 4234.0 -0.05 *
Iris x germanicaFlower-- 4200.0 0.46 *
Ananas comosusFruit148.0 4178.0 -0.02 *
Phaseolus vulgarisSprout Seedling387.0 4161.0 2.25 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Chrysanthemum coronariumLeaf270.0 4155.0 -0.06 *
Corchorus olitoriusLeaf370.0 4080.0 -0.07 *
Citrus sinensisFruit500.0 4071.0 -0.03 *
Solanum nigrumLeaf110.0 4067.0 -0.07 *
Coccinia grandisFruit280.0 4058.0 -0.03 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Rumex crispusLeaf300.0 4054.0 -0.07 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Rumex crispusRoot1042.0 4054.0 1.67 *
Brassica nigraLeaf234.0 4013.0 -0.07 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Physalis alkekingiFruit-- 4000.0 -0.04 *
Asparagus officinalisRoot398.0 3976.0 1.63 *
Citrus aurantiumFruit420.0 3947.0 -0.04 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Zizyphus jujubaFruit460.0 3882.0 -0.04 *
Vitis viniferaLeaf3490.0 3870.0 -0.08 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Citrus paradisiFruit337.0 3862.0 -0.04 *
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l.Leaf233.0 3819.0 -0.09 *
Berberis vulgarisFruit1560.0 3800.0 -0.05 *
Muntingia calaburaFruit805.0 3795.0 -0.05 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Allium sativum var. sativumFlower440.0 3793.0 0.33 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hibiscus sabdariffaFruit540.0 3750.0 -0.05 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Beta vulgarisLeaf120.0 3696.0 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Citrus reticulataFruit280.0 3684.0 -0.06 *
Rubus idaeusLeaf620.0 3670.0 -0.1 *
Colocasia esculentaLeaf69.0 3625.0 -0.11 *
Vigna unguiculataShoot360.0 3523.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataShoot360.0 3523.0 -0.2 *
Bromelia pinguinShoot192.0 3430.0 -0.21 *
Hippophae rhamnoidesLeaf1500.0 3400.0 -0.13 *
Piper auritumLeaf490.0 3370.0 -0.13 *
Ficus caricaLeaf1050.0 3300.0 -0.14 *
Hordeum vulgareStem-- 3300.0 -0.07 *
Perilla frutescensLeaf460.0 3286.0 -0.14 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Foeniculum vulgarePlant340.0 3148.0 0.15 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Gliricidia sepiumLeaf440.0 3145.0 -0.15 *
Calendula officinalisFlower1330.0 3100.0 0.12 *
Achillea millefoliumLeaf580.0 3100.0 -0.16 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Allium ampeloprasumLeaf170.0 3019.0 -0.16 *
Lactuca sativaLeaf180.0 3000.0 -0.17 *
Pinus sylvestrisLeaf-- 3000.0 -0.17 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Morus albaLeaf2000.0 3000.0 -0.17 *
Citrus aurantiumLeaf-- 3000.0 -0.17 Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.
Trifolium pratenseFlower534.0 2966.0 0.08 *
Anacardium occidentaleLeaf890.0 2957.0 -0.17 *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit50.0 2952.0 -0.1 *
Allium sativum var. sativumLeaf390.0 2868.0 -0.18 *
Physalis peruvianaFruit365.0 2865.0 -0.11 *
Lepidium meyeniiRoot25.0 2860.0 0.99 *
Malva sylvestrisLeaf240.0 2855.0 -0.18 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cyclanthera pedataFruit140.0 2800.0 -0.11 *
Cyamopsis tetragonolobaShoot-- 2800.0 -0.24 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Apium graveolensPt58.0 2778.0 -0.26 *
Spondias dulcisFruit360.0 2750.0 -0.11 *
Blighia sapidaSeed780.0 2735.0 1.3 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Passiflora quadrangularisFruit150.0 2680.0 -0.12 *
Sorbus aucubariaFruit39.0 2650.0 -0.12 *
Acacia farnesianaLeaf490.0 2636.0 -0.2 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Vigna unguiculataFruit56.0 2633.0 -0.12 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artemisia absinthiumLeaf1200.0 2600.0 -0.2 *
Rheum rhabarbarumPt80.0 2581.0 -0.38 *
Brassica rapaRoot210.0 2580.0 0.83 *
Nigella sativaLeaf-- 2577.0 -0.2 *
Mimosa pudicaLeaf180.0 2570.0 -0.21 *
Ribes rubrumFruit300.0 2554.0 -0.13 *
Mangifera indicaLeaf530.0 2430.0 -0.22 *
Moringa oleiferaShoot517.0 2425.0 -0.25 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica napus var. napobrassicaRoot250.0 2415.0 0.73 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Luffa aegyptiacaFruit120.0 2400.0 -0.14 *
Ribes uva-crispaFruit263.0 2397.0 -0.14 *
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit10.0 2389.0 -0.14 *
Syzygium jambosFruit30.0 2385.0 -0.14 *
Allium ampeloprasumFlower400.0 2367.0 -0.11 *
Abelmoschus esculentusPlant190.0 2340.0 -0.04 *
Erythrina berteroanaShoot370.0 2340.0 -0.26 *
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit130.0 2340.0 -0.14 *
Cucurbita sppFruit148.0 2340.0 -0.14 *
Morinda citrifoliaLeaf520.0 2320.0 -0.23 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Capparis spinosaFlower260.0 2300.0 -0.13 *
Oxalis tuberosaRoot370.0 2284.0 0.66 *
Lagenaria sicerariaFruit101.0 2265.0 -0.14 *
Lobelia inflataLeaf255.0 2252.0 -0.23 *
Datura metelLeaf-- 2220.0 -0.24 *
Urtica dioicaPlant640.0 2200.0 -0.08 Jim Duke's personal files.
Mimulus glabratusShoot220.0 2200.0 -0.26 *
Spondias pinnataFruit210.0 2165.0 -0.15 *
Plectranthus amboinicusLeaf120.0 2145.0 -0.24 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Echinacea sppLeaf-- 2140.0 -0.25 Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 253.
Piper betelLeaf43.0 2130.0 -0.25 *
Eugenia unifloraFruit140.0 2115.0 -0.15 *
Psidium cattleianumFruit150.0 2100.0 -0.15 *
Pimenta dioicaLeaf2012.0 2067.0 -0.25 *
Cyphomandra betaceaFruit223.0 2060.0 -0.16 *
Menyanthes trifoliataLeaf-- 2047.0 -0.25 *
Cichorium intybusLeaf100.0 2040.0 -0.25 *
Spondias purpureaFruit450.0 2025.0 -0.16 *
Ficus caricaFruit20.0 2013.0 -0.16 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf27.0 2000.0 -0.26 *
Rosa multifloraLeaf-- 2000.0 -0.26 *
Eryngium floridanumShoot-- 1958.0 -0.28 *
Pisum sativumSeed44.0 1892.0 0.8 *
Pouteria caimitoFruit490.0 1890.0 -0.17 *
Allium sativum var. sativumShoot420.0 1883.0 -0.28 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Rubus idaeusFruit70.0 1870.0 -0.17 *
Justicia pectoralisLeaf280.0 1867.0 -0.27 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFruit280.0 1865.0 -0.17 *
Diospyros virginianaFruit660.0 1855.0 -0.17 *
Pachyrhizus erosusPlant140.0 1845.0 -0.16 *
Alpinia galangaRhizome260.0 1844.0 1.97 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Rheum rhabarbarumLeaf110.0 1833.0 -0.27 *
Crataegus laevigataLeaf166.4 1800.0 -0.28 *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaLeaf-- 1800.0 -0.28 *
Eugenia floribundaFruit230.0 1785.0 -0.17 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Humulus lupulusFruit-- 1782.0 -0.17 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Humulus lupulusFlower332.0 1782.0 -0.29 *
Sambucus canadensisFruit360.0 1782.0 -0.17 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Myrciaria caulifloraFruit170.0 1770.0 -0.17 *
Mangifera indicaFruit30.0 1760.0 -0.18 *
Feijoa sellowianaFruit280.0 1750.0 -0.18 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Brosimum alicastrumFruit280.0 1750.0 -0.18 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ullucus tuberosusRoot230.0 1750.0 0.35 *
Vicia fabaSeed330.0 1735.0 0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Apium graveolensSeed171.0 1700.0 0.68 *
Apium graveolensFruit357.0 1700.0 -0.18 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaFruit65.0 1690.0 -0.18 *
Pisum sativumSprout Seedling-- 1650.0 0.24 *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit132.0 1650.0 -0.18 *
Althaea officinalisSeed-- 1640.0 0.65 *
Althaea officinalisRoot177.0 1640.0 0.29 *
Spondias mombinFruit160.0 1615.0 -0.18 *
Catha edulisLeaf-- 1610.0 -0.29 *
Cajanus cajanFruit320.0 1601.0 -0.18 *
Annona squamosaFruit340.0 1600.0 -0.19 *
Tropaeolum majusPt1000.0 1600.0 -1.02 *
Annona glabraFruit210.0 1590.0 -0.19 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Sechium eduleFruit110.0 1570.0 -0.19 *
Annona muricataFruit190.0 1540.0 -0.19 *
Manihot esculentaRoot97.0 1530.0 0.23 *
Blighia sapidaAril260.0 1530.0 *
Mammea americanaFruit100.0 1515.0 -0.19 *
Sambucus nigraFruit128.0 1515.0 -0.19 *
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling113.0 1506.0 0.12 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Canavalia ensiformisFruit320.0 1488.0 -0.19 *
Pouteria campechianaFruit400.0 1475.0 -0.19 *
Medicago sativaPlant276.0 1470.0 -0.25 *
Cola acuminataSeed540.0 1456.0 0.54 *
Rollinia mucosaFruit330.0 1450.0 -0.19 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Anethum graveolensPlant1214.0 1440.0 -0.26 *
Chrysobalanus icacoFruit90.0 1420.0 -0.2 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Prunus salicifoliaFruit222.0 1415.0 -0.2 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Polymnia edulisRoot250.0 1400.0 0.15 *
Annona reticulataFruit150.0 1400.0 -0.2 *
Casimiroa edulisFruit230.0 1395.0 -0.2 *
Musa x paradisiacaHull Husk-- 1380.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pouteria viridisFruit430.0 1360.0 -0.2 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Capparis spinosaFruit-- 1335.0 -0.2 Wealth of India.
Syzygium cuminiFruit57.0 1330.0 -0.2 *
Aegle marmelosFruit80.0 1330.0 -0.2 *
Syringa vulgarisLeaf-- 1315.0 -0.32 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hypericum perforatumPlant-- 1300.0 -0.29 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tropaeolum majusFlower-- 1300.0 -0.43 *
Eugenia brasiliensisFruit188.0 1290.0 -0.2 *
Peperomia pelucidaLeaf100.0 1280.0 -0.33 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cajanus cajanSeed-- 1279.0 0.43 *
Phyllanthus acidusFruit20.0 1279.0 -0.2 *
Sicana odoriferaFruit139.0 1270.0 -0.21 *
Durio zibethinusFruit240.0 1270.0 -0.21 *
Pereskia aculeataFruit20.0 1250.0 -0.21 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Allium ampeloprasumRoot170.0 1241.0 0.06 *
Petroselinum crispumFruit-- 1220.0 -0.21 *
Passiflora edulisFruit300.0 1205.0 -0.21 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Moringa oleiferaFruit-- 1200.0 -0.21 =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Bupleurum chinenseRoot132.0 1200.0 0.04 *
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit144.0 1200.0 -0.21 *
Platonia insignisFruit180.0 1190.0 -0.21 *
Ipomoea batatasRoot201.0 1186.0 0.03 *
Malva neglectaLeaf-- 1175.0 -0.33 *
Anethum graveolensSeed-- 1150.0 0.35 *
Prunus persicaFruit14.0 1127.0 -0.21 *
Papaver somniferumFruit-- 1120.0 -0.21 *
Cucurbita pepoFruit90.0 1071.0 -0.22 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Arracacia xanthorrhizaRoot310.0 1070.0 -0.03 *
Aralia cordataLeaf50.0 1065.0 -0.35 *
Lablab purpureusSeed-- 1063.0 0.3 *
Morus albaFruit50.0 1040.0 -0.22 *
Scutellaria laterifloraPlant140.0 1025.0 -0.35 *
Schisandra chinensisFruit153.0 1022.0 -0.22 *
Genipa americanaFruit330.0 1020.0 -0.22 *
Chenopodium ambrosioidesLeaf110.0 1020.0 -0.35 *
Theobroma bicolorFruit210.0 1010.0 -0.22 *
Licania platypusFruit110.0 1005.0 -0.22 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Persea americanaFruit65.0 994.0 -0.22 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber170.0 990.0 1.41 *
Artocarpus altilisFruit150.0 985.0 -0.22 *
Turnera diffusaLeaf206.0 983.0 -0.35 *
Cydonia oblongaFruit100.0 960.0 -0.22 *
Phaseolus lunatusSeed-- 952.0 0.23 *
Passiflora ligularisFruit108.0 950.0 -0.23 *
Glycine maxSprout Seedling100.0 949.0 -0.33 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Solanum melongenaFruit13.0 947.0 -0.23 *
Glycine maxFruit290.0 942.0 -0.23 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Opuntia ficus-indicaFlower-- 940.0 -0.55 *
Terminalia chebulaFruit-- 920.0 -0.23 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- 920.0 -0.23 *
Calathea macrosepalaFlower70.0 910.0 -0.55 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Asimina trilobaFruit76.0 893.0 -0.23 *
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit125.0 878.0 -0.23 *
Prunus cerasusFruit70.0 873.0 -0.23 *
Iris x germanicaRoot-- 870.0 -0.15 *
Beta vulgarisRoot50.0 868.0 -0.15 *
Glycine maxSeed-- 849.0 0.17 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Echinacea purpureaRoot212.0 843.0 -0.16 *
Echinacea sppRoot-- 843.0 -0.16 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Eriobotrya japonicaFruit10.0 840.0 -0.23 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Passiflora foetidaFruit150.0 835.0 -0.23 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ocimum tenuiflorumLeaf-- 830.0 -0.37 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pastinaca sativaRoot160.0 830.0 -0.17 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf166.0 830.0 -0.37 *
Ocimum sanctumLeaf-- 830.0 -0.37 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Cynara cardunculusFlower-- 828.0 -0.58 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Bactris gasipaesFruit110.0 828.0 -0.23 *
Vicia fabaFruit120.0 820.0 -0.23 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Syzygium aromaticumBark-- 810.0 1.98 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Symphytum officinaleLeaf88.0 800.0 -0.37 *
Gymnema sylvestreLeaf152.0 800.0 -0.37 *
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb100.0 788.0 *
Erythrina fuscaLeaf30.0 780.0 -0.37 *
Verbascum thapsusLeaf341.0 776.0 -0.37 *
Daucus carotaRoot91.0 775.0 -0.2 *
Lycium chinenseLeaf80.0 769.0 -0.37 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cyrtosperma chamissonisRoot-- 762.0 -0.21 *
Larrea tridentataPlant250.0 760.0 -0.42 *
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit-- 750.0 -0.24 *
Prunus armeniacaFruit100.0 745.0 -0.24 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Elaeagnus commutataFruit100.0 725.0 -0.24 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Annona cherimolaFruit50.0 725.0 -0.24 *
Ephedra sinicaPlant151.0 721.0 -0.42 *
Capparis spinosaLeaf-- 710.0 -0.38 Wealth of India.
Prunus domesticaFruit86.0 699.0 -0.24 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Persea schiedeanaFruit57.0 698.0 -0.24 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Passiflora quadrangularisSeed150.0 695.0 0.08 *
Hydrastis canadensisRoot189.0 681.0 -0.26 *
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf11.0 675.0 -0.38 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Rosmarinus officinalisPlant612.0 673.0 -0.44 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Achillea millefoliumPlant119.0 672.0 -0.44 *
Quararibea cordataFruit90.0 660.0 -0.24 *
Myrica ceriferaBark143.0 656.0 1.41 *
Ginkgo bilobaFruit-- 640.0 -0.24 Jim Duke's personal files.
Chrysophyllum cainitoFruit30.0 640.0 -0.24 *
Punica granatumFruit40.0 636.0 -0.24 *
Bacopa monnieriShoot-- 630.0 -0.34 Wealth of India.
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot98.0 626.0 -0.29 *
Sonchus oleraceusLeaf50.0 625.0 -0.39 *
Manilkara zapotaFruit90.0 625.0 -0.25 *
Lens culinarisSprout Seedling148.0 605.0 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juniperus communisLeaf-- 600.0 -0.39 *
Tamarindus indicaFlower-- 600.0 -0.65 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed78.0 600.0 0.02 *
Vitis viniferaFruit99.0 600.0 -0.25 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Murraya spFruit161.0 596.0 -0.25 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit161.0 596.0 -0.25 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artemisia dracunculusLeaf-- 588.0 -0.39 *
Tamarindus indicaFruit24.0 585.0 -0.25 *
Alocasia macrorrhizaRoot-- 572.0 -0.32 *
Origanum majoranaPlant514.0 555.0 -0.46 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ginkgo bilobaSeed150.0 545.0 -0.01 *
Trigonella foenum-graecumLeaf-- 520.0 -0.4 *
Hylocereus guatemalensisFruit80.0 515.0 -0.25 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Hylocereus undatusFruit80.0 515.0 -0.25 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Elaeagnus angustifoliaFruit40.0 500.0 -0.25 *
Tragopogon porrifoliusRoot80.0 491.0 -0.37 *
Cyamopsis tetragonolobaFruit-- 490.0 -0.25 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Sophora japonicaLeaf-- 470.0 -0.4 *
Physalis ixocarpaFruit20.0 460.0 -0.26 *
Dioscorea villosaRoot110.0 460.0 -0.38 *
Murraya koenigiiLeaf40.0 445.0 -0.4 *
Citrus mitisFruit Juice300.0 445.0 1.0 *
Euphorbia hirtaLeaf-- 443.0 -0.4 *
Artocarpus heterophyllusFruit45.0 435.0 -0.26 *
Vigna mungoSprout Seedling-- 426.0 -0.74 *
Pimenta dioicaFruit-- 426.0 -0.26 *
Lycium chinenseFruit-- 425.0 -0.26 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Tribulus terrestrisLeaf-- 420.0 -0.4 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hibiscus rosa-sinensisFlower40.0 405.0 -0.71 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Malus domesticaFruit20.0 402.0 -0.26 *
Hypericum perforatumSeed-- 395.0 -0.1 Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.
Balanites aegyptiacusFruit-- 390.0 -0.26 *
Taraxacum officinaleRoot54.0 376.0 -0.43 *
Centella asiaticaLeaf40.0 374.0 -0.41 *
Nasturtium officinaleShoot-- 370.0 -0.35 *
Inga edulisSeed130.0 355.0 -0.13 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Salvia officinalisLeaf55.0 350.0 -0.41 *
Peperomia pereskiifoliaLeaf50.0 335.0 -0.41 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Chrysanthemum partheniumPlant-- 330.0 -0.52 *
Chrysanthemum partheniumLeaf59.0 330.0 -0.41 *
Tanacetum partheniumPlant-- 330.0 -0.52 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Lagenaria sicerariaLeaf50.0 330.0 -0.41 *
Zizyphus spina-christiFruit300.0 330.0 -0.26 *
Colocasia esculentaRoot-- 325.0 -0.46 *
Eleocharis dulcisTuber40.0 317.0 -0.69 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- 317.0 -0.31 *
Vitis viniferaStem-- 310.0 -1.19 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Cinnamomum verumBark-- 309.0 0.13 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark-- 309.0 0.13 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Helianthus tuberosusTuber40.0 306.0 -0.72 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Angelica sinensisRoot67.0 304.0 -0.47 *
Perideridia gairdneriRoot112.0 302.0 -0.47 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Rubus idaeusSeed-- 300.0 -0.16 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Curcuma longaRhizome-- 293.0 -0.34 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Zingiber officinaleRoot20.0 288.0 -0.48 *
Amorphophallus campanulatusRoot15.0 279.0 -0.49 *
Solanum torvumFruit40.0 275.0 -0.27 *
Artocarpus altilisSeed65.0 275.0 -0.17 *
Phaseolus coccineusFruit-- 270.0 -0.27 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Chamaemelum nobileFlower-- 267.0 -0.75 *
Tamarindus indicaLeaf-- 263.0 -0.42 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Fucus vesiculosusPlant30.0 258.0 -0.53 *
Ruscus aculeatusRoot77.0 256.0 -0.5 *
Garcinia mangostanaFruit10.0 255.0 -0.27 *
Pachira macrocarpaSeed240.0 255.0 -0.19 *
Pyrus communisFruit40.0 250.0 -0.27 *
Cichorium intybusRoot50.0 250.0 -0.5 *
Theobroma speciosumFruit90.0 230.0 -0.27 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Melicoccus bijugatasFruit8.0 230.0 -0.27 *
Maranta arundinaceaRoot70.0 215.0 -0.52 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Canna indicaRoot70.0 210.0 -0.53 *
Equisetum arvensePlant45.0 208.0 -0.54 *
Mentha x piperitaLeaf30.0 201.0 -0.43 *
Hibiscus sabdariffaFlower22.0 200.0 -0.77 *
Eleutherococcus senticosusRoot42.0 200.0 -0.53 *
Perilla frutescensSeed-- 200.0 -0.22 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phaseolus lunatusSprout Seedling70.0 194.0 -0.93 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Dioscorea sp.Root-- 194.0 -0.54 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiLeaf22.0 191.0 -0.43 *
Arachis hypogaeaSeed-- 190.0 -0.22 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusFruit-- 190.0 -0.27 *
Gentiana luteaRoot40.0 183.0 -0.54 *
Tabebuia heptaphyllaBark32.0 181.0 -0.34 *
Phaseolus vulgarisSeed-- 177.0 -0.23 *
Psoralea esculentaRoot4.0 171.0 -0.55 *
Elaeis guineensisFruit120.0 163.0 -0.27 *
Maclura pomiferaFruit30.0 150.0 -0.28 Smith, J. L. and Perino, J. V. 1981. Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera): History and Economic Uses. Economic Botany 35(1): 24-41
Dioscorea villosaRhizome-- 149.0 -0.56 *
Aesculus hippocastanumLeaf-- 147.2 -0.43 Jim Duke's personal files.
Dioscorea pentaphyllaRoot26.0 140.0 -0.57 *
Annona diversifoliaFruit-- 140.0 -0.28 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Centella asiaticaPlant-- 138.0 -0.56 *
Cimicifuga racemosaRoot28.0 135.0 -0.57 *
Symphytum officinaleRoot-- 132.0 -0.57 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Yucca baccataRoot27.0 131.0 -0.57 *
Bixa orellanaFruit20.0 130.0 -0.28 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Chondrus crispusPlant-- 130.0 -0.56 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Apium graveolensPlant17.0 129.0 -0.56 *
Apium graveolensShoot17.0 129.0 -0.36 *
Quercus albaBark29.0 127.0 -0.54 *
Citrullus colocynthisFruit-- 122.0 -0.28 *
Avena sativaPlant26.0 120.0 -0.57 *
Rhodymenia palmataPlant-- 120.0 -0.57 *
Silybum marianumLeaf26.0 120.0 -0.43 *
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf-- 110.0 -0.43 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Passiflora incarnataFlower11.0 100.0 -0.8 *
Dioscorea alataRoot-- 100.0 -0.59 *
Carthamus tinctoriusFlower14.0 100.0 -0.8 *
Nandina domesticaLeaf-- 100.0 -0.43 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Citrullus lanatusFruit-- 94.0 -0.28 *
Cyperus rotundusRoot-- 90.0 -0.59 *
Cocos nuciferaSeed20.0 88.0 -0.29 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Serenoa repensFruit11.0 88.0 -0.28 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Crataegus rhipidophyllaFruit-- 85.0 -0.28 *
Arctium lappaRoot20.0 85.0 -0.6 *
Crataegus laevigataFruit24.0 85.0 -0.28 *
Zea maysSeed-- 85.0 -0.29 *
Cuminum cyminumFruit-- 76.0 -0.28 *
Cuminum cyminumSeed-- 76.0 -0.29 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed15.0 75.0 -0.29 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Theobroma cacaoFruit30.0 70.0 -0.28 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Lens culinarisSeed42.0 70.0 -0.3 *
Stellaria mediaPlant6.0 69.0 -0.58 *
Salix albaBark11.0 68.0 -0.76 *
Euphrasia officinalisPlant10.0 67.0 -0.58 *
Limonia acidissimaFruit20.0 65.0 -0.28 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Lablab purpureusFruit7.7 63.6 -0.28 *
Elaeagnus umbellatusFruit10.0 57.0 -0.28 *
Cicer arietinumSeed30.0 56.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Spinacia oleraceaFruit Juice-- 55.0 -1.0 *
Pourouma cecropiaefoliaFruit10.0 55.0 -0.28 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Vigna radiataSeed48.0 53.0 -0.31 *
Juglans regiaSeed-- 52.0 -0.31 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Caulophyllum thalictroidesRoot5.7 51.5 -0.62 *
Alocasia macrorrhizaLeaf-- 50.0 -0.44 *
Vigna aconitifoliaSeed20.0 44.0 -0.31 *
Leonurus cardiacaPlant-- 42.0 -0.58 *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant-- 39.0 -0.58 *
Borago officinalisShoot-- 39.0 -0.37 Jim Duke's personal files.
Theobroma cacaoSeed-- 31.0 -0.32 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cnicus benedictusPlant4.0 30.0 -0.59 *
Aesculus hippocastanumSeed-- 24.0 -0.32 Jim Duke's personal files.
Phaseolus coccineusSeed-- 23.0 -0.32 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Canavalia ensiformisSeed-- 23.0 -0.32 *
Corylus avellanaSeed10.0 22.0 -0.33 *
Vigna mungoSeed-- 22.0 -0.33 *
Pinus edulisSeed20.0 21.0 -0.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carya illinoensisSeed20.0 21.0 -0.33 *
Actaea racemosaRoot-- 21.0 -0.63 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Anacardium occidentaleSeed20.0 21.0 -0.33 *
Inula heleniumRoot4.4 20.0 -0.63 *
Albizia lebbeckSeed-- 17.0 -0.33 Wealth of India.
Vigna unguiculataSeed16.0 17.0 -0.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Hypericum perforatumShoot-- 16.5 -0.37 *
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome-- 15.0 -0.76 *
Erythroxylum cocaLeaf14.0 15.0 -0.44 *
Prunus dulcisSeed-- 13.0 -0.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zea maysSilk Stigma Style-- 11.0 *
Piper nigrumFruit-- 10.0 -0.28 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus cembroidesSeed-- 10.0 -0.33 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pimpinella anisumFruit8.0 9.0 -0.28 *
Pimpinella anisumSeed8.0 9.0 -0.33 *
Psidium guajavaSeed-- 8.0 -0.33 *
Stachys officinalisPlant1.3 8.0 -0.59 *
Bertholletia excelsaSeed-- 7.0 -0.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Eriodictyon californicumLeaf0.4 1.7 -0.44 *
Aleurites moluccanaSeed-- -- -0.34 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Plantago psylliumSeed-- -- -0.34 *
Juglans nigraFruit-- -- -0.28 *
Terminalia catappaSeed-- -- -0.34 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Thymus vulgarisLeaf-- -- -0.44 *
Papaver somniferumSeed-- -- -0.34 *
Valeriana officinalisRoot-- -- -0.65 *
Frangula purshianaBark-- -- -1.01 *
Stellaria mediaShoot-- -- -0.37 *
Macadamia sppSeed-- -- -0.34 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Panax ginsengRoot-- -- -0.65 *
Carthamus tinctoriusSeed-- -- -0.34 *
Coix lacryma-jobiSeed-- -- -0.34 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ulmus rubraBark-- -- -1.01 *
Berberis vulgarisRoot-- -- -0.65 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Theobroma bicolorSeed-- -- -0.34 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Mauritia flexuosaFruit-- -- -0.28 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Foeniculum vulgareSeed-- -- -0.34 *
Hordeum vulgareSeed-- -- -0.34 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed-- -- -0.34 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Cannabis sativaSeed-- -- -0.34 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Triticum aestivumSeed-- -- *
Spirulina spp.Plant-- -- *
Astragalus membranaceusRoot-- -- *
Tulipa gesnerianaStem-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Inula heleniumLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Juniperus communisFruit-- -- *
Citrus limonFruit Juice-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Datura stramoniumPlant-- -- *
Berberis vulgarisBark-- -- *
Myrciaria dubiaFruit-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Corylus avellanaLeaf-- -- *
Nepeta catariaPlant-- -- *
Berberis vulgarisLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Thuja occidentalisBranches-- -- *
Parthenium integrifoliumRoot-- -- *
Juglans nigraHull Husk-- -- *
Acacia senegalPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Ginkgo bilobaLeaf-- -- *
Pothomorphe sp.Plant-- -- *
Allium cepaBulb-- -- *
Eupatorium perfoliatumPlant-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumShoot-- -- *
Alliaria petiolataPlant-- -- *
Vigna angularisSeed-- -- *
Phaseolus acutifoliusSeed-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Plantago majorSeed-- -- *
Foeniculum vulgareFruit-- -- *
Platycodon grandiflorumRoot-- -- *
Marrubium vulgareFlower-- -- *
Nelumbo nuciferaSeed-- -- *
Trichosanthes anguinaFruit-- -- *
Punica granatumFruit Juice-- -- *
Perilla frutescensFlower-- -- Lamparska, K. 1966. Studies on Vitamin C Dynamics in Perilla ocymoides and in Calendula officinalis Grown in Short and Long Day Conditions. Zesz Nauk Uniw Mikolaja Kopernika Toruniu Biol, 8: 69-.
Marrubium vulgarePlant-- -- *
Origanum vulgarePlant-- -- *
Papaver somniferumTissue Culture-- -- *
Rubus fruticosusLeaf-- -- *
Filipendula ulmariaPlant-- -- *
Filipendula ulmariaFlower-- -- *
Smilax sppRoot-- -- *
Cuminum cyminumTissue Culture-- -- *
Medicago sativaLeaf-- -- *
Harpagophytum procumbensRoot-- -- *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusSeed-- -- *
Spirulina pratensisPlant-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Hypericum perforatumLeaf-- -- *
Duchesnea indicaLeaf-- -- *
Rhamnus catharticaFruit-- -- *
Rhamnus catharticaLeaf-- -- *
Ribes nigrumLeaf-- -- *
Spinacia oleraceaLeaf-- -- *
Panax ginsengLeaf-- -- *
Curcuma longaPlant-- -- *
Matricaria recutitaPlant-- -- Kameoka, H. and Nakai, K. 1987. Components of essential oil from the root of Glycyrrhiza-glabra. Nippon Gogeikagaku Kaishi 61(9): 1119-1122.
Plantago majorPlant-- -- *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- -- *
Hydrangea arborescensRoot-- -- *
Acorus calamusPlant-- -- *
Tilia sp.Leaf-- -- *
Cephaelis ipecacuanhaPlant-- -- *
Lycopus europeusPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Petroselinum crispumShoot-- -- *
Petroselinum crispumLeaf-- -- *
Oryza sativaSeed-- -- *
Acacia niloticaPlant-- -- *
Smilax officinalisRoot-- -- *
Sinapis albaPlant-- -- *
Polygonum multiflorumRoot-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Allium sativum var. sativumRoot-- -- *
Areca catechuSeed-- -- *
Juglans nigraPericarp-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.