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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit840.0 8450.0 1.1 *
Acacia farnesianaLeaf7360.0 39480.0 1.39 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Albizia lebbeckSeed-- -- Wealth of India.
Allium cepaBulb1580.0 17222.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf2020.0 25350.0 0.42 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium ampeloprasumPlant-- -- *
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb81.0 30316.0 1.0 *
Aloe veraLeaf-- 78216.0 4.04 *
Alpinia galangaLeaf-- -- *
Amaranthus sp.Leaf1210.0 14556.0 -0.32 *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed17410.0 17711.0 -0.29 *
Ananas comosusFruit46.0 1333.0 -0.79 *
Anastatica hierochunticaFruit-- -- *
Anethum graveolensFruit12630.0 13678.0 2.5 *
Anethum graveolensSeed12630.0 13678.0 -0.46 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Angelica sinensisRoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Annona squamosaFruit-- -- *
Apium graveolensPt200.0 4105.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Arachis hypogaeaSeed31280.0 37022.0 0.52 *
Arctium lappaRoot1050.0 5250.0 -0.28 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Armoracia rusticanaRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Artemisia dracunculusRoot-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusLeaf-- -- *
Artocarpus altilisSeed4940.0 11300.0 -0.56 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Asimina trilobaFruit240.0 2336.0 -0.53 *
Asparagus officinalisShoot1430.0 18452.0 -1.0 *
Astragalus membranaceusRoot-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Avena sativaSeed3000.0 13000.0 -0.49 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Averrhoa carambolaFruit110.0 1210.0 -0.83 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Basella albaLeaf700.0 10145.0 -0.62 *
Bertholletia excelsaSeed23900.0 24727.0 0.0 *
Beta vulgarisRoot380.0 2997.0 -0.39 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Bixa orellanaSeed-- 14260.0 -0.44 *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf1840.0 11840.0 -0.51 *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaLeaf2030.0 14494.0 -0.32 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica napus var. napobrassicaRoot1480.0 14310.0 0.18 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapaLeaf840.0 17951.0 -0.09 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapaRoot240.0 2950.0 -0.39 *
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l.Leaf800.0 13112.0 -0.42 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf1450.0 15573.0 -0.25 *
Brassica chinensisLeaf840.0 17951.0 -0.09 *
Brassica oleraceaStem1050.0 11667.0 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf690.0 9225.0 -0.69 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica nigraLeaf1810.0 26657.0 0.51 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf1450.0 15573.0 -0.25 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower960.0 12400.0 *
Cajanus cajanSeed11280.0 14530.0 -0.43 *
Calathea allouiaRoot3385.0 3720.0 -0.35 *
Camellia sinensisPlant-- -- *
Canavalia ensiformisSeed-- -- *
Cannabis sativaPlant-- -- Turner, C. E., El Sohly, M. A., Boeren, E. G. 1980. Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. XVII. A Review of the Natural Constituents. J Natural Products, 432: 169-234.
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant-- -- *
Capsicum frutescensFruit960.0 7834.0 0.94 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Capsicum annuumFruit410.0 5592.0 0.34 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carica papayaFruit100.0 895.0 -0.91 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carum carviSeed12520.0 13900.0 -0.45 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Castanea sativaSeed1451.0 3192.0 -0.91 *
Castanea mollisimaSeed4411.0 7852.0 -0.71 *
Castanea dentataSeed3808.0 6778.0 -0.76 *
Ceratonia siliquaSeed-- 55460.0 1.31 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Chenopodium albumPlant2530.0 16116.0 0.75 *
Cicer arietinumSeed11500.0 20560.0 -0.17 *
Cichorium intybusLeaf660.0 14892.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium endiviaLeaf620.0 9984.0 -0.63 *
Citrullus lanatusFruit-- 6949.0 0.7 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrullus lanatusSeed-- 46600.0 0.93 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrus sinensisFruit230.0 4908.0 0.16 *
Citrus reticulataFruit440.0 3546.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Citrus paradisiFruit470.0 760.0 -0.95 *
Cnidoscolus chayamansaLeaf6945.0 34720.0 1.06 *
Coccinia grandisFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cocos nuciferaSeed5460.0 10300.0 -0.61 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cocos nuciferaEndosperm-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cocos nuciferaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Colocasia esculentaLeaf2200.0 15340.0 -0.27 *
Colocasia esculentaRoot1030.0 3510.0 -0.36 *
Corchorus olitoriusLeaf1830.0 20185.0 0.07 *
Coriandrum sativumLeaf-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- *
Crocus sativusBulb-- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonicaShoot-- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonicaRoot-- -- *
Cucumis sativusFruit340.0 8608.0 1.15 *
Cucurbita sppFruit500.0 7910.0 0.96 *
Cucurbita pepoSeed40330.0 81280.0 2.4 *
Cucurbita foetidissimaSeed39900.0 143000.0 5.01 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Cucurbita pepoFruit370.0 6429.0 0.57 *
Daucus carotaRoot430.0 3520.0 -0.36 *
Dioscorea pentaphyllaRoot1120.0 6035.0 -0.24 *
Dryopteris marginalisPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed-- 11910.0 -0.54 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Ficus caricaFruit170.0 814.0 -0.93 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Foeniculum vulgareFruit6800.0 7460.0 0.84 *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed6800.0 7460.0 -0.73 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Fragaria sppFruit260.0 3084.0 -0.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ginkgo bilobaSeed4200.0 11475.0 -0.56 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glycine maxShoot-- -- *
Glycine maxSeed28310.0 30950.0 0.27 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Harpagophytum procumbensRoot-- 840.0 -0.5 *
Helianthus annuusSeed24030.0 82000.0 2.43 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Helianthus tuberosusTuber-- 11627.0 1.41 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ipomoea aquaticaLeaf1480.0 19655.0 0.03 *
Ipomoea batatasRoot520.0 2835.0 -0.4 *
Juglans cinereaSeed48620.0 50300.0 1.09 *
Juglans nigraSeed36610.0 38280.0 0.58 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans regiaSeed-- -- USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lablab purpureusSeed880.0 19365.0 -0.22 *
Lactuca sativaLeaf710.0 11833.0 -0.51 *
Lagenaria sicerariaFruit140.0 3140.0 -0.31 *
Larrea tridentataPlant-- 3100.0 -1.44 *
Lens culinarisSprout Seedling6110.0 20365.0 -0.79 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lens culinarisSeed21680.0 24400.0 -0.01 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lentinus edodesFruit-- -- *
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- 9940.0 -0.04 Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Linum usitatissimumSeed-- 0.554 -1.04 *
Lippia javanicaPlant-- -- Neidlein, R., Staehle, R. 1974. Constituents of Lippia javanica. III. Deutsche Apot. Ziit., 114: 1588.
Lupinus albusSeed38770.0 44400.0 0.84 *
Lycium barbarumFruit-- 1900.0 -0.64 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit1.0 3637.0 -0.18 *
Lycopodium clavatumPollen Or Spore-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Macadamia sppSeed8990.0 9250.0 -0.65 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Malus domesticaFruit60.0 373.0 -1.05 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mangifera indicaFruit190.0 3400.0 -0.24 *
Manihot esculentaRoot3140.0 9970.0 -0.04 *
Medicago sativaPlant-- -- *
Melia azedarachSeed-- -- *
Mentha x piperitaPlant1730.0 8105.0 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mentha spicataEssential Oil-- -- *
Mentha spicataLeaf1510.0 10450.0 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Momordica charantiaSeed-- 323.0 -1.03 Jim Duke's personal files.
Moringa oleiferaShoot5320.0 24930.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mucuna pruriensSeed12350.0 26180.0 0.07 *
Murraya spFruit1080.0 3111.0 -0.32 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit1080.0 3111.0 -0.32 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nasturtium officinaleHerb1500.0 30000.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome880.0 4210.0 1.0 *
Nelumbo nuciferaSeed3380.0 10242.0 -0.61 *
Nigella sativaSeed41500.0 53050.0 1.2 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf-- 6620.0 -0.86 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Oenothera biennisSeed14100.0 15048.0 -0.41 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaSeed-- 27100.0 0.1 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Opuntia ficus-indicaBud-- 4955.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber720.0 6635.0 -0.99 *
Paeonia officinalisRoot-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Panax quinquefoliusPlant11530.0 17615.0 1.0 *
Panax ginsengLeaf-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot-- -- *
Papaver somniferumSeed19950.0 21401.0 -0.14 *
Papaver bracteatumSeed18300.0 21650.0 -0.13 *
Perideridia gairdneriRoot-- 8954.0 -0.09 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Persea americanaFruit470.0 2293.0 -0.54 *
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit730.0 7503.0 0.85 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisSprout Seedling2280.0 24516.0 1.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus lunatusSeed4580.0 15390.0 -0.39 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisSeed13370.0 15026.0 -0.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit620.0 2090.0 -0.59 *
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit176.0 871.0 -0.92 *
Pinellia ternataTuber-- -- *
Pinus pineaSeed46680.0 71600.0 1.99 *
Pinus edulisSeed22510.0 23920.0 -0.03 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pistacia veraSeed21860.0 22740.0 -0.08 *
Pisum sativumSeed4280.0 20246.0 -0.19 *
Pisum sativumFruit1340.0 13254.0 2.39 *
Portulaca oleraceaHerb520.0 10400.0 -1.0 *
Prunus domesticaFruit130.0 878.0 -0.92 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus cerasusFruit-- -- *
Prunus persicaFruit180.0 1458.0 -0.76 *
Prunus armeniacaFruit450.0 3300.0 -0.27 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus dulcisSeed24950.0 26098.0 0.06 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psidium cattleianumFruit150.0 775.0 -0.94 *
Psidium guajavaFruit210.0 1512.0 -0.75 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusSeed18860.0 20576.0 -0.17 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusLeaf1780.0 7689.0 -0.79 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusTuber4120.0 9671.0 0.47 *
Psoralea esculentaRoot-- 7976.0 -0.14 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Pyrus communisFruit70.0 432.0 -1.03 *
Raphanus sativusPlant-- -- *
Rehmannia glutinosaRoot42000.0 87000.0 3.81 *
Ribes nigrumFruit Juice-- 35.0 *
Rosmarinus officinalisPlant1530.0 4745.0 -1.16 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sambucus canadensisFruit470.0 2326.0 -0.53 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Scutellaria baicalensisRoot-- -- *
Secale cerealeSeed8130.0 9130.0 -0.66 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sechium eduleFruit380.0 5430.0 0.3 *
Senna obtusifoliaSeed-- 10200.0 -0.61 *
Sesamum indicumSeed15800.0 39000.0 0.61 *
Sinapis albaSeed17500.0 18725.0 -0.25 *
Solanum melongenaFruit610.0 7559.0 0.87 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber950.0 6850.0 -0.89 *
Spinacia oleraceaPlant1620.0 19239.0 1.28 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Spinacia oleraceaLeaf-- -- *
Stachys officinalisShoot-- -- *
Terminalia chebulaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Theobroma cacaoSeed-- 800.0 -1.01 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Trifolium pratensePlant-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed22230.0 27115.0 0.1 *
Trigonella foenum-graecumLeaf-- -- *
Triticum aestivumSeed4000.0 12000.0 -0.54 *
Urtica dioicaPlant-- -- *
Urtica dioicaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit340.0 2210.0 -0.56 *
Valeriana officinalisRhizome-- -- *
Valerianella locustaPlant910.0 12640.0 0.17 *
Vicia fabaSeed4630.0 24370.0 -0.01 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSeed16720.0 18383.0 -0.26 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataSeed2070.0 18500.0 -0.26 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataFruit1960.0 16131.0 3.15 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna angularisSeed12840.0 14834.0 -0.42 *
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling1970.0 20693.0 -0.62 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataSeed16850.0 18401.0 -0.26 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Viscum albumJuice-- -- *
Vitellaria paradoxaSeed-- 5985.0 -0.79 *
Vitis viniferaFruit490.0 2520.0 -0.48 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zea maysSeed1310.0 5450.0 -0.81 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinaleTuber-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRoot430.0 2486.0 -0.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinaleRhizome430.0 2486.0 -1.0 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.