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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit730.0 7300.0 1.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Acacia farnesianaLeaf3440.0 18450.0 1.36 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf1260.0 15830.0 0.75 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium ampeloprasumPlant-- -- *
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb6.15 7000.0 -1.0 *
Allium cepaBulb330.0 8597.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Aloe veraLeaf-- 15769.0 0.74 *
Alpinia galangaLeaf-- -- *
Althaea officinalisRoot-- -- *
Amaranthus sp.Leaf1390.0 16722.0 0.96 *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed7020.0 7141.0 -0.64 *
Ananas comosusFruit170.0 1259.0 -0.96 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Anastatica hierochunticaFruit-- -- *
Angelica archangelicaLeaf-- -- *
Angelica sinensisRoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Apium graveolensPt220.0 4665.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Arachis hypogaeaSeed10390.0 12137.0 0.42 *
Arctium lappaRoot250.0 1250.0 -1.08 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artemisia dracunculusPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Artocarpus altilisSeed3360.0 7685.0 -0.53 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Asimina trilobaFruit523.0 5331.0 0.64 *
Asparagus officinalisSeed1440.0 18581.0 1.79 *
Astragalus membranaceusRoot-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Avena sativaSeed-- 4000.0 -1.31 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Basella albaLeaf750.0 10870.0 -0.4 *
Bertholletia excelsaSeed5700.0 5897.0 -0.91 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Beta vulgarisRoot560.0 4338.0 0.44 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Borago officinalisLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf1180.0 12673.0 0.02 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l.Leaf670.0 10981.0 -0.38 *
Brassica napus var. napobrassicaRoot330.0 3190.0 -0.12 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapaLeaf860.0 18378.0 1.34 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapaRoot350.0 4305.0 0.42 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf420.0 5615.0 -1.62 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica chinensisLeaf860.0 18378.0 1.34 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower1050.0 13565.0 *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf1660.0 10680.0 -0.45 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf1180.0 12673.0 0.02 *
Cajanus cajanSeed8170.0 10870.0 0.15 *
Calathea allouiaRoot3545.0 3900.0 0.23 *
Camellia sinensisPlant-- -- *
Canavalia ensiformisSeed-- -- *
Cannabis sativaPlant-- -- Turner, C. E., El Sohly, M. A., Boeren, E. G. 1980. Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. XVII. A Review of the Natural Constituents. J Natural Products, 432: 169-234.
Capsicum annuumFruit350.0 4774.0 0.42 *
Capsicum frutescensFruit820.0 6691.0 1.17 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carica papayaFruit140.0 1253.0 -0.96 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carum carviSeed9140.0 10150.0 -0.0 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Castanea dentataSeed2469.0 4395.0 -1.22 *
Castanea sativaSeed1380.0 3036.0 -1.51 *
Castanea mollisimaSeed2012.0 3581.0 -1.4 *
Ceratonia siliquaSeed-- 19270.0 1.94 *
Chenopodium albumPlant3220.0 20511.0 1.1 *
Cicer arietinumSeed8280.0 9360.0 -0.17 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium endiviaLeaf620.0 9984.0 -0.61 *
Citrullus lanatusSeed-- 15000.0 1.03 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrullus lanatusFruit-- 2000.0 -0.67 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrus paradisiFruit-- 90.0 -1.42 *
Citrus sinensisFruit30.0 3775.0 0.03 *
Citrus reticulataFruit70.0 2740.0 -0.38 *
Cnidoscolus chayamansaLeaf2850.0 14260.0 0.39 *
Cocos nuciferaSeed1700.0 3205.0 -1.48 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cocos nuciferaEndosperm-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cocos nuciferaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Colocasia esculentaRoot730.0 2485.0 -0.47 *
Corchorus olitoriusLeaf2560.0 20840.0 1.92 *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- *
Crocus sativusBulb-- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonicaShoot-- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonicaRoot-- -- *
Cucumis sativusFruit180.0 4557.0 0.33 *
Cucurbita pepoSeed11580.0 24420.0 3.03 *
Cucurbita foetidissimaSeed10130.0 17100.0 1.48 *
Cucurbita pepoFruit280.0 3333.0 -0.15 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cucurbita sppFruit620.0 9810.0 2.4 *
Daucus carotaRoot590.0 4830.0 0.68 *
Dioscorea pentaphyllaRoot550.0 2965.0 -0.23 *
Dryopteris marginalisPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed-- 6880.0 -0.7 *
Ficus caricaFruit450.0 2154.0 -0.61 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Foeniculum vulgareFruit7890.0 8655.0 1.94 *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed7890.0 8655.0 -0.32 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Fragaria sppFruit310.0 3677.0 -0.01 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ginkgo bilobaSeed2400.0 6745.0 -0.73 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glycine maxSeed17190.0 18795.0 1.84 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glycine maxShoot-- -- *
Harpagophytum procumbensRoot-- 60.0 -1.67 *
Helianthus tuberosusTuber-- 2573.0 -1.04 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Helianthus annuusSeed11170.0 11800.0 0.35 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ipomoea aquaticaLeaf1090.0 14475.0 0.44 *
Ipomoea batatasRoot300.0 3314.0 -0.06 *
Juglans cinereaSeed13724.0 14194.0 0.86 *
Juglans regiaSeed-- -- USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans nigraSeed10610.0 11095.0 0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lablab purpureusSeed420.0 11775.0 0.34 *
Lactuca sativaLeaf560.0 9333.0 -0.76 *
Lens culinarisSprout Seedling3560.0 11865.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lens culinarisSeed11720.0 13200.0 0.65 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lentinus edodesFruit-- -- *
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- 6310.0 1.41 Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Linum usitatissimumSeed-- 0.254 -2.16 *
Lippia javanicaPlant-- -- Neidlein, R., Staehle, R. 1974. Constituents of Lippia javanica. III. Deutsche Apot. Ziit., 114: 1588.
Lupinus albusSeed12960.0 14470.0 0.92 *
Lycium chinenseLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lycium barbarumFruit-- 3700.0 -0.0 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit30.0 4132.0 0.17 *
Lycopodium clavatumPollen Or Spore-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Macadamia sppSeed3290.0 3385.0 -1.44 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Malus domesticaFruit70.0 435.0 -1.29 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mangifera indicaFruit510.0 5650.0 0.76 *
Manihot esculentaRoot870.0 2765.0 -0.33 *
Mentha x piperitaLeaf1950.0 9135.0 -0.81 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mentha spicataLeaf1710.0 11835.0 -0.18 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Momordica charantiaFruit-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Momordica charantiaSeed-- 157.7 -2.13 Jim Duke's personal files.
Moringa oleiferaShoot5320.0 24930.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mucuna pruriensSeed5475.0 11600.0 0.31 *
Murraya spFruit510.0 1469.0 -0.88 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit510.0 1469.0 -0.88 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Myrciaria dubiaFruit-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Nasturtium officinaleHerb1370.0 27400.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nelumbo nuciferaSeed2390.0 7242.0 -0.62 *
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome540.0 2585.0 1.0 *
Nigella sativaSeed8000.0 10255.0 0.02 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf-- 7470.0 -1.19 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Oenothera biennisSeed5500.0 5870.0 -0.91 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaSeed-- 8480.0 -0.36 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Opuntia ficus-indicaBud-- 7180.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber380.0 3500.0 -0.68 *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant209.0 2250.0 -1.56 *
Panax ginsengLeaf-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot-- -- *
Papaver somniferumSeed11780.0 12637.0 0.53 *
Papaver bracteatumSeed7000.0 8650.0 -0.32 *
Perideridia gairdneriRoot-- 2603.0 -0.41 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Persea americanaFruit960.0 4625.0 0.36 *
Phaseolus vulgarisSprout Seedling1740.0 18710.0 1.39 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus lunatusSeed2600.0 12190.0 0.43 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisSeed9050.0 10171.0 0.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit840.0 8633.0 1.94 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit80.0 1290.0 -0.95 *
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit240.0 1190.0 -0.99 *
Pinus edulisSeed6050.0 6430.0 -0.79 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pinus pineaSeed12540.0 15000.0 1.03 *
Pistacia veraSeed9940.0 10340.0 0.04 *
Pisum sativumShoot-- 313.0 -1.0 *
Pisum sativumSeed2400.0 11353.0 0.25 *
Pisum sativumFruit580.0 5737.0 0.8 *
Portulaca oleraceaHerb570.0 13400.0 -1.0 *
Prunus domesticaFruit290.0 1959.0 -0.69 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus armeniacaFruit680.0 4980.0 0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus persicaFruit420.0 3402.0 -0.12 *
Prunus dulcisSeed9430.0 9864.0 -0.06 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psidium cattleianumFruit290.0 1500.0 -0.87 *
Psidium guajavaFruit410.0 2952.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusSeed10400.0 11346.0 0.25 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusLeaf1720.0 7430.0 -1.2 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusTuber3970.0 9319.0 1.56 *
Psoralea esculentaRoot-- 1139.0 -1.13 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Pyrus communisFruit130.0 803.0 -1.14 *
Raphanus sativusRoot220.0 4265.0 0.41 *
Rehmannia glutinosaRoot3000.0 9000.0 2.74 *
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf1720.0 5335.0 -1.69 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Salvia officinalisPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Sambucus canadensisFruit300.0 1485.0 -0.87 *
Santalum albumFruit-- -- *
Secale cerealeSeed7110.0 7985.0 -0.46 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sechium eduleFruit560.0 8000.0 1.69 *
Senna obtusifoliaSeed-- 6500.0 -0.78 *
Sesamum indicumSeed5510.0 14802.0 0.99 *
Sinapis albaSeed11870.0 12700.0 0.54 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber1140.0 5700.0 0.16 *
Solanum melongenaFruit420.0 6815.0 1.22 *
Spinacia oleraceaPlant1420.0 16864.0 0.57 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Stachys officinalisShoot-- -- *
Theobroma cacaoSeed-- 10400.0 0.05 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Thymus vulgarisPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed8720.0 11220.0 0.23 *
Triticum aestivumSeed3036.0 3542.0 -1.41 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit280.0 1820.0 -0.74 *
Valeriana officinalisRoot-- -- *
Valeriana officinalisRhizome-- -- *
Valerianella locustaPlant880.0 12220.0 -0.11 *
Vicia fabaSeed2280.0 12000.0 0.39 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataSeed9830.0 12175.0 0.43 *
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling990.0 10399.0 -0.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSeed10500.0 11545.0 0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataSeed11090.0 12111.0 0.42 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna angularisSeed11600.0 13401.0 0.69 *
Vitis viniferaFruit280.0 1440.0 -0.89 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zea maysSeed2950.0 12272.0 0.45 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinaleRoot310.0 1793.0 -0.81 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinaleRhizome310.0 1793.0 -1.0 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.