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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit910.0 9100.0 0.96 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Acacia senegalPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Acacia farnesianaSeed1600.0 1650.0 -1.28 Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Acacia farnesianaLeaf3120.0 16740.0 1.13 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Albizia lebbeckSeed-- -- Wealth of India.
Alisma plantago-aquaticaRhizome-- -- *
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf1240.0 15500.0 0.79 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium ampeloprasumPlant-- -- *
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb0.8 6984.0 1.0 *
Allium sativum var. sativumLeaf-- -- *
Allium cepaBulb270.0 2943.0 -1.0 *
Aloe veraLeaf-- 12769.0 0.02 *
Alpinia galangaLeaf-- -- *
Althaea officinalisRoot-- -- *
Amaranthus sp.Leaf1370.0 16481.0 1.06 *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed10400.0 10580.0 -0.18 *
Ananas comosusFruit39.0 1185.0 -0.67 *
Anethum graveolensSeed11200.0 12130.0 0.01 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Anethum graveolensFruit11200.0 12130.0 1.58 *
Angelica sinensisRoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Angelica archangelicaLeaf-- -- *
Apium graveolensShoot-- -- *
Apium graveolensPt260.0 5600.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Arachis hypogaeaSeed10970.0 12437.0 0.05 *
Arctium lappaRoot330.0 1650.0 -1.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artemisia dracunculusLeaf-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusRoot-- -- *
Artocarpus altilisFruit470.0 1600.0 -0.59 *
Artocarpus altilisSeed5350.0 12235.0 0.03 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Asimina trilobaFruit334.0 3661.0 -0.16 *
Asparagus officinalisShoot1180.0 15226.0 0.14 *
Avena sativaSeed4000.0 11000.0 -0.12 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Avena sativaPlant-- 12000.0 0.45 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Averrhoa carambolaFruit260.0 2860.0 -0.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Basella albaLeaf650.0 9420.0 -0.92 *
Bertholletia excelsaSeed9110.0 9425.0 -0.32 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Beta vulgarisRoot520.0 4100.0 0.02 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Bixa orellanaSeed7620.0 7730.0 -0.53 *
Borago officinalisLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Brassica oleraceaStem500.0 5555.0 *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf1810.0 11645.0 -0.29 *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaLeaf1550.0 11067.0 -0.46 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapaLeaf660.0 14104.0 0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica napus var. napobrassicaRoot480.0 4640.0 0.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l.Leaf770.0 12620.0 -0.02 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf1280.0 13747.0 0.3 *
Brassica chinensisLeaf660.0 14104.0 0.4 *
Brassica rapaRoot300.0 3690.0 -0.22 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower1000.0 12920.0 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf520.0 6952.0 -1.61 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf1280.0 13747.0 0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica nigraLeaf970.0 14286.0 0.45 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cajanus cajanSeed9130.0 10480.0 -0.19 *
Calathea allouiaRoot4585.0 5040.0 0.56 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- -- *
Capsicum frutescensFruit840.0 6854.0 0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Capsicum annuumFruit360.0 4910.0 0.09 *
Carica papayaFruit100.0 895.0 -0.73 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carum carviSeed10370.0 11510.0 -0.06 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Castanea mollisimaSeed2233.0 3976.0 -0.99 *
Castanea dentataSeed2596.0 4622.0 -0.91 *
Castanea sativaSeed1081.0 2378.0 -1.19 *
Ceratonia siliquaSeed-- 20680.0 1.07 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Chenopodium albumLeaf2260.0 14396.0 0.48 *
Cicer arietinumSeed8090.0 10150.0 -0.23 *
Cichorium intybusLeaf410.0 9180.0 -0.98 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium endiviaLeaf630.0 10145.0 -0.71 *
Citrullus lanatusSeed-- 10200.0 -0.22 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrullus lanatusFruit-- 1885.0 -0.53 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrus sinensisFruit100.0 3020.0 -0.3 *
Citrus reticulataFruit20.0 2176.0 -0.47 *
Citrus paradisiFruit-- 240.0 -0.87 *
Cnidoscolus chayamansaLeaf3040.0 15190.0 0.7 *
Coccinia grandisFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cocos nuciferaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cocos nuciferaEndosperm-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cocos nuciferaSeed2020.0 3810.0 -1.01 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Colocasia esculentaLeaf2560.0 17850.0 1.45 *
Colocasia esculentaRoot820.0 2790.0 -0.75 *
Corchorus olitoriusLeaf2480.0 20185.0 2.1 *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumLeaf-- -- *
Crocus sativusBulb-- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonicaRoot-- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonicaShoot-- -- *
Cucumis sativusFruit170.0 4304.0 -0.03 *
Cucurbita pepoSeed19720.0 22725.0 1.32 *
Cucurbita pepoFruit350.0 4165.0 -0.06 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cucurbita sppFruit530.0 8385.0 0.81 *
Cucurbita foetidissimaSeed11665.0 48000.0 4.43 *
Daucus carotaRoot440.0 3600.0 -0.27 *
Dioscorea pentaphyllaRoot540.0 2910.0 -0.68 *
Eryngium creticusShoot-- 11200.0 -0.25 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed-- 8140.0 -0.48 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Ficus caricaFruit280.0 1340.0 -0.64 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Foeniculum vulgareSeed9150.0 10037.0 -0.24 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Foeniculum vulgareFruit9150.0 10037.0 1.15 *
Fragaria sppFruit180.0 2135.0 -0.48 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ginkgo bilobaSeed2830.0 7730.0 -0.53 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glechoma hederaceaPlant-- -- Oriental Materia Medica (three volumes by Dr. Hsu and collaborators)
Glycine maxSeed18210.0 19910.0 0.97 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Harpagophytum procumbensRoot-- -- *
Helianthus tuberosusTuber-- 4098.0 -0.73 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Helianthus annuusSeed13150.0 50000.0 4.68 *
Hordeum vulgareSeed6000.0 9000.0 -0.37 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ipomoea aquaticaLeaf1350.0 17930.0 1.47 *
Ipomoea batatasRoot830.0 3976.0 -0.06 *
Juglans regiaSeed7230.0 7505.0 -0.56 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans cinereaSeed15410.0 15942.0 0.48 *
Juglans nigraSeed12860.0 13445.0 0.18 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lablab purpureusSeed1430.0 13670.0 0.2 *
Lactuca sativaLeaf700.0 11667.0 -0.29 *
Lagenaria sicerariaFruit270.0 6055.0 0.33 *
Larrea tridentataPlant-- 4200.0 -0.76 *
Lens culinarisSprout Seedling3990.0 13300.0 -0.75 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lens culinarisSeed13920.0 15675.0 0.45 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lentinus edodesFruit-- -- *
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- 7930.0 2.25 Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Linum usitatissimumSeed-- 0.284 -1.48 *
Lupinus albusSeed15100.0 16860.0 0.6 *
Lycium chinenseLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit1.0 3801.0 -0.13 *
Lycopodium clavatumPollen Or Spore-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Macadamia sppSeed3210.0 3300.0 -1.07 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Malus domesticaFruit40.0 560.0 -0.8 *
Mangifera indicaFruit260.0 2700.0 -0.36 *
Manihot esculentaRoot790.0 2510.0 -0.91 *
Medicago sativaPlant-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Mentha spicataLeaf1640.0 11350.0 -0.38 *
Mentha x piperitaLeaf1870.0 8760.0 -1.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Moringa oleiferaShoot6110.0 28630.0 1.45 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mucuna pruriensSeed8600.0 18232.0 0.77 *
Murraya spFruit460.0 1325.0 -0.65 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit460.0 1826.0 -0.54 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Myrciaria dubiaFruit-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Nasturtium officinaleHerb1370.0 27400.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nelumbo nuciferaSeed2660.0 8061.0 -0.49 *
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome550.0 2630.0 -1.0 *
Nigella sativaSeed6500.0 8325.0 -0.45 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf-- 7170.0 -1.55 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Oenothera biennisSeed5200.0 8645.0 -0.41 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaBud-- 5485.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Opuntia ficus-indicaSeed-- 10500.0 -0.19 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Oryza sativaHay-- -- *
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber420.0 3870.0 -0.79 *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant-- 82.0 -1.4 *
Panax ginsengLeaf-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot-- -- *
Papaver somniferumSeed12870.0 13806.0 0.22 *
Papaver bracteatumSeed8450.0 10600.0 -0.17 *
Passiflora incarnataLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Passiflora incarnataStem-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Passiflora incarnataSeed-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Perideridia gairdneriRoot-- 3175.0 -0.52 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Persea americanaFruit970.0 3770.0 -0.14 *
Phaseolus vulgarisSprout Seedling2160.0 23226.0 1.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus lunatusSeed4270.0 14370.0 0.29 *
Phaseolus vulgarisSeed11300.0 12699.0 0.08 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus acutifoliusSeed15900.0 17330.0 0.66 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit900.0 9250.0 0.99 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit5.0 2710.0 -0.36 *
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit159.0 785.0 -0.76 *
Pinus pineaSeed12410.0 15300.0 0.41 *
Pinus edulisSeed5980.0 6255.0 -0.71 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pistacia veraSeed14100.0 14688.0 0.33 *
Pisum sativumShoot-- 33.0 -1.34 *
Pisum sativumSeed2350.0 11116.0 -0.11 *
Pisum sativumFruit2730.0 27003.0 4.65 *
Plantago ovataPlant-- -- *
Portulaca oleraceaHerb660.0 13200.0 -1.0 *
Prunus cerasusFruit-- -- *
Prunus dulcisSeed10280.0 10752.0 -0.16 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus armeniacaFruit470.0 3445.0 -0.21 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus domesticaFruit190.0 1284.0 -0.65 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus persicaFruit380.0 3078.0 -0.28 *
Psidium guajavaFruit280.0 2016.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psidium cattleianumFruit200.0 1035.0 -0.71 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusTuber5990.0 14061.0 1.68 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusSeed15300.0 16692.0 0.58 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusLeaf2450.0 10583.0 -0.59 *
Psoralea esculentaRoot-- 1730.0 -1.36 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Punica granatumFruit-- -- *
Pyrus communisFruit140.0 865.0 -0.74 *
Raphanus sativusRoot320.0 6200.0 1.24 *
Rehmannia glutinosaRoot1000.0 7000.0 1.7 *
Ribes nigrumFruit Juice-- 170.0 *
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf1650.0 5120.0 -2.12 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sambucus canadensisFruit330.0 1634.0 -0.58 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Secale cerealeSeed7470.0 8390.0 -0.45 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sechium eduleFruit690.0 9860.0 1.12 *
Senna obtusifoliaSeed-- 7420.0 -0.57 *
Sesamum indicumSeed5490.0 15527.0 0.43 *
Sinapis albaSeed13250.0 14178.0 0.27 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber117.0 6450.0 -0.16 *
Solanum melongenaFruit550.0 7063.0 0.54 *
Spinacia oleraceaPlant1610.0 19120.0 1.56 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Stachys officinalisShoot-- -- *
Theobroma cacaoSeed-- 5700.0 -0.78 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Thymus vulgarisPlant5020.0 5422.0 -0.57 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Tilia sp.Fruit-- -- *
Trifolium pratensePlant-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed9410.0 12120.0 0.01 *
Trigonella foenum-graecumLeaf-- -- *
Triticum aestivumSeed2000.0 9000.0 -0.37 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit280.0 1820.0 -0.54 *
Valeriana officinalisRhizome-- -- *
Valerianella locustaPlant990.0 13750.0 0.72 *
Vicia fabaSeed2740.0 14420.0 0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataSeed11600.0 12688.0 0.08 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSeed12370.0 13600.0 0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna angularisSeed10230.0 11818.0 -0.02 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed1710.0 12731.0 0.09 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataFruit1620.0 13333.0 1.83 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna aconitifoliaSeed7340.0 8127.0 -0.48 *
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling1300.0 13655.0 -0.67 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vitellaria paradoxaSeed-- 1020.0 -1.35 *
Vitis viniferaFruit180.0 926.0 -0.73 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zea maysSeed1850.0 7696.0 -0.53 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinaleShoot-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRoot730.0 4202.0 0.08 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinaleTuber-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome730.0 4202.0 1.0 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.