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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit480.0 8700.0 2.6 *
Abrus precatoriusSeed-- -- Zaidi, Z. H., Sdiqui, B. S., Naim, Z. 1971. Chemical Investigations of Seeds of Abrus precatorius. Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res., 14: 350.
Acacia farnesianaLeaf2240.0 12010.0 1.11 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Albizia lebbeckSeed-- -- Wealth of India.
Allium cepaBulb290.0 3161.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf810.0 10160.0 0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium ampeloprasumPlant-- -- *
Allium sativum var. sativumLeaf-- -- *
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb0.6 6200.0 1.0 *
Aloe veraLeaf-- 5073.0 -0.81 *
Alpinia galangaLeaf-- -- *
Amaranthus sp.Leaf800.0 9624.0 0.45 *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed4910.0 4995.0 -0.64 *
Ananas comosusFruit58.0 889.0 -0.63 *
Angelica sinensisRoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Angelica archangelicaLeaf-- -- *
Apium graveolensPt90.0 1865.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Arachis hypogaeaSeed10630.0 13198.0 1.26 *
Arctium lappaRoot180.0 900.0 -1.79 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artemisia dracunculusLeaf-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusShoot-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusRoot-- -- *
Artocarpus altilisFruit190.0 645.0 -0.73 *
Asimina trilobaFruit140.0 1501.0 -0.38 *
Asparagus officinalisShoot480.0 6194.0 -1.0 *
Avena sativaSeed2000.0 14000.0 1.45 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Averrhoa carambolaFruit230.0 2530.0 0.05 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Basella albaLeaf480.0 6955.0 -0.29 *
Bertholletia excelsaSeed4570.0 4728.0 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Beta vulgarisRoot350.0 2760.0 1.21 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica chinensisLeaf290.0 6197.0 -0.5 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower430.0 5555.0 *
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l.Leaf420.0 6884.0 -0.31 *
Brassica nigraLeaf1320.0 19440.0 3.17 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapaRoot130.0 1600.0 -0.66 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf210.0 2807.0 -1.44 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapaLeaf290.0 6197.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica napus var. napobrassicaRoot230.0 2225.0 0.35 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf1170.0 7530.0 -0.13 *
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf630.0 6766.0 -0.34 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf630.0 6766.0 -0.34 *
Cajanus cajanSeed4510.0 6015.0 -0.4 *
Calathea allouiaRoot1805.0 1985.0 -0.04 *
Capsicum frutescensFruit420.0 3427.0 0.42 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Capsicum annuumFruit180.0 2455.0 0.02 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carica papayaFruit50.0 448.0 -0.82 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carum carviSeed6420.0 7125.0 -0.14 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Castanea sativaSeed568.0 1251.0 -1.5 *
Castanea mollisimaSeed1536.0 2735.0 -1.16 *
Castanea dentataSeed1585.0 2822.0 -1.14 *
Ceratonia siliquaSeed-- 16450.0 2.02 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Chenopodium albumLeaf1750.0 11148.0 0.87 *
Cicer arietinumSeed4790.0 5415.0 -0.54 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium endiviaLeaf400.0 6441.0 -0.44 *
Citrullus lanatusSeed-- 10200.0 0.57 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrullus lanatusFruit-- 1413.0 -0.42 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrus paradisiFruit-- 61.0 -0.98 *
Citrus sinensisFruit160.0 1208.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Citrus reticulataFruit110.0 887.0 -0.63 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cnidoscolus chayamansaLeaf2170.0 10850.0 0.79 *
Coccinia grandisFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cocos nuciferaSeed1030.0 1945.0 -1.34 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cocos nuciferaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Colocasia esculentaRoot550.0 1875.0 -0.22 *
Colocasia esculentaLeaf1780.0 12415.0 1.22 *
Corchorus olitoriusLeaf830.0 11965.0 1.1 *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- *
Crocus sativusBulb-- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonicaShoot-- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonicaRoot-- -- *
Cucumis sativusFruit90.0 2278.0 -0.06 *
Cucurbita pepoFruit130.0 5000.0 1.07 *
Cucurbita sppFruit310.0 4905.0 1.03 *
Cucurbita pepoSeed9275.0 12235.0 1.04 *
Cucurbita foetidissimaSeed11350.0 13680.0 1.38 *
Daucus carotaRoot200.0 1640.0 -0.6 *
Dioscorea pentaphyllaRoot350.0 1885.0 -0.2 *
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed-- 2750.0 -1.16 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Ficus caricaFruit320.0 1532.0 -0.37 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Foeniculum vulgareFruit4100.0 4498.0 0.86 *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed4100.0 4498.0 -0.75 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ginkgo bilobaSeed610.0 1665.0 -1.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glechoma hederaceaPlant-- -- Oriental Materia Medica (three volumes by Dr. Hsu and collaborators)
Glycine maxShoot-- -- *
Glycine maxSeed13800.0 15090.0 1.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Helianthus tuberosusTuber-- 1715.0 -0.88 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Helianthus annuusSeed6660.0 7035.0 -0.16 *
Hordeum vulgareSeed2000.0 6000.0 -0.4 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ipomoea aquaticaLeaf800.0 10625.0 0.73 *
Ipomoea batatasRoot460.0 2504.0 0.8 *
Juglans nigraSeed7490.0 7830.0 0.02 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans regiaSeed4390.0 4555.0 -0.74 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans cinereaSeed9770.0 10108.0 0.55 *
Lablab purpureusSeed1550.0 12788.0 1.17 *
Lactuca sativaLeaf320.0 5333.0 -0.74 *
Larrea tridentataPlant-- 3100.0 -0.68 *
Lens culinarisSprout Seedling2520.0 8400.0 -0.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lens culinarisSeed7500.0 8445.0 0.16 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lentinus edodesFruit-- -- *
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- 3060.0 1.7 Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Linum usitatissimumSeed-- 0.133 -1.79 *
Lupinus albusSeed13600.0 15185.0 1.72 *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit38.0 2479.0 0.02 *
Macadamia sppSeed3370.0 3465.0 -0.99 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Malus domesticaFruit40.0 249.0 -0.9 *
Mangifera indicaFruit100.0 1600.0 -0.34 *
Manihot esculentaRoot400.0 1270.0 -1.19 *
Mentha x piperitaLeaf1130.0 5295.0 -0.75 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mentha spicataLeaf990.0 6850.0 -0.32 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Momordica charantiaSeed-- 517.0 -1.67 Jim Duke's personal files.
Moringa oleiferaShoot3470.0 16260.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mucuna pruriensSeed7975.0 16907.0 2.12 *
Murraya spFruit320.0 922.0 -0.62 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit240.0 932.0 -0.62 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nasturtium officinaleHerb630.0 12600.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nelumbo nuciferaSeed1000.0 3030.0 -1.09 *
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome290.0 1390.0 1.0 *
Nigella sativaSeed12925.0 16530.0 2.04 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf-- 4320.0 -1.02 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Oenothera biennisSeed3400.0 3629.0 -0.95 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaSeed-- 6590.0 -0.27 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Opuntia ficus-indicaBud-- 3220.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Oryza sativaPlant-- -- *
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber230.0 2120.0 -0.72 *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot-- -- *
Panax ginsengLeaf-- -- *
Papaver somniferumSeed6810.0 7305.0 -0.1 *
Papaver bracteatumSeed6700.0 8100.0 0.08 *
Passiflora incarnataStem-- -- *
Passiflora incarnataSeed-- -- *
Passiflora incarnataLeaf-- -- *
Perideridia gairdneriRoot-- 1905.0 -0.17 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Persea americanaFruit390.0 1904.0 -0.21 *
Phaseolus vulgarisSprout Seedling1440.0 15484.0 1.36 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus lunatusSeed2200.0 8450.0 0.16 *
Phaseolus acutifoliusSeed11250.0 12260.0 1.05 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Phaseolus vulgarisSeed6080.0 6833.0 -0.21 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit420.0 4317.0 0.79 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit10.0 1730.0 -0.29 *
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit116.0 575.0 -0.76 *
Pinus pineaSeed8780.0 11400.0 0.85 *
Pinus edulisSeed4240.0 4505.0 -0.75 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pistacia veraSeed7140.0 7427.0 -0.07 *
Pisum sativumFruit990.0 9792.0 3.06 *
Pisum sativumSeed1130.0 5345.0 -0.56 *
Plantago ovataSeed-- -- *
Plantago majorPlant-- -- *
Portulaca oleraceaHerb220.0 4400.0 -1.0 *
Prunus dulcisSeed7050.0 7374.0 -0.09 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus armeniacaFruit290.0 2125.0 -0.12 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus domesticaFruit60.0 405.0 -0.83 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus persicaFruit180.0 1458.0 -0.4 *
Prunus cerasusFruit-- -- *
Psidium guajavaFruit100.0 720.0 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psidium cattleianumFruit70.0 360.0 -0.85 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusTuber3530.0 8286.0 1.64 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusSeed14570.0 15896.0 1.89 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusLeaf1260.0 5443.0 -0.71 *
Psoralea esculentaRoot-- 1899.0 -0.18 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Pyrus communisFruit30.0 185.0 -0.93 *
Raphanus sativusRoot130.0 2520.0 0.83 *
Rehmannia glutinosaRoot1000.0 3000.0 1.6 *
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf1000.0 3100.0 -1.36 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Salvia officinalisPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Sambucus nigraFruit2200.0 2900.0 0.2 *
Sambucus nigraFruit Juice-- -- *
Sambucus canadensisFruit510.0 2524.0 0.04 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Secale cerealeSeed3390.0 3800.0 -0.91 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sechium eduleFruit350.0 5000.0 1.07 *
Senna obtusifoliaSeed-- 4420.0 -0.77 *
Sesamum indicumSeed4220.0 11818.0 0.94 *
Sinapis albaSeed7440.0 7961.0 0.05 *
Solanum melongenaFruit250.0 3593.0 0.49 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber770.0 3900.0 -0.04 *
Spinacia oleraceaPlant1080.0 12826.0 1.69 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Stachys officinalisShoot-- -- *
Theobroma cacaoSeed-- 5700.0 -0.47 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Thymus vulgarisPlant2410.0 2603.0 -0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Tilia sp.Fruit-- -- *
Trifolium pratensePlant-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed6410.0 8400.0 0.15 *
Triticum aestivumSeed1000.0 9000.0 0.29 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit80.0 520.0 -0.79 *
Valeriana officinalisRoot-- -- *
Valerianella locustaPlant360.0 5000.0 -0.21 *
Vicia fabaSeed1960.0 10315.0 0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSeed7140.0 7850.0 0.03 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataSeed1210.0 8631.0 0.21 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataFruit1150.0 9465.0 2.92 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna angularisSeed5910.0 6828.0 -0.21 *
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling520.0 5462.0 -1.03 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataSeed7860.0 8584.0 0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vitis viniferaFruit120.0 617.0 -0.75 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zea maysSeed1230.0 5117.0 -0.61 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinaleRoot200.0 1122.0 -1.43 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinaleRhizome200.0 1122.0 -1.0 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.