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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit650.0 6500.0 1.45 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Acacia farnesianaSeed1050.0 1100.0 -1.57 Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Acacia farnesianaLeaf2000.0 10730.0 0.32 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Albizia lebbeckSeed-- -- Wealth of India.
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf1110.0 13875.0 1.37 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium ampeloprasumPlant-- -- *
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb2.0 10000.0 1.0 *
Allium sativum var. sativumLeaf-- -- *
Allium cepaBulb280.0 3052.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Aloe veraLeaf-- 14652.0 1.63 *
Alpinia galangaLeaf-- -- *
Amaranthus sp.Leaf990.0 11910.0 0.71 *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed5920.0 6022.0 -0.47 *
Ananas comosusFruit78.0 859.0 -0.9 *
Anastatica hierochunticaPlant-- -- *
Anethum graveolensFruit5750.0 6227.0 1.33 *
Anethum graveolensSeed5750.0 6227.0 -0.43 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Angelica sinensisRoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Apium graveolensPt190.0 4105.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Arachis hypogaeaSeed7430.0 9570.0 0.32 *
Arctium lappaRoot260.0 1300.0 -0.72 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artocarpus altilisSeed3850.0 8800.0 0.15 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artocarpus altilisFruit520.0 1770.0 -0.52 *
Asimina trilobaFruit254.0 2812.0 -0.09 *
Asparagus officinalisShoot850.0 10968.0 -0.14 *
Avena sativaSeed3000.0 7000.0 -0.25 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Avena sativaPlant-- 16000.0 1.17 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Averrhoa carambolaFruit230.0 2530.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Basella albaLeaf550.0 7970.0 -0.61 *
Bertholletia excelsaSeed4600.0 4759.0 -0.76 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Beta vulgarisRoot440.0 3470.0 -0.07 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Bixa orellanaSeed4360.0 7600.0 -0.12 *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf1470.0 9460.0 -0.11 *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaLeaf1200.0 8568.0 -0.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica napus var. napobrassicaRoot460.0 4445.0 0.22 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf910.0 9773.0 -0.01 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower720.0 9300.0 *
Brassica rapaRoot250.0 3075.0 -0.19 *
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l.Leaf550.0 9014.0 -0.26 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf910.0 9773.0 -0.01 *
Brassica chinensisLeaf490.0 10471.0 0.23 *
Brassica rapaLeaf490.0 10471.0 0.23 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleraceaStem490.0 5445.0 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf420.0 5615.0 -1.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica nigraLeaf660.0 9720.0 -0.02 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cajanus cajanSeed7190.0 8580.0 0.1 *
Calathea allouiaRoot2815.0 3095.0 -0.18 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- -- *
Capsicum frutescensFruit740.0 6038.0 1.26 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Capsicum annuumFruit310.0 4228.0 0.5 *
Carica papayaFruit110.0 985.0 -0.84 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carum carviSeed7560.0 8390.0 0.06 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Castanea mollisimaSeed1806.0 3214.0 -1.1 *
Castanea dentataSeed1904.0 3389.0 -1.06 *
Castanea sativaSeed729.0 1604.0 -1.46 *
Ceratonia siliquaSeed-- 16920.0 1.96 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Chenopodium albumLeaf1630.0 10383.0 0.2 *
Cicer arietinumSeed7160.0 8090.0 -0.01 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium intybusLeaf250.0 5712.0 -1.37 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium endiviaLeaf500.0 8051.0 -0.58 *
Citrullus lanatusSeed-- 15300.0 1.6 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrullus lanatusFruit-- 3180.0 0.07 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrus reticulataFruit100.0 806.0 -0.92 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Citrus paradisiFruit-- 100.0 -1.21 *
Citrus sinensisFruit150.0 1132.0 -0.78 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cnidoscolus chayamansaLeaf2045.0 10230.0 0.15 *
Coccinia grandisFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cocos nuciferaSeed1210.0 2285.0 -1.31 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cocos nuciferaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Colocasia esculentaRoot690.0 2350.0 -0.41 *
Colocasia esculentaLeaf1670.0 11645.0 0.62 *
Corchorus olitoriusLeaf890.0 13350.0 1.19 *
Coriandrum sativumLeaf-- -- *
Crocus sativusBulb-- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonicaRoot-- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonicaShoot-- -- *
Cucumis sativusFruit150.0 3797.0 0.32 *
Cucurbita pepoSeed6205.0 9701.0 0.35 *
Cucurbita pepoFruit250.0 3452.0 0.18 *
Cucurbita foetidissimaSeed4605.0 26000.0 4.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Cucurbita sppFruit280.0 4430.0 0.59 *
Daucus carotaRoot380.0 3110.0 -0.18 *
Dioscorea pentaphyllaRoot470.0 2530.0 -0.35 *
Eryngium creticusShoot-- 5045.0 -1.15 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed-- 5850.0 -0.51 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Ficus caricaFruit240.0 1149.0 -0.78 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Foeniculum vulgareSeed6020.0 6604.0 -0.34 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Foeniculum vulgareFruit6020.0 6604.0 1.49 *
Fragaria sppFruit190.0 2254.0 -0.32 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ginkgo bilobaSeed2680.0 7300.0 -0.19 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glycine maxShoot-- -- *
Glycine maxSeed15850.0 17330.0 2.06 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Helianthus tuberosusTuber-- 3431.0 -0.65 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Helianthus annuusSeed9280.0 9805.0 0.37 *
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Hypericum perforatumPlant-- -- *
Ipomoea batatasRoot720.0 3019.0 -0.21 *
Ipomoea aquaticaLeaf1400.0 18590.0 2.95 *
Juglans cinereaSeed9400.0 9725.0 0.36 *
Juglans regiaSeed4480.0 4650.0 -0.78 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans nigraSeed7300.0 7630.0 -0.11 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lablab purpureusSeed1430.0 11789.0 0.82 *
Lactuca sativaLeaf590.0 9833.0 0.01 *
Lagenaria sicerariaFruit180.0 4035.0 0.42 *
Lens culinarisSprout Seedling3280.0 10935.0 -0.38 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lens culinarisSeed10060.0 11325.0 0.71 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lentinus edodesFruit-- -- *
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- 3310.0 -0.12 Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Linum usitatissimumSeed-- 0.195 -1.82 *
Lupinus albusSeed13310.0 14860.0 1.5 *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit65.0 3637.0 0.26 *
Macadamia sppSeed2630.0 2705.0 -1.22 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Malus domesticaFruit30.0 435.0 -1.07 *
Mangifera indicaFruit190.0 2250.0 -0.32 *
Manihot esculentaRoot650.0 2065.0 -0.49 *
Medicago sativaPlant-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Melia azedarachSeed-- -- *
Mentha spicataLeaf1350.0 9340.0 -0.15 *
Mentha x piperitaLeaf1540.0 7215.0 -0.86 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Momordica charantiaSeed-- 17.8 -1.82 Jim Duke's personal files.
Moringa oleiferaShoot4110.0 19260.0 1.29 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mucuna pruriensSeed6250.0 13250.0 1.14 *
Murraya spFruit340.0 979.0 -0.85 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit340.0 1321.0 -0.71 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Myrciaria dubiaFruit-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Nasturtium officinaleHerb1330.0 26600.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nelumbo nuciferaSeed2000.0 6060.0 -0.46 *
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome510.0 2440.0 1.0 *
Nigella sativaSeed2615.0 3345.0 -1.07 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf-- 5880.0 -1.31 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Oenothera biennisSeed3500.0 4600.0 -0.79 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaSeed-- 7330.0 -0.18 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Opuntia ficus-indicaBud-- 3845.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Oryza sativaHay-- -- *
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber350.0 3225.0 -0.71 *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant584.0 1070.0 -1.3 *
Panax ginsengRoot-- -- *
Panax ginsengLeaf-- -- *
Papaver bracteatumSeed6350.0 7800.0 -0.08 *
Papaver somniferumSeed9050.0 9708.0 0.35 *
Perideridia gairdneriRoot-- 2413.0 -0.39 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Persea americanaFruit530.0 2565.0 -0.19 *
Phaseolus vulgarisSeed9090.0 10216.0 0.46 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit790.0 8119.0 2.12 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus acutifoliusSeed10700.0 11665.0 0.79 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Phaseolus vulgarisSprout Seedling1760.0 18925.0 1.37 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus lunatusSeed2900.0 10320.0 0.49 *
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit10.0 980.0 -0.85 *
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit135.0 668.0 -0.98 *
Pinus edulisSeed3670.0 3900.0 -0.95 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pinus pineaSeed7610.0 8190.0 0.01 *
Pistacia veraSeed7220.0 7511.0 -0.14 *
Pisum sativumSeed2030.0 9603.0 0.33 *
Pisum sativumFruit990.0 9792.0 2.82 *
Portulaca oleraceaHerb470.0 9400.0 -1.0 *
Pouteria caimitoFruit-- 2190.0 -0.34 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Prunus persicaFruit270.0 2187.0 -0.35 *
Prunus cerasusFruit-- -- *
Prunus dulcisSeed7390.0 7730.0 -0.09 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus armeniacaFruit470.0 3445.0 0.18 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus domesticaFruit160.0 1081.0 -0.81 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psidium guajavaFruit310.0 2232.0 -0.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psidium cattleianumFruit220.0 1140.0 -0.78 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusLeaf1820.0 7862.0 -0.65 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusTuber4510.0 10587.0 1.72 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusSeed11790.0 12863.0 1.06 *
Psoralea esculentaRoot-- 1477.0 -0.67 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Pyrus communisFruit100.0 618.0 -1.0 *
Raphanus sativusRoot290.0 5620.0 0.57 *
Rehmannia glutinosaRoot1000.0 16000.0 3.68 *
Ribes nigrumFruit Juice-- 17.0 *
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf1360.0 4220.0 -1.87 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sambucus canadensisFruit270.0 1336.0 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Scutellaria baicalensisRoot-- -- *
Secale cerealeSeed5320.0 5975.0 -0.48 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sechium eduleFruit440.0 6285.0 1.36 *
Senna obtusifoliaSeed-- 5940.0 -0.49 *
Sesamum indicumSeed7360.0 12396.0 0.95 *
Sinapis albaSeed10950.0 11720.0 0.8 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber750.0 4300.0 -0.36 *
Solanum melongenaFruit380.0 4957.0 0.81 *
Spinacia oleraceaPlant1220.0 14489.0 0.92 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Spinacia oleraceaLeaf-- -- *
Stachys officinalisShoot-- -- *
Theobroma cacaoSeed-- 1400.0 -1.51 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Thymus vulgarisPlant2520.0 2722.0 -1.03 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Trifolium pratensePlant-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed8980.0 9880.0 0.39 *
Trigonella foenum-graecumLeaf-- -- *
Triticum aestivumSeed3000.0 6000.0 -0.48 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit180.0 1170.0 -0.77 *
Valerianella locustaPlant750.0 10415.0 0.24 *
Vicia fabaSeed2080.0 10950.0 0.63 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataFruit1040.0 8560.0 2.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna angularisSeed6740.0 7787.0 -0.08 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed1100.0 10165.0 0.45 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling780.0 8192.0 -0.99 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataSeed9260.0 10112.0 0.44 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSeed7820.0 8598.0 0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vitis viniferaFruit180.0 926.0 -0.87 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zea maysSeed1290.0 5366.0 -0.62 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinaleTuber-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleShoot-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome360.0 2057.0 -1.0 *
Zingiber officinaleRoot360.0 2057.0 -0.49 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.