Data Views

Paginate rows. Click on column headings to sort table by that column
Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentusSeed-- 6.9 0.08 Wealth of India.
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit0.8 20.0 1.88 *
Acacia niloticaPlant-- -- *
Acacia farnesianaLeaf2.0 11.0 0.56 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Actaea racemosaRoot-- 58.0 4.57 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Actinidia chinensisFruit0.2 1.0 -0.55 *
Aegle marmelosFruit1.3 33.0 3.54 *
Agathosma betulinaLeaf7.0 19.0 2.23 *
Agrimonia eupatoriaLeaf-- 2.4 -1.23 Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.
Aleurites moluccanaSeed-- 0.6 -1.43 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf0.5 12.0 0.77 *
Allium sativum var. sativumFlower1.1 9.5 1.23 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Allium cepaBulb0.3 6.0 -1.0 *
Allium ampeloprasumFlower1.4 8.3 0.88 *
Allium sativum var. sativumShoot1.4 6.3 -0.64 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb-- 8.0 1.0 *
Allium ampeloprasumRoot1.1 8.0 0.12 *
Allium sativum var. sativumLeaf1.1 8.1 -0.04 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Allium cepaLeaf0.5 6.4 -0.4 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Allium ampeloprasumLeaf0.9 8.5 0.04 *
Alocasia macrorrhizaRoot0.2 3.0 -0.33 *
Alocasia macrorrhizaLeaf0.1 0.9 -1.54 *
Aloe veraLeaf-- 0.8 -1.56 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Alpinia galangaRhizome1.0 4.0 -0.75 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Althaea officinalisRoot-- 1.0 -0.5 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Amaranthus sp.Leaf1.0 7.0 -0.27 *
Amaranthus spinosusLeaf0.1 0.6 -1.61 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Amorphophallus konjacRoot-- -- *
Amorphophallus campanulatusRoot0.5 2.8 -0.34 *
Anacardium occidentaleFruit0.3 2.1 -0.41 *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed2.0 8.7 0.5 *
Anacardium occidentaleLeaf0.1 0.3 -1.67 *
Ananas comosusFruit-- 7.0 0.21 *
Anethum graveolensSeed4.0 5.0 -0.38 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Anethum graveolensPlant4.0 5.0 -0.22 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Anethum graveolensFruit4.0 5.0 -0.04 *
Angelica sinensisRoot-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Annona muricataFruit0.7 4.8 -0.07 *
Annona cherimolaFruit1.0 4.0 -0.17 *
Annona squamosaFruit1.0 5.0 -0.04 *
Annona diversifoliaFruit0.2 8.0 0.34 *
Annona glabraFruit0.4 3.0 -0.3 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Annona reticulataFruit0.7 5.0 -0.04 *
Apium graveolensPt-- 10.0 1.26 *
Arachis hypogaeaSeed6.0 17.0 2.49 *
Arachis hypogaeaLeaf2.3 11.0 0.56 *
Aralia cordataLeaf0.6 13.0 0.98 *
Arctium lappaRoot1.0 11.0 0.38 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiLeaf-- 1.0 -1.52 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Areca catechuSeed1.7 1.9 -1.12 *
Armoracia rusticanaRoot-- 3.0 -0.33 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Arracacia xanthorrhizaRoot0.7 2.4 -0.38 *
Artemisia dracunculusPlant2.0 3.0 -0.39 *
Artemisia vulgarisLeaf1.5 12.0 0.77 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Artocarpus altilisSeed2.0 10.0 0.81 *
Artocarpus altilisFruit1.0 4.0 -0.17 *
Artocarpus heterophyllusFruit0.3 3.0 -0.3 *
Asparagus officinalisShoot1.0 26.0 1.19 *
Avena sativaPlant0.9 4.0 -0.31 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Avena sativaSeed2.6 12.1 1.32 *
Averrhoa bilimbiFruit0.1 2.7 -0.34 *
Averrhoa carambolaFruit0.2 6.57 0.16 *
Bactris gasipaesFruit0.3 1.4 -0.5 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Barosma betulinaLeaf7.0 19.0 2.23 *
Basella albaLeaf0.5 7.0 -0.27 *
Benincasa hispidaFruit-- 10.0 0.6 *
Berberis vulgarisRoot-- 10.0 0.3 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Bertholletia excelsaSeed-- 10.0 0.81 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Beta vulgarisRoot0.1 2.4 -0.38 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Beta vulgarisLeaf0.6 14.0 1.19 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Bixa orellanaSeed-- 2.3 -1.02 Duke, J. A. and duCellier, J. L. 1993. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL 33431. 536 pp. US $312.50.
Blighia sapidaAril1.3 4.0 1.09 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Blighia sapidaSeed0.7 7.0 0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Boehmeria niveaShoot-- 7.0 -0.58 *
Boehmeria niveaLeaf0.3 2.3 -1.25 *
Borago officinalisLeaf1.0 9.0 0.14 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaLeaf1.3 11.0 0.56 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf1.0 7.0 -0.27 *
Brassica napus var. napobrassicaRoot1.0 9.0 0.21 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapaRoot0.4 5.0 -0.15 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf0.6 8.0 -0.06 *
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l.Leaf0.3 4.75 -0.74 *
Brassica chinensisLeaf0.4 9.0 0.14 *
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf0.6 8.0 -0.06 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf0.5 10.0 0.35 *
Brassica oleraceaStem0.5 5.5 -1.37 *
Brassica nigraLeaf0.44 7.66 -0.13 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower0.6 12.0 1.96 *
Brassica rapaLeaf0.4 9.0 0.14 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Bromelia pinguinShoot0.2 3.8 -0.87 *
Brosimum alicastrumFruit0.5 3.1 -0.29 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Byrsonima crassifoliaFruit0.1 1.2 -0.53 *
Cajanus cajanSeed4.0 13.0 1.53 *
Cajanus cajanFruit3.4 12.4 0.9 *
Calathea macrosepalaFlower0.4 5.2 -0.03 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Camellia sinensisLeaf1.0 4.0 -0.9 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Canavalia ensiformisSeed4.6 8.6 0.48 *
Canavalia ensiformisFruit1.0 10.0 0.6 *
Canna indicaRoot0.3 1.0 -0.5 *
Cannabis sativaSeed3.2 3.7 -0.69 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Capparis spinosaFlower0.7 0.72 -1.34 *
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant2.5 21.2 1.16 *
Capsicum frutescensFruit-- 8.0 0.34 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Capsicum annuumFruit1.0 15.0 1.24 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carica pentagonaFruit0.2 3.0 -0.3 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Carica papayaLeaf1.0 4.0 -0.9 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Carica papayaFruit0.2 2.6 -0.35 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carthamus tinctoriusSeed5.9 6.2 -0.09 *
Carum carviSeed3.0 4.0 -0.62 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carum carviFruit3.0 4.0 -0.17 *
Carya illinoensisSeed7.2 8.9 0.55 *
Casimiroa edulisFruit0.4 2.2 -0.4 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Catha edulisLeaf-- 0.5 -1.63 *
Caulophyllum thalictroidesRoot-- 9.3 0.23 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Centella asiaticaLeaf1.5 14.0 1.19 *
Chamaemelum nobileFlower-- 0.8 -1.32 *
Chenopodium ambrosioidesLeaf0.6 4.0 -0.9 *
Chenopodium albumSeed1.0 2.0 -1.09 *
Chenopodium albumLeaf1.0 10.0 0.35 *
Chondrus crispusPlant-- 2.3 -0.45 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Chrysanthemum coronariumLeaf0.9 14.0 1.19 *
Chrysanthemum coronariumBud0.3 4.2 1.0 *
Chrysanthemum partheniumPlant-- 4.1 -0.3 *
Chrysophyllum cainitoFruit0.1 2.3 -0.39 *
Cicer arietinumSeed4.0 6.0 -0.14 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium endiviaLeaf0.7 14.0 1.19 *
Cichorium intybusRoot-- 2.0 -0.42 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium intybusLeaf1.0 14.0 1.19 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cimicifuga racemosaRoot-- 58.0 4.57 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Cinnamomum verumBark-- 1.0 -0.09 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark-- 1.0 -0.09 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Citrullus lanatusFruit4.0 9.0 0.47 *
Citrus reticulataFruit1.0 8.0 0.34 *
Citrus aurantiumFruit1.0 6.0 0.09 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Citrus paradisiFruit-- 6.0 0.09 *
Citrus limonFruit4.0 6.0 0.09 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Citrus sinensisFruit1.0 7.0 0.21 *
Citrus aurantiifoliaFruit-- 3.0 -0.3 *
Cnicus benedictusPlant-- 2.7 -0.42 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Cnidoscolus chayamansaLeaf2.0 15.0 1.4 *
Cocos nuciferaSeed0.3 1.0 -1.33 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Coffea arabicaSeed-- 2.0 -1.09 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Coix lacryma-jobiSeed2.8 3.2 -0.81 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cola acuminataSeed-- 1.0 -1.33 *
Colocasia esculentaLeaf1.3 17.0 1.81 *
Colocasia esculentaRoot0.3 5.0 -0.15 *
Corchorus olitoriusLeaf1.3 10.8 0.52 *
Coriandrum sativumFruit2.0 3.0 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Coriandrum sativumLeaf1.0 16.0 1.6 *
Corylus avellanaSeed1.6 6.0 -0.14 *
Crataegus laevigataFruit-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Crataegus rhipidophyllaFruit-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Crescentia alataSeed7.3 7.6 0.24 *
Crocus sativusSilk Stigma Style0.7 4.0 1.0 *
Cucumis sativusFruit0.3 7.6 0.29 *
Cucumis meloFruit0.3 4.4 -0.12 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cucurbita sppFruit0.6 10.0 0.6 *
Cucurbita pepoFlower0.4 8.6 0.96 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cucurbita pepoSeed1.9 3.7 -0.69 *
Cucurbita pepoFruit0.5 5.9 0.07 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cuminum cyminumSeed6.0 7.0 0.1 *
Cuminum cyminumFruit6.0 7.0 0.21 *
Curcuma longaRhizome-- 8.0 0.17 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cyclanthera pedataFruit0.4 8.0 0.34 *
Cydonia oblongaFruit0.2 1.9 -0.44 *
Cynara cardunculusFlower0.7 6.0 0.2 *
Cyphomandra betaceaFruit0.3 7.0 0.21 *
Cyrtosperma chamissonisRoot0.1 1.2 -0.49 *
Daucus carotaRoot1.0 6.0 -0.06 *
Dioscorea alataRoot0.3 1.4 -0.47 *
Dioscorea sp.Root-- 3.5 -0.28 *
Dioscorea pentaphyllaRoot1.0 7.0 0.03 *
Durio zibethinusFruit2.4 18.0 1.62 *
Echinacea sppRoot-- 2.6 -0.36 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Elaeagnus commutataFruit0.3 2.2 -0.4 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Elaeagnus umbellatusFruit0.7 4.3 -0.13 *
Elaeis guineensisFruit2.0 3.5 -0.23 *
Eleocharis dulcisTuber0.3 6.0 -0.07 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Elettaria cardamomumSeed1.0 2.0 -1.09 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ephedra sinicaPlant-- 47.0 3.35 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Equisetum arvensePlant-- -- -0.65 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Eriobotrya japonicaFruit0.2 1.8 -0.45 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Eryngium floridanumShoot-- 6.0 -0.67 *
Erythrina berteroanaShoot1.9 12.0 -0.11 *
Erythrina fuscaLeaf2.4 9.0 0.14 *
Erythroxylum cocaLeaf3.5 8.0 -0.06 *
Eugenia unifloraFruit0.2 2.1 -0.41 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Eugenia brasiliensisFruit0.4 2.7 -0.34 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Eugenia floribundaFruit0.2 1.6 -0.48 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Euphrasia officinalisPlant-- 4.3 -0.28 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed2.7 9.0 0.58 *
Ficus caricaFruit-- 3.3 -0.26 *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed4.0 5.0 -0.38 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Foeniculum vulgareFruit4.0 5.0 -0.04 *
Foeniculum vulgarePlant1.0 11.0 0.29 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Fragaria sppFruit0.2 4.0 -0.17 *
Frangula purshianaBark-- -- -0.66 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Fucus vesiculosusPlant-- -- -0.65 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Garcinia mangostanaFruit0.3 1.9 -0.44 *
Genipa americanaFruit0.4 1.2 -0.53 *
Gentiana luteaRoot-- 4.8 -0.17 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Ginkgo bilobaSeed2.0 5.0 -0.38 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Gliricidia sepiumLeaf1.4 9.0 0.14 *
Gliricidia sepiumFlower1.1 8.0 0.79 *
Glycine maxFruit4.4 14.0 1.11 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Glycine maxSprout Seedling1.9 17.0 0.08 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Glycine maxSeed4.0 10.0 0.81 *
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot-- 2.1 -0.41 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Gossypium spSeed-- 3.2 -0.81 *
Helianthus annuusSeed22.0 24.0 4.16 *
Helianthus tuberosusTuber2.0 10.0 1.62 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hibiscus sabdariffaLeaf-- 12.0 0.77 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hibiscus rosa-sinensisFlower0.3 3.0 -0.68 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hibiscus sabdariffaFlower-- 3.0 -0.68 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hordeum vulgareStem-- 13.0 1.0 *
Hordeum vulgareSeed1.0 10.0 0.81 *
Humulus lupulusFruit-- 3.4 -0.25 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Hydrastis canadensisRoot-- 2.6 -0.36 *
Hylocereus undatusFruit0.4 2.6 -0.35 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hylocereus guatemalensisFruit0.3 2.5 -0.36 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Inga edulisSeed1.9 5.2 -0.33 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Inga feuilleiAril0.2 1.2 -1.32 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Ipomoea batatasLeaf0.8 9.8 0.31 *
Ipomoea aquaticaLeaf0.3 9.0 0.14 *
Ipomoea batatasRoot0.6 5.1 -0.14 *
Juglans nigraSeed-- 2.0 -1.09 *
Juglans nigraFruit-- 2.0 -0.43 *
Juglans regiaSeed3.0 5.0 -0.38 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Juniperus communisFruit-- 1.2 -0.53 *
Justicia pectoralisLeaf0.4 2.7 -1.17 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Lablab purpureusSeed0.77 12.0 1.29 *
Lactuca sativaLeaf0.5 8.3 -0.0 *
Lagenaria sicerariaFruit0.3 6.5 0.15 *
Larrea tridentataPlant-- 5.1 -0.21 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Lens culinarisSprout Seedling2.0 8.0 -0.63 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lens culinarisSeed2.6 6.0 -0.14 *
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- 2.0 -0.42 *
Lepidium sativumLeaf0.8 7.5 -0.17 *
Licania platypusFruit0.05 4.5 -0.11 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Linum usitatissimumSeed-- 1.8 -1.14 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Lobelia inflataLeaf-- 3.2 -1.06 *
Luffa aegyptiacaLeaf0.5 5.0 -0.69 *
Luffa aegyptiacaFruit0.5 10.0 0.6 *
Lupinus albusSeed6.0 7.0 0.1 *
Lupinus mutabilisSeed4.7 5.2 -0.33 *
Lupinus mutabilisFruit0.9 3.1 -0.29 *
Lycium chinenseLeaf0.8 7.7 -0.13 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Lycium chinenseFruit-- 0.8 -0.58 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit1.0 10.0 0.6 *
Macadamia sppSeed3.0 4.0 -0.62 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Malpighia glabraFruit0.2 2.3 -0.39 *
Malus domesticaFruit1.0 2.0 -0.43 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Malva sylvestrisLeaf1.0 20.0 2.44 *
Malva parvifloraPlant-- 1.0 -0.56 *
Mammea americanaFruit0.2 2.3 -0.39 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Mangifera indicaLeaf0.4 1.8 -1.36 *
Mangifera indicaFruit0.4 3.4 -0.25 *
Manihot esculentaLeaf2.0 10.0 0.35 *
Manihot esculentaRoot0.3 7.1 0.04 *
Manilkara zapotaFruit-- 0.4 -0.63 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Maranta arundinaceaRoot0.8 4.0 -0.24 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Matricaria recutitaPlant-- -- Kameoka, H. and Nakai, K. 1987. Components of essential oil from the root of Glycyrrhiza-glabra. Nippon Gogeikagaku Kaishi 61(9): 1119-1122.
Mauritia flexuosaFruit1.2 2.6 -0.35 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Medicago sativaPlant1.3 7.5 -0.01 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Mentha x piperitaLeaf-- 12.1 0.79 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Mentha spicataPlant1.0 3.0 -0.39 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Mentha spicataLeaf0.8 5.0 -0.69 *
Mimosa pudicaLeaf1.2 17.0 1.81 *
Mimulus glabratusShoot0.8 8.0 -0.48 *
Momordica charantiaFruit0.2 12.0 0.85 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Momordica charantiaLeaf1.3 8.0 -0.06 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Morinda citrifoliaLeaf1.6 7.0 -0.27 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Moringa oleiferaShoot2.0 12.0 -0.11 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Moringa oleiferaFruit0.5 4.5 -0.11 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Morus albaFruit-- 2.0 -0.43 *
Mucuna pruriensSeed1.4 5.7 -0.21 *
Muntingia calaburaFruit0.3 2.9 -0.31 *
Murraya koenigiiLeaf-- 3.0 -1.11 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Murraya spFruit0.48 1.6 -0.48 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit0.3 6.9 0.2 *
Myrciaria dubiaFruit0.1 1.7 -0.47 *
Myrciaria caulifloraFruit0.1 0.6 -0.61 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Myrica ceriferaBark-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Myristica fragransAril-- 3.0 0.23 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Myristica fragransSeed3.0 4.0 -0.62 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Nasturtium officinaleHerb1.0 18.0 1.0 *
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome2.2 14.0 1.56 *
Nelumbo nuciferaSeed1.5 7.5 0.22 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf1.0 6.0 -0.48 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaBud-- 0.1 -1.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Opuntia ficus-indicaFruit0.1 1.3 -0.52 *
Origanum majoranaPlant-- 3.0 -0.39 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Origanum vulgarePlant3.0 4.0 -0.31 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Oryza sativaSeed2.2 3.9 -0.64 *
Oxalis tuberosaRoot0.5 3.1 -0.32 *
Pachira macrocarpaSeed-- 0.3 -1.5 *
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber0.4 3.7 -1.05 *
Panax ginsengRoot-- 1.7 -0.44 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Papaver somniferumSeed7.8 9.9 0.79 *
Passiflora quadrangularisFruit-- -- *
Passiflora foetidaFruit0.1 0.6 -0.61 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Passiflora edulisFruit-- 1.4 -0.5 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Passiflora quadrangularisSeed-- -- *
Passiflora ligularisFruit-- 5.2 -0.02 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Pastinaca sativaRoot0.8 11.4 0.42 *
Peperomia pereskiifoliaLeaf1.5 10.0 0.35 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Peperomia pelucidaLeaf0.3 3.8 -0.94 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pereskia aculeataFruit0.2 6.3 0.12 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Perilla frutescensLeaf1.0 5.0 -0.69 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Perilla frutescensSeed1.0 7.0 0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Persea schiedeanaFruit0.5 3.0 -0.3 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Persea americanaFruit0.5 4.2 -0.14 *
Petasites japonicusPt0.2 3.6 -1.18 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Petroselinum crispumPlant-- 7.0 -0.05 *
Phaseolus vulgarisSprout Seedling3.7 40.0 1.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit0.5 8.8 0.44 *
Phaseolus coccineusSeed3.0 3.5 -0.74 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phaseolus acutifoliusSeed3.3 3.6 -0.71 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phaseolus vulgarisSeed3.7 10.0 0.81 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phaseolus lunatusSprout Seedling0.1 4.7 -0.89 *
Phaseolus coccineusFruit3.4 5.4 0.01 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Phaseolus vulgarisLeaf1.8 13.6 1.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phaseolus lunatusSeed1.6 7.4 0.19 *
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit0.1 1.7 -0.47 *
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit0.3 1.9 -0.44 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phyllanthus acidusFruit0.1 6.0 0.09 *
Physalis peruvianaFruit0.5 4.7 -0.08 *
Physalis ixocarpaFruit0.5 6.0 0.09 *
Phytolacca americanaShoot1.0 10.0 -0.3 *
Picrasma excelsaPlant-- -- *
Pimenta dioicaLeaf1.1 1.7 -1.38 *
Pimenta dioicaFruit-- 1.1 -0.54 *
Pinus pineaSeed6.0 9.0 0.58 *
Pinus cembroidesSeed7.0 12.0 1.29 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pinus edulisSeed12.0 13.0 1.53 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Piper auritumLeaf1.2 6.7 -0.33 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Piper nigrumFruit0.5 1.6 -0.48 *
Piper betelLeaf0.1 4.8 -0.73 *
Pisum sativumFruit1.5 15.0 1.24 *
Pisum sativumSeed2.4 13.9 1.75 *
Plantago psylliumSeed-- -- -1.57 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Platonia insignisFruit0.4 1.4 -0.5 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Platycodon grandiflorumRoot1.0 1.3 -0.48 *
Plectranthus amboinicusLeaf0.3 5.4 -0.61 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Polygonum multiflorumRoot-- 0.1 -0.58 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Polymnia edulisRoot0.2 1.1 -0.5 *
Portulaca oleraceaHerb1.0 10.0 -1.0 *
Pourouma cecropiaefoliaFruit-- -- -0.68 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Pouteria caimitoFruit0.2 7.7 0.3 *
Pouteria viridisFruit0.1 0.3 -0.64 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pouteria campechianaFruit0.2 4.5 -0.11 *
Prunus salicifoliaFruit0.2 1.3 -0.52 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Prunus dulcisSeed2.2 2.6 -0.95 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus armeniacaSeed-- 1.5 -1.21 *
Prunus domesticaFruit0.4 2.9 -0.31 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus armeniacaFruit0.3 2.5 -0.36 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus persicaFruit1.0 2.0 -0.43 *
Prunus cerasusFruit-- 5.0 -0.04 *
Psidium guajavaFruit0.4 4.0 -0.17 *
Psidium cattleianumFruit0.2 1.9 -0.44 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusSeed1.4 11.2 1.1 *
Punica granatumFruit-- 4.0 -0.17 *
Pyrus communisFruit0.2 1.2 -0.53 *
Quararibea cordataFruit0.2 2.1 -0.41 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Quercus albaBark-- -- -0.66 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Raphanus sativusLeaf1.4 7.0 -0.27 *
Raphanus sativusFruit0.3 7.9 0.33 *
Raphanus sativusRoot0.3 9.7 0.27 *
Rheum rhabarbarumLeaf0.2 3.3 -1.04 *
Rheum rhabarbarumPt0.2 6.5 -0.08 *
Rhizophora mangleLeaf-- -- *
Rhodymenia palmataPlant-- 1.6 -0.51 *
Ribes uva-crispaFruit-- 3.0 -0.3 *
Ribes rubrumFruit1.0 2.0 -0.43 *
Ribes nigrumFruit1.0 3.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Rollinia mucosaFruit0.4 1.8 -0.45 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Rosa caninaFruit-- 3.8 -0.2 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Rosmarinus officinalisPlant5.0 6.0 -0.14 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf3.0 6.0 -0.48 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Rubus idaeusLeaf-- 3.4 -1.02 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Rubus idaeusFruit0.3 2.2 -0.4 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Rumex crispusRoot-- 8.1 0.13 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Rumex crispusLeaf0.6 8.1 -0.04 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Rumex acetosaLeaf0.8 9.0 0.14 *
Ruscus aculeatusRoot-- 8.3 0.14 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Salix albaBark-- -- -0.66 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Salvia officinalisLeaf7.0 8.0 -0.06 Father Nature's Farmacy: The aggregate of all these three-letter citations.
Sambucus nigraPlant-- 1.0 -0.56 *
Sambucus canadensisFruit1.0 3.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Satureja hortensisPlant-- 4.0 -0.31 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Schisandra chinensisFruit-- -- -0.68 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Sclerocarya caffraSeed-- 0.4 -1.48 *
Sclerocarya caffraFruit0.3 3.6 -0.22 *
Scutellaria laterifloraPlant-- 2.8 -0.41 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Secale cerealeSeed3.0 3.0 -0.86 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sechium edulePlant-- -- *
Sechium eduleShoot0.3 4.0 -0.85 *
Serenoa repensFruit0.6 5.0 -0.04 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Sesamum indicumSeed5.0 10.0 0.81 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sicana odoriferaFruit0.5 4.0 -0.17 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Sida rhombifoliaLeaf2.2 11.0 0.56 *
Sinapis albaSeed5.0 6.0 -0.14 *
Solanum nigrumLeaf1.0 12.0 0.77 *
Solanum sessiliflorumFruit0.25 2.5 -0.36 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Solanum tuberosumTuber1.0 5.0 -0.5 *
Solanum melongenaFruit0.4 10.0 0.6 *
Solanum quitoensisFruit0.4 7.0 0.21 *
Solanum torvumFruit1.2 8.0 0.34 *
Sonchus oleraceusLeaf0.7 19.0 2.23 *
Sphenostylis stenocarpaSeed6.9 7.6 0.24 *
Spinacia oleraceaPlant0.7 10.2 0.22 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Spirulina pratensisPlant-- 51.0 3.69 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Spondias pinnataFruit0.2 2.1 -0.41 *
Spondias mombinFruit0.4 4.5 -0.11 *
Spondias purpureaFruit0.7 3.7 -0.21 *
Spondias dulcisFruit0.5 4.0 -0.17 *
Stellaria mediaPlant0.2 2.1 -0.47 *
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Symphytum officinaleRoot-- 1.2 -0.49 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Syzygium cuminiFruit-- 1.8 -0.45 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Syzygium aromaticumFruit-- 1.0 -0.55 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Syzygium malaccenseFruit0.1 3.5 -0.23 *
Syzygium aromaticumFlower-- 1.0 -1.26 *
Syzygium jambosFruit0.1 1.1 -0.54 *
Tabebuia heptaphyllaBark-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Tamarindus indicaLeaf-- 4.0 -0.9 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Tamarindus indicaFruit2.0 9.0 0.47 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Tamarindus indicaFlower-- 4.0 -0.38 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Tanacetum partheniumPlant-- 4.1 -0.3 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Taraxacum officinaleRoot-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Taraxacum officinaleLeaf1.0 17.0 1.81 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Terminalia catappaSeed3.0 7.0 0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Tetragonia tetragonioidesLeaf0.4 6.7 -0.33 *
Theobroma cacaoSeed1.0 3.0 -0.86 *
Theobroma bicolorSeed2.2 2.3 -1.02 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Theobroma speciosumFruit9.0 25.0 2.52 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Theobroma bicolorFruit18.0 85.0 10.2 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Theobroma cacaoFruit1.8 4.2 -0.14 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Thymus vulgarisPlant5.0 6.0 -0.14 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Trachyspermum ammiFruit2.1 2.3 -0.39 *
Tragopogon porrifoliusRoot1.0 3.0 -0.33 *
Trichosanthes anguinaFruit0.4 7.4 0.26 *
Trifolium pratenseFlower-- 4.2 -0.32 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed3.0 14.0 1.77 *
Triticum aestivumSeed1.1 12.0 1.29 *
Triticum aestivumPlant3.3 4.0 -0.31 *
Tropaeolum majusShoot0.9 6.5 -0.62 *
Tropaeolum tuberosumRoot0.6 9.3 0.23 *
Turnera diffusaLeaf-- 1.8 -1.36 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Ullucus tuberosusRoot0.4 4.3 -0.21 *
Ulmus rubraBark-- 5.0 2.16 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Urtica dioicaLeaf0.3 5.4 -0.61 *
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit0.5 3.1 -0.29 *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit7.0 8.0 0.34 *
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit0.3 2.5 -0.36 *
Valeriana officinalisRoot-- 1.6 -0.45 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Verbascum thapsusLeaf-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Vicia fabaFruit0.8 5.4 0.01 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Vicia fabaSeed1.7 9.0 0.58 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataShoot3.5 35.0 2.02 *
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling0.7 10.3 -0.45 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataSeed9.0 10.0 0.81 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna angularisSeed3.4 6.6 0.0 *
Vigna unguiculataFruit0.8 10.0 0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataShoot3.5 35.0 2.02 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSeed5.4 7.7 0.27 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna aconitifoliaSeed5.6 6.2 -0.09 *
Vigna subterraneaSeed1.8 5.2 -0.33 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed1.1 10.0 0.81 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna mungoSeed4.2 6.5 -0.02 *
Vitellaria paradoxaSeed-- 5.6 -0.23 *
Vitis viniferaStem-- 11.0 0.37 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Vitis viniferaFruit0.8 4.9 -0.06 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumRoot1.3 3.8 -0.26 *
Yucca baccataRoot-- 2.4 -0.38 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Zea maysSilk Stigma Style-- 2.1 -1.0 *
Zea maysFruit2.0 8.0 0.34 *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- 3.0 -0.98 *
Zingiber officinaleRoot-- 3.0 -0.33 *
Zizyphus spina-christiFruit-- 0.4 -0.63 *
Zizyphus jujubaFruit0.2 1.3 -0.52 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.